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The present volume contains five different works^ by 
Bishop Andrewes : — 

I. Pattern of Catechistieal Doctrine. 

II. Judgment of the Lambeth Articles ; annexed to which 
is the 

Judgment of the Censure upon Barret 

III. Form of Consecration of a Church and Church- 

IV. Summary View of the Government both of the Old 
and New Testament : whereby the Episcopal government of 
Christ's church is vindicated. 

V. Discourse of Ceremonies retained and used in christian 

Of these works, 

I. The first was probably Andrewes' manual of college 
lectures, and the folio volume which appeared in 1642, 
calling itself ''The Morall Law expounded, 1. largely, 
2. learnedly, 3. orthodoxly. That is, The long expected and 
much desired work of bishop Andrewes upon the Ten Com- 
mandments : being his Lectures many years since in Pem- 
broke Hall chappell, in Cambridge, which have ever since 
passed from hand to hand in manuscripts, and beene ac- 
counted one of the greatest treasures of private libraries, but 

never before this published in print,'' seems to be nothing 



more than notes taken down by Andrewes' pupils from his 
lectures orally delivered out of the above manual. Another 
work also appeared in 1650, and was reprinted in 1675, 
called ^^The Pattern of Catechistical Doctrine at large; or 
a learned and pious Exposition of the Ten Commandments, 
with an Introduction containing the use and benefit of 
catechising, the general groimds of religion, and the truth 
of christian religion in particular; proved against Atheists, 
Pagans, Jews and Turks. By the right reverend father 
in God, Lancelot Andrewes, late bishop of Winchester. 
Perfected according to the author's own copy, and thereby 
purged from many thousands of errors, defects, and cor- 
ruptions, which were in a rude imperfect draught formerly 
published.^' This volume is simply the work on the Moral 
Law put into shape; and it is done by very competent 
hands, but being less than even the former was, the pro- 
duction of Andrewes himself, it could by no means be 
admitted into an edition of his works. — Of the original work 
of Andrewes, the Pattern of Catechistical doctrine, an edition 
appeared in 1630, and another in 1641, with here and there 
a new sentence introduced ; but all apparently from the same 
hand, and the new matter consisting probably of notes which 
had afterwards come to light. The later edition has been 
followed in the present publication. 

2. The documents which make up the second work, the 
bishop's Judgment, namely, of the Lambeth articles, and 
of the censure upon Barret, are sufficiently explained by the 
contemporary histories, e. g. Strype's life of Whitgift. 

3. The Form of consecration of a church and church- 
yard, gives its own history. 

4. Of the fourth document, the Summary view of the 
government both of the Old and New testament, no more 
perhaps can now be known than is expressed in the title- 
page at the beginning of it. 


5. The same account may be given of the concluding 
treatise^ the Discourse of ceremonies retained and used in 
christian churches. The prefatory notice^ from which an ex- 
tract is given p. 365^ gives an account of the document 
which is probably the true one. The treatise itself^ as printed 
in 1653j is obviously the work of a man of great reading ; 
and it is equally manifest that his manuscript was left in a 
state which made it very hard for the unlearned persons 
whose hands it fell into^ to decypher it. The mistakes which 
appear in the printed edition are manifold and absurd^ but 
the present editor found reason to be convinced as he pro- 
ceeded^ that the work would reward a very laborious exami- 
nation^ and such it has accordingly received. 

There are now but a very few references in the whole book 
which have not been verified ; a statement which they who 
know the works of that period will understand the import- 
ance of. The toil which this has required^ the strange dis- 
guise under which some of the names were lurking^ — ^Agesi- 
laus^ the holder of a remarkable view^ turning out afler every 
biographical notice of every Agesilaus had been ransacked^ to 
be no king of Sparta^ but the philosopher Arcesilas^ (p. 26)^ 
— the Babbi AbbideluSj after being hunted through all the 
regions of Hebrew literature^ disclosing himself as the ancient 
historian Abydenus^ (p. 49), — the people called Caes, after 
having been nearly abandoned as a lost nation, turning out 
to be the people called Seres, (p. 375), — " Outerus's ancient 
descriptions,*^ foimd by a happy conjecture to be Gruter's 
valuable work in disguise, — these and the like are recollec- 
tions for an editor, but of little interest to others. 

Only one other particular need be mentioned in which the 
present volume exhibits a departure from the former edition 
of the same material. In verifying the texts of The Pattern 
of Catechistical Doctrine, the Editor found the reference to 
be almost as often wrong as right; and then to identify it 


was frequently a matter of the greatest difficulty, the allu- 
sion in the writer's mind having otten been in the highest 
degree remote and indirect ; yet were the trains of thought 
which suggested the references so rich and fertile frequently 
when developed^ that it seemed a duty to bestow upon the 
work any amount of pains rather than let the allusions be 
lost. It was from being struck with the beauty and signifi- 
cance of these allusions in many cases, that the Editor waa 
led to adopt the practice of putting texts at full length when 
they could be advantageously introduced into the paragraph, 
instead of leaving the reader to search them out, or not to 
search them out, in his Bible. This is the only particular in 
which the text of the present edition differs from the former, 
a change which the reader of the work will not be displeased 
with. The table of Contents at the banning of the volume, 
(the several lines of which are introduced as a running 
sketch of subjects in the body of the work also,) and the 
Indexes at the end, are new. 



Part I. — The Preface of the catechism . . .8 

Chap. I. — Of catechising . . • . . ib. 

Warrant of a pre&ce . . . ib. 

Preliminary observations . . . . . ib. 

( 1. That children ought to be instructed . .4 

) 2. The iftmner of this instruction . .6 

There may be a summary of doctrine . ib. 

The fruit of this . . . . . .7 

Religion may be so taught . . .8 

$ 8. The duty of the catechised . . .10 

First, to come . . . . • . ib. 

and with what preparation . . . . ib. 

Secondly, to hear . . . . . .11 

What faults to be avoided herein . ib. 

How we should examine what we hear . .12 

The foundation of our catechinng, in Four Questions 13 

Chap. II. Of the first question, Whether there be a God . 14 

( 1. Of the first point, that the end of our journey is» to come to 

God . . . . . . . ib. 

Arguments against the other supposed ways of happiness ib. 

against the first, wealth . . . ib. 

against the second, honour . .15 

against the third, pleasure . . ib. 

against the fourth, virtue . .16 

against the fifth, contemplation . ib. 

Now generally against them all . . . . ib. 

There is wanting in them, first, satisfaction . 17 

secondly, perpetuity . . ib. 

In coming to God, are both of these . .18 

$ 2. Of the second point, that the way to come to God, is by belief 19 

We cannot come to God by reason . . . ib. 

Faith not a sign of lightness . . .20 

Of belief 21 




f 8. Of the third pointi that God is that which we must believe . 22 

Four errors of Satan . . . . . ib. 

Account of atheism . . . . . .23 

The theory false . . . . . . ib. 

How it arose . . . . . .24 

The doctrine false ; 

Shewn first. It priori . . . . .26 

Shewn secondly, from things without us . .28 

Shewn thirdly, from things within us . . . ib. 

1. From our souls . . . . . ib. 

2. From principles of truth therein . . .29 

How it Cometh that there are atheists . . ib. 

8. From the distinction of good and evil . . SO 

4. From our conscience . . . ib. 

5. From deaths of atheists . . . .31 
Chap. III. — Of the second question, Whether God be a rewarder of 

good and evil . . . . . .32 

§ 1. Opinions concerning providence . . . . ib. 

Objections against a providence considered . . . ib. 

answer to the first . . . . . .33 

answer to the second . . . . ib* 

answer to the third . . . . . ib. 

9 2. That there is a general providence . ^'. . . 34 

and a particular providence . . . ib. 

§ 3. That providence is not by nature, or chance . . 35 

First, not by nature . . . . . ib. 

Secondly, not by chance . . . .36 

§ 4. That providence reacheth to every one . . .37 

and reward . . . . . ib. 

Chap. IV. — Of the third question. Whether the Scriptures be God's 

word . . . . . . . . ib. 

§ 1. Of the way of the heathen . . . . .38 

Testimonies against it, from heathens themselves . . 39 

§ 2. In particular, of the heathen gods . . . . ib. 

Of the worship of men . . . .40 

and of beasts . . . . .41 

Of the miracles and oracles' of the heathen gods . . ib. 

§ 3. Of the way of the Turk . . . .42 

§ 4. Of the way of the Jews . . . . .43 

agaiust their first error • . . . ib. 

against their second error . . . .44 

against their third error . . . .46 

Chap. v. .-Of the fourth question. Whether our religion be truly 

founded on God's word . . . . . . ib. 

§. 1. Of our religion, as the same with the Jews' . . 47 

Shewn true, from its antiquity . . . . ib. 

It is the parent of heathen religion . . . ib. 

Shewn true from other reasons . . . .49 

§ 2. Of our religion as different from the Jews' . . ,52 

First, for the credit of the gospel . . . ib. 


Secondly, for the story, 1. of the birth of Christ 

2. of the death of Christ 
Thirdly, for the process of Christianity 
§ 3. Of our religion as different from the Papists' 

The question between us is of the means of interpretation 
Of our means of interpretation 
Of the papists' means of interpretation 

1. Of the fathers 

2. Of the councils 

3. Of the pope 

4. Of the church 

Part IL — Op the law op God 

Chap. I. — Of God's law in general 

§ I. What is contained in God's law 
§. 2. Of the law written in men's hearts 
The Jews had the law in their hearts 
Also the gentiles had both the ten commandments, 
and the three rules above given, 
the action, This 
the manner. Thus 
reward and punishment 
§ 3. Questions hereupon 
Chap. II. — Of Moses' law in particular 
§ 1. Of the preparation 
§ 2. Of the end of the Law 
§ 3. Of the sum of the Law 
Of God's authority . 
Of God's charge 
Division of the commandments 
What is required in a law-giver 
§ 4. Of the interpretation of the Law 
First, by extension 

How we may be accessary to sin 
in unlawful things 
in lawful things 
Secondly, by limitation 
Rules of limitation 
How act in an antinomia, or conflict of laws 

Examples of antinomia 
For the solution of a doubtful commandment 
General observations on the commandments 








. 58 

. 59 

, 60 


. 61 


. 62 
. 63 

. 64 

. 65 
. 66 


. 67 



. 71 
. 72 
. ik 
. 73 

. 74 
. 75 
. ib. 
. 76 
. ib. 
. 78 
. ib. 
. 79 
. ib. 
. 80 

. 81 

Part III. — The first table. 

The First Commandment 
§ 1. Necessity of this commandment 

What is contained in this commandment 
Of the sins opposite thereto 

How we are led to these sins 
Reasons against these sins 



I 2. Our worship of Ood founded on His attributes 
Of knowledge 

Whether ignorance may be excused 

Rules concerning Imowledge 
Of faith 

Of the kinds of faith 

Of the means of £uth 
I 3w Of fear 

Fear is of two kinds 
Means to beget fear in our hearts 
I 4. Of humility 

Nature of true humility 

Advantages of humility 

Huniility comprehendeth three things 
Of pride 

Pride is in five things 

Means to pride 
Further rules for humility 

Means to humility 

Signs of humility 
I 6. Of hope 

How related to other graces 
The use of hope 
Rules for hope • 

The nature of hope 
Extremes to be avoided in hope 

The first, presumption 

The second, desperation 
The means to hope 
The signs of hope 
§ 6. Of prayer .... 
Prayer maketh for Ood*s glory 
It worketh miracles in aU the elements 
Encouragement to prayer • 
What is contained in prayer . 
First, of deprecation . 

Deprecation is in three things 

Rules for deprecation 
Secondly, of precation 

Of intercession • 
Thirdly, of thanksgiving 

Thanksgiving standeth in four things 

The excellency of thanksgiving 
Why it is that we may ask and not receive 
Means to prayer 
Signs of thankfulness are 
§ 7. Of the love of Ood 

Love above faith and hope 
Why we should love God . 
How much we should love God 

. 84 
. ib. 
. 85 
. 86 
. ib. 
. ib. 
. 87 
. 88 
. 89 
. 90 
• ib. 
. ib. 
. 91 
. ib. 
. ib. 
. 92 
. ib. 
. 9S 
. ib. 
. ib. 
. 94 
. ib. 
. ib. 
. 95 
. ib. 
. ib. 
. 96 
. ib. 
. 97 
. ib. 
. 98 
. 99 
. ib. 
. 100 
. ib. 
. ib. 
. 101 
. ib. 
. 102 
. 103 
. ib. 
. 104 
. 105 
. 106 
. 107 
. ib. 
. 108 
. 109 
. 110 




Means of love .... 

. 110 

Signs of loTe .... 

. Ill 

Effects of love .... 

. 112 

First effect of love, obedience 

. ib. 

Obedience better than sacrifice 

. ib. 

Signs of obedience 

. 118 

Second effect of love, patience 

. ib. 

Means to patience 

. 114 

Of the cause of affliction 

. ib. 

Of the beginning of affliction 

. 115 

Of men as God's instruments herein 

. ib. 

Of the ends of affliction 

. 116 

first, to exercise good men 

. ib. 

secondly, to chastise such as have slipped 

. 117 

thirdly, to punish wicked men 

. . ib. 

1 8. Of religion ..... 

. 118 

Chief errors in religion ... 

. ib. 

Means to true religion . . . , 

. 119 

Signs of true religion 

. lb. 

1 9. Of sincerity .... 

. 120 

Of integrity ..... 

. ib. 

Means to integrity 

. 121 

Signs of integrity .... 

. ib. 

Of perseverance .... 

. ib. 

Means to perseverance 

. 122 

Signs of perseverance . . . . 

. ib. 

The Second Commandment 

. 128 

1 1. Of the precept . . . . . 

. ib. 

Of the general thing here forbidden 

. ib. 

Testimony of scripture hereupon 

. ib. 

Of the general thing here commanded 

. 124 

Of the eternal substance 

. 125 

Of the ceremony ... * 

. 127 

Means to perform this commandment 

. ib. 

Of the worship of images . . . . 

. 128 

History of image worship 

. 129 

The papists' arguments. 

1. From fathers and councils 

. 130 

2. From differences of words 

. 131 

3. That they worship not the image itself 

. ib. 

4. That the ignorant need the help of an image . 

. 132 

§ 2. Of our behaviour in God's worship . 

. ib. 

Of the sign of worship . . . . 

. 138 

Of the act of worship . . . . 

. ib. 

Of behaviour in the four parts of worship. 

. 134 

First, in coming and going to them 

. ib. 

Secondly, in our presence at them 

^ . 135 

Of behaviour in prayer . . . . 

. ib. 

Of behaviour in preaching 

. 136 

Of behaviour in-sacraments 

. ib. 



Of behaviour in discipline . . . .136 

Fitting carriage of the body why of use . . ib. 

Rules of behaviour in divine service . . .137 

1. to observe unity . . . . . ib. 

2. not to sleep therein . . . . ib. 

3. to be present in heart . . . .138 

4. not to talk therein . . . . ib. 

5. not to depart till it is ended . . . 139 
I 8. Of the reason of the precept . . . . .140 

First, of the punishment . . • . ib. 
Of sins visited on the children .... 141 

How explained by the schoolmen . . . ib. 
What the true account ..... 142 

Secondly, of the reward . . . . . ib. 

The Third Commandment ..... 143 

Object and end of this commandment . . . . ib. 

What is contained herein . . . • .144 

First, of the precept . . . . . . ib. 

When an oath is to be used .... 146 

How to be used . . . . . ib. 

How it maketh for God's glory . . .147 

Is allowed and commanded of God . . ib. 

and used by the saints . . . ib. 

Objection of the anabaptists answered . .148 

We must not take God's name in vain • . . 149 

Means to keep ourselves from rash swearing . .150 
Of vows ....... 151 

Secondly, of the penalty . . . . . ib. 

The Fourth Commandment ..... 152 

How punctually expressed . . . . ib. 

Chief parts of the commandment . .153 

Of the precept . . . . . . ib. 

The sabbath not a ceremony . . . .154 

The commandment takcth order, 1. for the work . 155 

2. for the persons . 156 

Of the reason of the precept . . . . ib. 

Of the holy rest of the sabbath . . . .157 

Many precepts in scripture concerning it . . . ib. 

Whether we must observe it as the Jews did . .158 

Whether wc are absolutely bound to rest . . ib. 

An idle rest not enough . . . . .159 

The sabbath not for revel or riot . . . .160 

What the right sabbath . . . . . ib. 

The sabbath how sanctified . . . . . ib. 

J. by prayer . . . . . ,161 

2. by the use of the word . . . . ib. 

^ 3. by thanksgiving ..... 163 

also by sacraments and discipline . . . ib. 

and by works of mercy . , . . ib. 

of outward mercy . . . ib. 

of inward mercy . , .164 



Of the sabbath of fast . .165 

Of public fast . . . . . ib. 

Of private £ut . .166 

Each hath an outward and an inward part . . 167 

Means to sanctify the sabbath . . . . ib. 

Part IV. — The second table ...... 169 

Matter of the second table . . .170 

1. The thing commanded . . . . ib. 

2. The object of love . . . . .171 

Cautions h^eupon . . . . .172 

3. The manner of our love .... 173 
The Fifth Commandment ..... 174 

Of higher and lower place . . . . . ib. 

First part of the commandment, viz. the precept . . ib. 

Of the words of the commandment . . . ib. 

Why rulers are appointed . . . . .175 

Of the duties common to superiors and inferiors . .176 

Duties of the inferior generally : first, honour . . ib. 

secondly, fear . . 177 

thirdly, obedience . 178 

reasons for obedience . ib. 

Duties of superiors generally . . .179 

Of the manner of their government . .181 

Whether wicked superiors should be honoured . 182 

Wicked rulers not to be absolutely obeyed . .183 

examples of this . . . . ib. 

Particular duties between superior and inferior . .185 

Husband and wife . . . . • ib. 

their mutual duties . . . ib. 

their several duties . . . ib. 

Father and son ...... 186 

Master and servant . .188 

Teacher and hearer . . . .189 

Qualifications of a teacher . . . .190 

His duties : first, to set forth the truth . . ib. 

secondly, to be careful of his doings . 191 

thirdly, to protect his scholars . 192 

More particularly the minister's duty . . . ib. 

Three evil kinds of minister . . .193 

One good kind of minister . . . .194 

His duties ; 

first, to be an example in his life . . . ib. 

secondly, to teach by his learning . . .195 

thirdly, to have a care of the manner of his doctrine 196 

fourthly, to reprove and confute . . .197 

Of magistrates ...... 198 

How there came to be magistrates . . ib. 

Office of a magistrate generally . .199 

Qualifications of a magistrate . . ib. 


Duties of a king ..... 200 

first, to acknowledge his power to be from Ood . ib. 
secondly, not to break into Ood's right . ib. 

thirdly, to do justice . . . .201 

fourthly, to be humble and meek in ruling . 202 

Other kinds of excellency .... 203 

Excellency of mind . . . ib. 

What honour we owe to men of great gifts . . ib. 

first, to acknowledge their gifts . . ib. 

secondly, to prefer those that have the greatest 

gifts . . .204 

thirdly, to make use of their gifts . 205 

Excellency of body . . . . ib. 

Excellency of esUte . .206 

Of benefactors ...... 207 

Duties of a benefactor . . . ib. 

Duties of the receiver of a benefit . . . 208 

Means by which a gOTcmor shall rule aright . . 209 

Second part of the commandment, vis. the reason . ib. 

Whether dutiful children are always long lived . .210 

Why long life is promised to dutiful children .211 

Why long life is given to the wicked . . .212 

Thb Sixth Commandment . .218 

Place of this commandment . . . ib. 

Words of the commandment . . ib. 

Of anger in general ...... 214 

Of sinful anger ...... 215 

How far this commandment reaches . .216 

Of destroying life 

first of beast ...... 217 

secondly, of man ..... 218 

Of killing one's self . . . . ib. 

Of killing another man . . . .219 

which is aggravated by circumstances • . 220 

Of the restraint of this commandment .221 

A magistrate may take the life of his subjects . . ib. 

though imder what restriction . 222 

or of the subjects of another .... 223 

Whether a private man may take away life . . 224 

Of the extension of the commandment . 226 

in respect of others . . . . ib. 

and in respect of ourselves . . . . ib. 

It touches soul as well as body .... 227 

Means to avoid this sin .... . 228 

Of answering hard language ..... 229 

Whether actions at law are allowable . . ib. 

The Seventh Commandment ..... 230 

Place of this commandment . . . . ib. 

Subject of the commandment . . . ib. 

How it is to be here treated of . . .231 




Reasons against the sin of adultery . 


. 233 

Particulars of the sin 


. 235 

1. The festering 


. ib. 

2. The prepared ground ; namely, 


. ib 

1 ) by gluttony ; whether in Meat 


. ib. 

reasons against it 


. 236 

how it is to be avoided 


. ib. 

rules of temperance, both 


. 237 



. ib. 

or in Drink . 


. 238 

2) by idleness 


. 239 

3. The watermg of concupiscence 

• i 

. 240 

by allurements in ourselves 


. ib. 

or by allurements without us 


. 241 

4. The signs of concupiscence 


. 242 

5, The act of incontinency 


. 243 

permission of it 


. 247 

defending of it 


: . ib. 

The Eighth Commandment 

• 1 

. ib. 

Place of this conmumdment 


. ib. 

Of right and propriety 

• t 

. 248 

Of alienation .... 


. 260 

Of desire, lawful .... 

m t 

. 261 

and unlawful 


. 252 

Of what is forbidden in this commandment 

m 1 

. 253 

1 1. In outward act . . . 

• t 

. ib. 

Of getting ; 

First, of wrong getting 

• 1 

. ib. 

of idleness 

• 1 

. ib. 

of dealings, 1. unlawful . 

• * 

. 254 

2. unjust ; whether with contract. 

. ib. 

or without contract 

. 255 

Aggravation of the guilt 

• « 

. 256 

Secondly, of right getting . 

. 257 

and of restitution 

. ib. 

Of using ; first, upon ourselves 


. 258 

secondly, upon others 

. 260 

How we have our riches given us 

. ib. 

What we are to think of the poor 

. 261 

Giving to the poor is as the sowing of seed 

. 262 

§ 2. In the heart .... 

. 263 

How to avoid theft in the heart 

. ib. 

The Ninth Commandment 

. 264 

Words of this commandment 

. 265 

Place and purpose of this commandment 

. 267 

First, of what leads to the ofience 

. ib. 

1 ) The evil inclination ; 

. ib. 

2) The festering of the same 

. 268 

8) The prepared ground 

. 269 

4) The watering thereof 

. ib. 



Secondly, of the offence itself 
Of lies in general 
Of false witness in judgment . 
which may he in six different persons ; 
in the judge ; . 
in the notary or registrar ; 
in the plaintiff or accuser 
in the defendant 
in the advocate or^lawyer 
in the witness 
Of false witness out of judgment ; 
which may he in four ways 
Other ways of offending against this commandment 
The commandment bids us rebuke where need is 
Of the vice opposed to this, viz. flattery ' . 
Of committing these same faults against ourselves 
Question concerning a harmless lie 
Of seeming exceptions .... 
Miscellaneous rules .... 

The Tenth Commandment 
Of the form, exposition, and place of this commandment 
End of this conmxandment 
Of the two sorts of concupiscence 
Of the working of evil concupiscence 
Of the bait and the hook ; ... 

in ourselves; .... 

from the devil ; . . . . 

and from the world .... 

. 269 
. 270 
. ib. 
. 271 
. ib. 
. 272 
. ib. 
. 278 
. ib. 
. 274 
. 275 
. ib. 
. ib. 
. 276 
. 277 
. 278 
. 279 
. 280 
. 281 
. ib. 
. ib. 
. 282 
. 288 
. 284 
. 285 
. ib. 
. 286 
. ib. 

[Account of the Lambeth Articles 
Ad 1. Quo asseritur priedestinatio 
Ad 2. Quo prsedestinationis caussa explieatur 
Ad 8. De numero certo 

Ad 4. 

Ad 5. De amissione fidei et spiritus 
Ad 6. De certitudine salutis 
Ad 7. De collatione gratiae 

Ad 8 

Ad 9. . . • • • 

. 295 
. ib. 
. 298 
. ib. 



Judgment of the censure upon Barret 

. 301 







The form of goyernment in the Old Testament . . ib. 

And first, under Moses . . . . . ib. 

The form of ecclesiastical goyernment under Moses . . 340 

The form of goyernment under Joshna .... 842 

The form of goyernment under Dayid .... 343 

The form of goyernment under Nehemiah . . . 346 

A brief recapitulation of the degrees observed under the goyernment 

of the Old Testament : with an accommodation thereof unto the 

New . • ' . . , . . . 347 

The form of church goyernment in the New Testament . .351 

And first in the days of our Sayiour Christ . . . . ib. 

The form of goyernment used in the time of the Apostles . . 352 

Of the Apostles themselyes . . . . . ib. 

Of deacons ....... 354 

Of eyangelists . . . . . ib. 

Of priests ....... 355 

Of bishops . . . . . . . ib. 

Of the persons [that executed these offices] . . 356 

Of the promiscuous use of their names .... 359 

The necessary use of the bishop's office, and the charge committed 
to him ....... 361 



Shewing that many Paynim ceremonies were retained iu England after 
Christianity was receiyed ...... 365 

It is no disparagement to ceremonies of the church to haye been 
originally heathen ...... 366, 8 

Much that is called popish was anterior to popery . 369, 70 

Superfiuous and wicked ceremonies of the papists borrowed from the 

heathen, in use of images, torches, postures, &c. . . 371, 73 

Religious ceremonies of the heathen which may lawfully be used by 
christians, respecting 

1. the churches, many of which were originally heathen temples, 

hallowed for christian use ; . . . . 374, 8 

2. the ministers ; their tides 
their degrees of rank 
their powers and duties 
their ordination, and priyileges 
their apparel in divine service 
and exclusion of unfitting persons 
their preaching, music, and hymns 
perambulations ; and power of excommunication 











3. the people ; their turning eastward and holding up of hands in 

prayer ...... 387, 8 

special supplications and thanksgiyings . 889 

and payment of tithes and first-fruits . . 390 

Heathens sometimes imitated christians .391 

Practical reflection on the whole subject .... 392 

Index of Texts 
General Inlex 
List of Editions referred to 

. 393 
. 409 
. 429 














fVarrant of a Prrface. 

First, let us see the warrant of a Preface, before we come chap. 
to the work itself of catechising. ^ 

Clemens Alexandrinus intending his Pedagogy, or his 
Book of Instruction for young christians, and Cyril writing 
several catechisms for the same purpose, build themselves 
on David's example* ; and we have it Psalm xxxiv. 11, where 
David being about in few words to set down the whole sum 
of religion, beginneth with this as his preface, ''Come, 
children, hearken unto me, I will teach you the fear of the 
Lord." "Come children;" therefore we may make a Pre- 
face, or Introduction. 

Preliminary observations. 

And in this Introduction these three things are to be con- 

that children ought to be instructed ; 
the manner of this instruction ; 
what is required of the catechised, that the exercise 
may be fruitiul. 

The knowledge of these points is necessary ; because in 
scripture*' Pharaoh maketh a scoff of it that their children 
should go with the Jews into the wilderness to worship Ood, 

* [L e. do as Dayid did, in writing a particular alloiion to David's prac- 
preface or introduction. There is not tice.l 
either in Clement's or Cyril's work any >> [Exod. z. 8 — 11.] 


4 Of Catechmng. 

PART as if children had nothing to do in such a work ; and 

'- because Aristotle ^ and some other philosophers held that 

young ones were not fit auditors of moral instructions ; and 
the orator** said that youth should take his course, donee 
deferbuerit, ' till the heat of folly was spent/ 

Whatever these heathens said, the practice of most of them 
hath been contrary to these speeches; Phocylides® would have 
TTcwS* €t' eovra, the little ones, taught in their tender years ; 
and to that end Solon^ left his sacred admonitions, and Pytha- 
goras^ his Golden Verses; and Plutarch^ delineated a course 
for children's education ; Athens also had a great care of in- 
structing their youth, and then only permitted them to carry 
torches in their solemnities when they had made some pro- 
gress in their literature ; and Aristotle himself, De repub, vii.*, 
holds it necessary that children be taught the instructions of 
virtue as soon as may be; and TuUy*' also elsewhere injoins 
that in tender years youth are to be kept in and restrained 
from lust and pleasure. The third witness is good both for 
the truth, and against themselves : where the one speaks con- 
cerning youth what their temper often is, not what it ought 
of right to be ; the other in a plea oratoriously rather than 
truly, to excuse a young man's wild courses. 

§ 1. That children ought to be instructed. 

To proceed then ; 

First, the instruction of children is proved, 

1. From the end of the Law; Psalm cxix. 9, "Where- 
withal shall a young man cleanse his way? by taking heed 
thereto according to Thy word ;" the Law is not only given 
for those of riper years, but even for the younger men to 
cleanse their ways. 

2. From the Law itself; Deut. vi. 7, '^thou shalt teach 
them diligently unto thy children ;'' and Exod. xii. 26, sqq., 
"it shall come to pass, when your children shall say unto 
you. What mean ye by this service ? that ye shall say. It is 

<^ [Eth. Nicom.,l)b. i. cap. 1. vol. ii. f [See « List of Edd.»* &c. end of 

p. 1095.] this vol.] 

d rPro M. Coelio, § 18. vol. vi.p. 92.] ^ [Vol vi. init] 

• [In Plutarch, De lib. educand., vol ^ [Cap. 14, sqq. vol. iL p. 1333, sqq.] 

vi. p. 10.] k [De Off., lib. i. cap. 34. vol. iii. 

' [Vid. ^schin. cont Timarch. init, p. 218.] 
p. 296.] 

Of Catechising. 5 

ilie sacrifice of the Lord's passover/' &c. ; children must be CHAP. 

taught the meaning of the passover. And by their doings^ ' — 

whether they be godly and religious, or wanton and wicked, 
they shall be judged; judicabuntur semitis auis, Prov. xx. 11, 
" even a child is kuown by his doings, whether his work be 
pure, and whether it be right/' 

3. They are partakers of temporal blessings if they do 
well. Psalm cxxvii. and cxxviii., and of temporal curses, 
doing ill, 2 Kings ii. 24; "he turned back and looked on 
them, and cursed them in the name of the Lord ; and there 
came forth two she bears out of the wood, and tare forty and 
two children of them/' 

4. In Golgotha are to be seen sculls of all sizes. Death, 
the reward of sin, cometh upon the young as well as the 
old; little and great, all must come to account and be 
judged; Rev. xx. 12, "I saw the dead, small and great, 
stand before God." 

5. From the gospel ; Christ at twelve years old submitted 
himself to be catechised ; Luke ii. 46, " they found Him in 
the temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, both hearing 
them and asking them questions;" and omnia Christi actio 
nostra instructio, ' every action of Christ is our instruction,' 
John xiii. 15 ; ^'I have given you an example that ye should 
do as I have done." 

6. Christ reproved those that forbad little children to 
come unto Him; Matt. xix. 14, '^ suffer little children, and 
forbid them not, to come unto Me." 

7. He allowed of Hosanna sung by them. Math. xxi. 16, 
Mark xi. 9; "have ye never read. Out of the mouth of 
babes and sucklings Thou hast perfected praise?" 

8. He chargeth Peter to feed not only His sheep, but His 
lambs; and His lambs first, for the increase of the whole 

9. That our nature being then quick and prone to evil, 
may be turned to good. If children can say, ' Baldpate' to 
Elisha, why should they not say, 'Hosanna' to Christ ? And 
that time is to be taken which is fittest for every thing; 
but this age is fittest to be taught, both in respect of the 
general duty, and docility, so that like a new mortar it 
savoureth that which is first beaten in it; as also for that 

Of Catechisitiff. 

r A R T they are not yet acquainted with the cares of this world, with 

'■ ambition, with adulterous acts, malice, &c. Therefore aa 

saith Austin, adklbetur magister exlrinsecus lit sit intus, 
'children ought to have a governor and instructor without 
them till they have the grounds of religion in their hearts 
to be a governor and teacher within them;' so that when 
they come to years they cast not off subjection to govern- 
ment, but change their governor, lest having a governor 
neither within nor without, they should be sons of Belial, 
without any yoke or government. 

§ 2. The manner of this instruction. 

Secondly, for the manner of this instruction ; it is Teach- 
ing or Catechising ; " I will teach you," or, " I will cate- 
chise you." 

The duty of the catechiat, or him that doth catechise, is 
to make bis doctrine easy to enter, by giving it an edge and 
perspicuity of method'. 

This teaching by way of catechising differeth from the 
other teaching which we call preaching, on this manner j 

/ a. the dilating of one member of religion 
I into a just treatise, 

preaching i. -j ^ ,„^ ^„ ^^^^^ 

V7. without repetition by the hearer; 
/a, a contracting of the whole sum, 
catechising is < |8. chiefly for children, 

\y. to be repeated by the catechised. 

2ft«'C may be a summary of doctrine. 

And here arise certain questions ; — 

Queit. 1. Whether there may be such a sum or not? 

Ang. And that there may we see ; 

a. Matt. xxii. 37, sqq. ; Christ drew the whole law into 
two heads, love to God and love to our neighbour; "thou 
ahalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all 
thy soul, and with all thy mind ; this is the first and great 
commandment : and the second is Uke unto it, thou shall 

1 Komxtir, reiBiart. ptf- Mutrt, I. i. r^cere ul penrtrrt cnnmo^iui. n:C 

Of Catechisinff. 7 

love thy neighbour as thyself; on these two commandments CHAP, 
hang all the law and the prophets/' ^' 

fi. John iii. 16; Christ catechising Nicodemus drew the 
gospel to this head^ " so God loved the world/' &;c. 

7. Eccles. xii. 13 ; Solomon draweth all the duty of man 
to these two^ " fear 6od^ and keep His commandments/' 

S. Heb. vi. 1. Paul draweth the foundation of religion 
to these two^ repentance and faith ; " repentance from dead 
works, and faith toward Grod." So Acts xx. 21, "re- 
pentance toward God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus 

€. The learned think that the sum of teaching is meant 
by Paul, 2 Tim. i. 13, ''the true pattern of the wholesome 
words;" Rom. vi. 17, "the form of the doctrine;" Rom. 
xii. 6, " the proportion of faith." 

(f. The physicians have aphorisms; the lawyers, insti- 
tuta; the philosophers, isagoges; and why not divines, 
epitomes ? 

17. One calleth the two heads to which Christ drew the 
Law and the prophets, sepem legis, ' the hedge of the Law,' 
lest we might waver and wander in infinito campo, 'in an 
infinite field.' 

The fruit of this. 

1. We may refer all our reading to these two heads. 

2. We see God's goodness in making things which are 
necessary to be known, easy, as the sermons of the Apostles 
when they baptised so many hundreds in one day ; and those 
which are not easy, not so necessary. 

Here take these two provisos ; 

1. They are inexcusable which seek not to know things so 
easy, 2 Pet. iii. 18; 1 Cor. xiv. 20; Ephes. i. 13; 

2. We must continually proceed, and still seek for more 
and more knowledge ; for as in some places of the scripture 
the lamb may wade, so in others the elephant may swim, 
and we must search both; for we shall never be free from 
Hob, " search the scriptmres," John v. 39. 

8 OJ Calechmng. 

Religion may be so taught. 

Quest. 2. Whether it may thus be taught ' 

Ans, Yes; aad this is demonatratedj 

1. Before the flood, Gen. iv. 3, 4, the word was taught bjr 
tradition, and not by writing ; and therefore they rensoa pro- 
bably tliat say, without this the worship of God could not have 
continued. Surely Cain and Abel's sacriiicing must needs be 
taught by their father Adam ; and of him Abel must necesstu 
rily learn what was typed and signified by his sacrifice, and 
thereupon be remarkable for his faith, lleb. si. 4. Adam 
doubtless would teach his chddren what God taught him and 
Eve, that " the seed of the woman should break the serpent's 


3. After the flood till Abraham's time there was no other 
way of teaching but by traditions, which, as some think, 
were put in writing by the gentiles and were called the 
books of the Sibyls. 

3. In Abraham's time we consider, 

a. that he taught his. Gen, xviii. 17. 19, "I know him," 
saith God, "that he will command his children and his house- 
hold after him," &c; 

,3. what he taught them. Gen. xvii. 1, "I am the 
Almighty God;" xviii. 18, "Abraham shall surely become a 
great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the earth 
shall be blessed in him ;" xsii. 18, " in thy seed shall all the 
nations of the earth be blessed ;" 

y. the fruit of Ids teaching, in his son. Gen. xxiv. 63, 
he went to pray; and in his servant, v. 12, he prayed 
before his business. This servant also at the end of his 
business concludes with prayer and thanksgiving for his good 
success. Gen. xxiv. 27; "he said. Blessed be the Lord God 
of my master Abraham, who hath not left destitute my 
master of his mercy and his truth ; I being in the way, the 
Lord led me to the house of my master's brethren." His 
care also of performing his master's business shewed well 
how he was religiously instructed, Gen. xxiv. 33 ; where he 
would not eat till he had declared his message. 

Of Catechising. 9 

4. In the time of the Law, Deut. vi. 7, " thou shalt teach CHAP, 
them diligently unto thy children/' &c. — _ — 

5. The practice hereof we see in David, Psalm xxxiv. 11 ; 
and Solomon testifieth of David, Prov. iv. 4, " he taught me 
also,*' &c.; 1 Chron. xxviii. 9, '^and thou Solomon my son,'' 
&c. ; in Solomon to his son Roboam in the first six chapters of 
the Proverbs; in Jehoiada, 2 Kings xii. 2, to Joas the young 
king^ who "did that which was right in the sight of the 
Lord all his days wherein Jehoiada the priest instructed 
him." After the captivity, it appears by Josephus and the 
Jews' Talmud that there were between Antiochus' and Christ's 
time four hundred houses of catechists, whither their chil- 
dren being once thirteen years old were sent to be cate- 
chised; the Pharisees also had a special care to train up 
their novices, though in many things corruptly, and taught 
them the letter of the Law. To these Paul may seem to 
have relation, Rom. ii. 18. Kairi^ovfievo^ ck tou vofiov, 'cate- 
chised in the Law.' 

6. See the practice of it also in christians, Eph. vi. 4, 
i/cTp€<f>€iv, ' to train them up continually,' iv TraiSeia, &c. ' in 
instruction ;' 1 Cor. xiv. 19, iva xal aXKov^ /fanT^^cr®. 

Examples of those that were catechised; — Theophilus, 
Luke i. 4; — ApoUos, Acts xviii. 25 ; — Timothy, 1 Tim. iii. 15 ; 
both are included. Gal. vi. 6, 'Het him that is taught in 
the word communicate unto him that teacheth in all good 

What effect the Apostles' and their followers' catechising 
had, Hegesippus™ testifies, sajring that hereby it came to pass 
that no known commonwealth in that part of the world was 
inhabited which within forty years after Christ's passion felt 
not a great shaking of its heathenish superstition. Julian the 
apostate", the grand and subtle enemy of Christianity, per- 
ceiving this, inhibited and suppressed all christian schools 
and places of catechising and teaching the liberal arts; and 
if this tyranny had not been as a cloud soon passing away, 
it might have been feared that his policy would in short 

■ [Vid. Euseb. H. E., lib. ii. cap. 23. 52. vol. vii. p. 535 ; Socr. H. E., lib. iii. 
p. 77; lib. iii. cap. 20. p. 109. cap. 32. cap. 12. p. 187; Theodoret H. E.,lib. 

.127 ; lib. iv. cap. 22. p. 181.] iii. cap. 8. p. 129.] 

■ [Aug. De Civ. Dei, lib. xviii. cap. 


Of Calechisinff. 

PART time have overshadowed all religion. By our catechising tlie | 

— • papists have lost ground of us, and can never recover it ) 

again unless by a more exact courae of catechising thaa 

§ 3. The duly of the catechised. 

Thirdly, the duty of the catechised is, often to go over the 

same matter, as the knife doth the whetstone ; aud to repeat ' 

it till tliey have made it their own. The parts of his duty 

are to Come, and Hear, 

First, to come. 
First, we must come ; 

1. This is that that the prophet speaks of. Psalm xl. 6, 7, 
" then said I, lo, I come ;" that he rejoiceth at. Psalm cxxii. 1, 
"I was glad when they said unto mc, let us go into the 
house of the Lord ;" Esay ii. 3, " come ye, and let us go up 
to the mountain of the Lord;" for in the temple one day it 
better than a thousand elsewhere, Psalm Ixxxiv. 10. 

2. The cause of our coming must be in respect of God, 
because He hath said. Come, though no man were any way to 
be respected. 

3. We must be absent from no part of catechising, for 
unless we have all we can make no profitable building. 

4. "We must not any way excuse our absence, for we see 
them blamed that made excuses. Matt, xxii.; though the 
things were indifferent which they alleged, yet when they 
hindered them from God they were sin. No pastime, that waa 
Esau's trade. Gen. xxv. 27; nor sluggishness, as Esay xxix. 10, 
"the spirit of deep sleep;" nor idleness, aa Matt. xx. 6, 
must keep us from the house of God. 

5. Because every one that cometh is not welcome, but such 
aa come prepared, as 2 Chron. xsix. ; many things are nn- 
perfect for want of preparation ; and 1 Chron. xxix. 18, David 
prayed to have their hearts prepared ; so in giving of the Law, 
Exod. xix., and in giviug of the gospel. Matt. iii. 3, prepara- 
tion is enjoined ; — therefore it is necessary we come prepared ; 

And with what preparation. 
And this preparation standeth in two points ; — 
a. That which is Acts xi. 33, a settled purpose of lieort to 

ty Catechiting. 

abide in the doctriQcs of God, to put it in practice, to rule chap. 
our lives accordingly, Psalm cxix. 9 ; for without thia all is ^' 
of no eifect. A young man, Psnlm cxix. 9, must rule him- 
self according to the word, that he may cleanse his ways 
thereby ; it availeth not to hear God's word, unless we do it. 
The phariseea' corrupt doctrine was leaven, wholly infecting 
their disciples ; but Christ's doctrine was leaven, whose pro- 
perty it is, 1 Cor. V. 6, to turn the whole lump into the pro- 
perty of itself, and this seasoned His scholars perfectly with 

(8. When our hearts are prepared, we must then pray 
for wisdom, Psalm cxi. 10 ; James i. 5 ; 1 Kings iii. 6, 7 ; 
Matt, xxi, 22, that we may feel the sweetness of it, that that 
may breed delight, and delight diligence to attain it. We 
must also pray that God's word, likened to nails and goada, 
Eccles. xii. 11, may be fastened in our hearts, and that we may 
be bettered by His sharp threateninga, and incited to all godly 
actions by the goads of reproof, as well as comforted and 
cheered np by the honeycomb of His mercies. 

Secondly, to hear. 
Secondly, it is required that we hear; Luke xiv. 35, "he 
that hath ears to hear, let him hear;" Mark vii. 6, a man 
may be prasens absens, 'near in body, far off in heart.' 
We think all the preparation to be in the speaker and none 
in the hearer, but Christ saith, Luke viii. 18, "take heed 
how ye hear;" and His reason is, he that heareth well 
shall have more good things revealed unto him than he 
heareth; but he that doth not, shall have that knowledge 
taken from him which he hath. And the gentiles were not 
far from the truth, who held that a solecism and absurdity 
might as well be committed in our hearing amiss, as in onr 
speaking amiss; this Eaay found true, when the people came 
near God with their mouths and hps, but had their hearts far 
firom Him, Esay xxix. IS ; their ears heard not well, nor con- 
Teyed the message well to their hearts. 

What faults to be avoided herein. 
And in our hearing four faults must be avoided ; 
1. we must not stare here and there, but having onr eyes 
fastened on him that teachetb, still attend him ; Luke iv. 20, 

12 Of Catechising. 

PART " the eyes of nil them that were in the synagogue were j 
'- — fastened on Him;" 

2. not hanging the face, 2 Cor. vs.. 7 ; God loveth cheer- 
fitlness, as in the giver, so surely in the hearer ; Col. iij. 23, 
"whatsoever yc do, do it heartily ;" 

3. not moving the body to and fro, as if we were weary; 

4. not gaping, aa if wc were fit to sleep; but lis the heathen 
before their sacrifices had one that stood up and cried, hoc 
affile, 'do or intend this;' so we must intend what we are 
about, that we may so hear as to remember ; for if we hear 
and remember not, we are like an hour-glass, which as soon 
as it is full runneth out again. The word must have recourse 
to our hearts, for quod cor nonfacit nonjit, 'that which the 
heart doth not, is not done.' 

And lastly, we must so remember it as to practise it. And 
that is indeed the best examination of our hearing, a posttrU 
oribui; antecedenlia are not so sure; a man may guess of 
the goodness of the mould, but he knoweth what it is when ho 
Beeth tlie corn ; for aa there is fekris spuria, ' a bastard fever,' 
which only hath the same si/mpiomala, 'signs,' which true 
fevers have; so there may be spuria pietas, 'bastard godliness.' 
How we should examine what we hear. 

Finally, our examination of that we hear standeth in three 

1, searching and enquiry, Esay viii. 19, "should not a 
people seek unto their God?" John v. 39, "search tha 
scriptures;" Rev. ii. 2, "thou hast tried them which say 
they are apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars ;". 
Acts xvii. 11, they "searched the scriptures daily, whether 
those things were so ;" 

2, meditation. Gen, xxiv. 63, "Isaac went out to medi- 
tate ;" Psalm i. 2, " in his law doth he meditate day and 
night;" 1 Tim. iv. 15, " meditate upon these things;" 

3, conference, Luke xxiv. 17; Gal. ii, 2. 

Thus then I conclude as Cyril" did his preface, 
meum est docere, "tis my work to teach;' 
vestrum auscullare, ' yours to learn ;' 
Dei perjtcere, ' God's to give a blessing to both.' 

" [PfOMt*di.,«r. 17. p. 13.] 

Of Catechmnff, 13 


The foundation of our catechising, in Four Questions. 

The course of religion which we are to treat of is likened to 
a building; he which is to teach is likened to a builder; the 
principles of religion are called a foundation ; that must be 
digged deep till we come to the rock, that our building may 
not be shallow upon the earth without foundation. The 
builders of our age dig not deep enough; they dig not to the 
rock; now to dig till we come to the rock that we may 
build surely thereupon, is after this manner ; — 

If any ground of religion be set, we must seek whether the 
ground be true ; and if it be scripture, we must seek what the 
regard of God is toward man, that He would give him the 
scripture, or His word ; then we must know whether He be 
a God. But oar builders presuppose that God is, and that 
the scriptures are true, (as they are indeed,) and so presup- 
posing it never seek for reasons to prove it, and by that 
means build upon such a slender foundation that they leave 
advantage to the adversary; for we know that many have 
gone about to undermine the very foundation, and say 
plainly there is no God ; and we know also that when the 
devil hath brought his winds and his storms, he hath shaken 
the very saints of God because they have not built deep 

Therefore that we may begin at the very rock, we will ask 
these four questions ; 

1. Whether there be a God or not : against the Atheist. 

2. Whether He hath that respect of man, that He would 
give him His word to reward the good and punish the evil : 
against the Epicure. 

8. Whether the scriptures be]^His word and true, or not : 
against the Turk. 

4. Whether our religion be truly grounded on His word : 
against the Jews and papists. 

iVhetker Ihei'e be a God. 


Our warrant for the first is, Heb. ji. 6, " He 
to God must believe" first, "that Grod ia." 
And here we note three things ; 

1. That the fruit of our religion and our felicity is, to 
come to God ; that is the end of our journey, 

2. The means to this is, to believe; that is the way to the 

3. That God is, is that which we must believe. 

§ 1. Of the jirst point, that the end of our journey ia, to 

come to God. 
I. First, the end of our journey is to come to God, 
The phrase of 'coming' used iu our vulgar tongue, as 
'coming' to wealth, honour, learning, may shew us thus much 
in christian vrisdom ; that while man kept God's command- 
ments and submitted his wisdom to God, he was partaker of 
God's goodness and happiness, but desiring to depart Irom 
God, he fell in extreme misery; — first, into sin; secondly, 
into shame; thirdly, into fear ; fourthly, into travail; fifthly, 
into death. 

But all who come agnin unto God shall find remedy and 
deliverance from all these, and enjoy felicity. 

Arguments against the other supposed ways of happiness. 

Men think they may be happy by other means than by 
coming to God ; as the worldling by wealth, the politician 
by honour, the epicure by pleasure, the stoic by virtue, the 
platonist by contemplation. 

Against these we will make short exceptions. 

Against the Jirst, wealth. 

1. Wealth ia not desired for itself, and therefore cannot be 
felicity; all the wealth we have is for but food and raiment; 
and what is the use of them but to keep our body and nature 
lest it fail, and not to amend it ; but that which is felicity 
must do both. 

3. The end of man ia better than man ; but no man will give 

Wliether there &e a God. 

his life for the whole world, therefore riches being worse than C H A 
man cannot be man's end, and so not felicity or happiness. — 

3. If wealth should be felicity, then a man should be 
esteemed by that which he hath, and not by that which he 
is, and so his purse should be better than himsclfj but as we 
do not esteem a sword by the scabbard, nor a horse by his 
trappings, so not a man by his wealth, 

4. The good that cometh by wealth is to spend it, and so 
to part from it; but it should be absurd to part from feHcity; 
uid therefore wealth cannot be happiness. 

^^H Against the second, Hoitour. 

'*" 1. They bring themselves from this, when they say hono- 
rem esse virtutis umbram, ' honour ia the shadow of virtue;' 
for who knoweth not that we must leave the shadow and follow 
the body; therefore even by their own account rather virtue 
than honour is true felicity. 

2. If honour should be happiness, then many should be 
unhappy to honour one and to make one happy. 

3. If they be honoured by some, they may be despised by 
others or at another time, and so not happy; and if it be 
answered that they must be honore digni, they fall into virtue 

4. Honor est bonum sine sera aul clave, 'honour is a kind of 
good which ia neither under lock nor key;' it hangeth on 
other men's mouths, and therefore hath no stability ; as we see 
in the Jews' honouring of Christ, one day they would have made 
Him a king, but within few days after they crucified Him. 

Against the third, pleasure. 

1. Pleasure ia for sensible things, and therefore inferior to 
man who is a reasonable creature, and so not his end, and 
therefore not felicity. 

2. The verj- beasts have pleasure at liberty, without seeking 
any private place, or without any remorse of conscience, 
which man that setteth so much by pleasure, cannot have ; 
and yet they will not say that beasts have felicity; but apage 
felicUatem gute lalebras qutertt, ' away with such an happiness 
as hides itself in comers,' as pleasure doth. 

4. They say themselves pleasure is not good but in medio- 


Whetlie)- there be a God. 

r crity, and so they leave pleasure and cleave to mediocril 
~ whereas if it were felicity the more of it the better it were. 
3. We call him continent that abstaineth from pleasure, 
and continency ia a ^-irtue; shall we then say that he is 
continent or virtuous that abstaineth trom felicity? i 

Affainat tfie fourth, virtue. 

1. Moral virtues are to pacify our affectioQS] or for the 
rule of our actions and works; and so not for themselves and 
therefore not fchcity. 

2. Justice is to keep peace; fortitude to make peace; 
therefore not for themselves, therefore not felicity. 

3. Prudence, which they call the chief virtue, is nothing 
hut to direct us to the end, and not the end itself, and so not 
felicity ; and so seeming to teach us to shoot, they take away 
the mark. 

jiffaiTisi thejifth, contemplation. 

1. It is absurd in nature, that any thing should have gene- 
rationem langam, 'a long time to be growing,' xaA fruitio- 
nem brevem, 'a short time to be enjoyed in;' but this ia so 
long in getting that it never comes to enjoying, always in 
conceit and never in act, and so not felicity. 

2. They testify of themselves that they never attained it 
Socrates was wont to say, hoc solum scio me nihil scire, ' this 
only I know that I know notliing;' Aristotle, that he had 
yKavKovv oipdaX^jivs in contemplandis entibus ctelestibus, ' owls' 
eyes in contemplating heaveuly essences;' SimonidesP, that by 
longer meditation he was the further from the knowledge of 
God; Heraclitns found it so deep he could not sound it. 
Maxima pars eorum qum scimus est minima pars eorvm qua 
nescinius, ' the greatest part of things we know is the least 
of things we know not.' 

Thus much of these five severally. 

Now geiieraUy against them all. 
They set down for their felicity two things, 

the first, terminus appetites, airrapKeia, 'satisfaction of 

the appetite;' 
the second, perpetuity. 

' [Cic, De unl. deor,, lili. i. taj.. 22. vol. ii. [j. Mi.] 

Whether there be a God, 17 

There is wanting in them, first, satisfaction, CHAP. 

First, for satisfaction of the appetite ; "" 

1. To come to any thing but to God, satisfieth not our 
appetite ; for all the world is too little for it, because it was 
ordained to receive God : and without God there is no uni- 
versal good ; then there is some want, then a desire of that 
which wanteth; and so the appetite not satisfied, but for want 
thereof unquietness, and so no felicity. 

2. ^EiriOvfiia, ' a desire,' they derive of Ovfielv, ardere, * to 
bum,' and so we say ardens appetitus, 'a burning or earnest 
desire ;' now if a man heap never so much wood on a fire, it 
wiU not quench the fire, but make it bigger and apt to receive 
more ; and so this fervent and burning desire is never satis- 
fied but in God, but still more and more inflamed ; quomodo 
igitur ejus sitim extingues atjus sitis ex potu crescit, 'how 
will you quench his thirst whose thirst increases by drinking?' 

3. These things are not made to fill the appetite, no more 
than learning to fill a bag, or the air to fill him that is 
hungry. And as Alexander wept when there was not 
another world for him, so all they that go about to satisfy 
their appetite with any thing beside God do but more and 
more increase their appetite ; and whether they be given to 
pleasure, or to the desire of wealth, or honour, or whatsoever, 
the more they have the more they would have; and they deal 

as Theocritus saith of the covetous man, first he saith, mille [l^yl ztI 
meis errent in montibus agni, 'may I have a thousand lambs '^' '^ 
feeding on the mountains,' and having gotten mille agnos, 
then pauperis est numerare pecus, "tis a sign of a poor man 
when one can count his cattle.' 

Therefore we conclude hence, that all these ways are like 
drink to a man that is troubled with a dropsy; they satisfy 
not our appetite; and so we cannot make them the end of 
our journey, nor be happy by them ; and so not possible to 
have an end but in God. 

There is wanting in them, secondly, perpetuity. 

The second thing in their felicity is Perpetuity ; 

1. Where perpetuity wanteth, there is fear of losing the 
good we have, and so unquietness, and therefore no felicity ; 
but this perpetuity is in none but in God; for all other 


18 Whether there be a Ood. 

PART things either pass from us, or we from them, as one saith, 
^' si non habentjinem suum, habebuntfinem tuum, ' if they have 
not their own end, they shall see an end of thee/ 

2. That they are uncertain we see, as money for thieves, 
merchandise for the winds, cattle for the rot, building for 
the fire ; and all uncertain. 

8. Man's life is also uncertain, as we see by daily expe- 
rience; and then seeing one of these must needs depart 
from the other, neither of them can be the felicity of the 

In earning to God, are both of these. 

On the other side, by coming to God there is both satiety 
and stability; both satisfaction of the appetite, and perpe- 
tuity and continuance of that satisfaction. For as Christ 
saith to the woman of the water, John iv. 14, so we may say 
of God, He is the fountain, and he that drinketh of Him, he 
that hath Him, shall never thirst ; he shall be satisfied, and 
that not for a time, but with stability for evermore. 

The experience of this coming to God, we see in David, 
Psalm xvi. 11, "with Thee is fulness of joy for evermore.'' 
And Solomon found by experience the vanity and empti- 
ness of all other things whatsoever, as appeareth in his book 
of Ecclesiastes. — Yea the heathen themselves confess this; 
as before Christ, SibyllaP confesseth that the union of man 
with God is true felicity ; and Plato, De repub., lib. x.<i; Py- 
thagoras' in his Golden Verses; — since Christ, as Plutarch, 
Simplicius", Jamblichus^, Aphrodiseus^. 

by answer to their several exceptions, 

by demonstrative arguments, 

by experience, and 

by confession of the heathen^ 

And so we may conclude this point with that of S. Augus- 
tine in his Meditations^, Domine creasti nos ob te, nunquam 
quietum cor erit donee pervenerit ad ie, 'Lord, Thou hast 





Lib. iv. lin, 24. sqq. p. 37.] capp. 1, 5—8.] 

^Vid. §12. sqq. p. 2 14. J « [Alexander Aphrodiseus, or Aphro- 

Vid. p. 4. sup.] disicusis, a coiiimeutator on Aristotle.] 

Comment, in Kpictet, p. 218.] « [Vol. vi. Append, vid. pp. 123 A, 

De Myst, sect x. passim, presert 125 B, 126 A.] 

Whether there be a God. 19 

created us for Thy own sake, our hearts will never be at cHAP. 
quiet till we come to rest iu Thee/ — it — 

Thus much of the first point, that the end of our journey 
is to come to God. 

§ 2. Of the second point , that the way to come to God, 

is by belief. 

II. The second point is, the way or means to come to 
Gk>d, which is belief. 

To come to God there are two ways, f}^ T.^^"' ^' 

I by faith. 

The Manichees^ held that error, that by cunning and rea- 
son we should come to God, and not by faith ; which opinion 
is next unto atheism. This the Manichees held in a bravery 
against christians, because they well knew that the philoso- 
phers would rather submit to their sect, opening fontem 
sciendi, ' the fountain of knowledge,' than to the christians, 
laying on them jugum credendi, Hhe yoke of belief/ and 
this was the cause that some philosophers, who became 
christians, were first drawn into Manicheeism, and after- 
wards were won thence to the orthodox doctrine of Christ. 
And such be they whom the learned in our days call qtueristce, 
which will have a reason for every thing : as, Why thus, and 
not rather thus ? and therefore so far as they see reason, so 
far they will go, and no further. 

Now then we must prove that faith is the best way, and 
reason the worst 

We cannot come to God by reason. 

1. If by knowledge only and reason we could come to God, 
then none should come but they that are learned and have 
good wits, and so the way to GoA should be as if many should 
go one journey, and because some can climb over hedges and 
thorns, therefore the way should be made over hedges and 
thorns; but God hath made His way viam regiam, 'the 
king's highway.' 

2. Many are weak natured, and cannot take the pains that 
is needful to come to knowledge ; and many are detained by 
the affairs of the commonwealth. 

y Aug. De util. cred., cap. i. § 2. vol. viil p. 45. 


20 Whether there be a God, 

PART 8. Many are cut off before they come to age to understand 

' — reason and to attain knowledge. 

And so we see that few by reason can come to God. 

Faith not a sign of lightness. 

Object, And whereas they object against faith^ as Porphyry 
did against the christians in his time^ that it is a sign of 
lightness and credulity^ which might breed occasion of doubt- 
ing whether they were in the truth or no; which objection 
hindered many in that time ; 

Ans. 1. We answer them by themselves; for they say 
themselves^ that nemo credtdus nisi qui credit stulto aut im- 
probo, 'no man is counted credulous but he that believes a 
fool or a knave '/ which two things are both excluded from 
God, and it were blasphemy to say otherwise; and so re- 
maineth no place for credulity in believing of God. Besides^ 
our believing is grounded on the word of God ; which word, 
though it was delivered by the ministry of men, yet was of 
great power ; as plainly appeareth, for those very men, first, 
healed leprosies, dropsies, men possessed with foul spirits, 
palsies, &c., all diseases; cures far beyond the strength of 
physic's skill; secondly, they raised divers from death; 
thirdly, they shook the powers of Heaven; fourthly, un- 
lettered and plain men in one day became skilful in all 
tongues. Therefore what was done by them had the divine 
power working by their ministry, and was far above all 
human abilities. 

2. Lightness is more in reason than in faith; for when 
there were two hundred and forty-eight sects of philoso- 
phers, and every one had a diverse felicity and divers reasons, 
there must needs be many crooked ways, and so, much 
doubting of the one side and credulity on the other. 

8. In the knowledge of prima entia, ' first essences,' they 
are in the dark ; for the principles of reason are from the 
sense, but God is above sense and reason, and beyond 

4. Themselves dispute that God is above all reason of man. 
And therefore we cannot come to God by reason. 

Whether there be a God, 21 


We cannot come to God save by belief, ll. 

Now to shew that there is no other way to come to God, 
but belief. 

1. If they should in any matter be driven to prove every 
thing by reason, it would drive them into madness. 

2. No man can make demonstration of every thing, no not 
in matters of the world ; a man cannot make a demonstration 
that his father is his father, or that he is his son; so that 
there must needs be belief. 

3. If a man should say he hath seen such and such a place, 
he can make no demonstrative reason of it ; for the circum- 
stances are not capable of demonstration, and no more is 
God, being the end of our journey. 

Of belief 

Thus much for the necessity of belief; — now for belief 

1. Oportet discentem credere, ' a learner must believe ;' we 
must lay hold of that we hear ; but this belief at the first is 
not perfect, nam quod recipiiur in imperfectum est primo 
imperfectum, ' for that which is received in an imperfect body 
is at the first imperfect;' wood in the fire is first warm 
before it bum ; it hath calorem alienum, ' heat from another,' 
before it have proprium, 'its own' heat; so the learner must 
first take ex alienafide, ' of another man's credit;' Esay vii. 9, 
nisi credideritis nan stabiliemini, ' unless you believe ye shall 
not be established.' 

2. We must try and prove those things which we thus 
receive, either A priori, or a posteriori ; quia ut virtutum re- 
Uquarum, ita et religionis principia nobis innata habemus, ' by 
what is precedent or consequent,' ' for we have inbred in us 
the principles, as of other virtues, so of religion ;' and reason 
uncorrupt always agreeth with God's word, and so God sends 
us often to nature; so the Apostle, Acts xvii. 24, &c.; 
Rom. i. 20, '' the invisible things of Him from the creation 
of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things 
that are made." 

3. When we have thus strengthened our faith, we must 
yet look for a higher teacher; for though faith be a perfect 

22 Whether there be a Gad. 

PART way, yet we walk unperfectly in it, and therefore in lis qtue 

'- — 9unt supra naturam soli Deo credendum, 'in things above 

nature we must believe God only;' so that we must look to 
Grod for His spirit and inspiration. 

4. This inspiration cometh not at the first, and therefore 
we must, as they say, festinare lenti, 'make haste with 
leisure,' to avoid rashness ; as Esay xxviii. 16, qui crediderii 
non festinabit, ' he that believes maketh not haste,' so we 
must wax perfect by little and little, and ever be building 
"to our faith, virtue; to our virtue, knowledge; to our 
knowledge, temperance; with temperance, patience; with 
patience^ godliness; with godliness, brotherly kindness; with 
brotherly kindness, love," 2 Pet. i. 5 ; and though we build 
slowly, yet ever be sure to build on the rock. 

Thus much for the second point, that the way to come to 
Grod is by belief. 

§ 3. Of the third point, that God is that which we must 


III. The third point is, that God is that which we must 
believe ; that there is a God. 

For the preparation to this point we will first note 

Four errors of Satan, 

1. Autotheism; he persuadeth man that he shall be God. 
So he did Adam ; but in the very same day it was proved 
false, for when Adam hid himself and was afraid, he shewed 
plainly that he was not God ; (and here note that, as we fell 
from God by unbelief, so we must come to Him by belief.) 
So Alexander's flatterers said he was a God*, and he per- 
suaded himself no other, till he saw his own blood. So 
Claudius thought himself Gt)d, till the thunder made him 
afraid, and then he was glad to hide himself and to say^ 
Claudius non est deus, ' Claudius is not a god.' 

2. Because God, when man was fallen and had undone 
himself, made him garments, shewed him how to dress the 
earth which by the influence of heaven should yield him 
food, and gave him the use of the rest of the creatures, and 
thus was an help and stay to man, and man cannot stand 

■ [Vid. Plutarch, Vit. Akxandri, vol. iv. p. 58.] 

Whether there be a God. 23 

without Him, therefore the devil persuadeth by a false con- chap. 
version that of what man or thing soever we receive any good, ^^' 
that is our god; so saith the philosopher, to Tpi<f>ov deo? 
ioTi^y quod nutrii Deus est, ^ that which nourisheth us is God/ 
And this is polytheism, to have many gods, or more gods 
than one. 

8. Because among so many gods there was no true God, 
it came in question whether there were a Gx>d or not, and so 
came atheism, to deny that God is. 

4. The end why the devil doth all this is that they should 
worship him; so did Julian the apostate; and so by con- 
juration the devil worketh feats and maketh men believe 
that he is a god, and so they worship him. 

But our drift is most especially against the third of these^ 

Account of atheism. 

They that stand in defence of atheism set down these five 

that there was a time when men wandered like beasts ; 

after wandering they came into society ; 

they ordained laws imto themselves to preserve their 
estate ; 

these laws were not able to bridle them ; 

by that mean they invented that there was an hciucov 
SfifM, * a just eye,' to see them even in secret, so that 
by this invention they might be afraid to do evil. 

This is that which the atheists say for themselves. ^ 

The theory false. 

But all these are taken away by this, that laws were not 
before religion, but on the contrary religion long before laws; 
for in Homer's time they had religion, though they had no 
laws; and it is manifest that laws came into the world a 
thousand years after religion, to tame those brutish men 
which like horses and mules would not be tamed by religion. 

But more particularly against theses and first, that religion 
is no vain invention. 

I. The universality of the persuasion of God in all 

Whether there be a God. 

PART nations and all places, provetL it, in as mach as there is 

: history which sheweth the manners of any people, but it J 

shewcth aUo tlieir religion ; yea all both new and ancient T 
commonwealths had always something which they wor- j 
shipped and called in their language God. 

2. If it be here said that one nation received religion of | 
another, that is also an argument against them ; for they are 
BO far from taking it one from another, that there is as great 
variety herein as may be, even of those that are borderers one 
to another; some worshipping invisible things, some visible, i 
the heavens and elements; yea, some a red clout hanging on I 
a pole, and some that which they met first in a morning. 

3. Falsehood claims no kindred of time, but truth only ii I 
time's daughter; therefore every thing that is besides truth, 
by invention or whatsoever, will be worn out ; but religion ' 
was, isj and shall be perpetual; therefore no invention of J 

4. If it be here said that religion continueth ao long 
because it is so necessary to keep men in awe, that is also 
another argument against them. For falsehood and truth 
cannot agree ; and they dare not say that policy is a feigned 
thing ; and therefore if religion do uphold policy, it must 
needs be true and not feigned, for truth needs not falsehood 
to maintain it. And that religion upholdeth all policies and all 
commonwealths, we may see plainly; for take away rehgion, 
and take away, — first faith, that one shall not trust another ; 
secondly, temperance, that concupiscences shall not be bridled; 
and thirdly, submission to governors ; — and where would then 
the commonwealth be? 

Ifotv it arose. 

Now secondly, we can shew against atheism the person, the 
time, and the place of forging of it. For Ham the youngest 
son of Noah, whom the heathen sometimes nominate, after 
he had the curse of God and of his father, he first took 
stomach against God, and began this atheism, to deny God) 
in Egypt, in anno mundi 1950, as Josephus reportcth ; and 
secondly, seeing he was deprived of all joy of the life to come, 
he gave himself to all sensuality and to witchcraft, and so to 
the devil. 

Whether there be a God. 25 

So that in him we see these two causes of atheism ; first, CHAP. 

a stomach, and desire to revenge ; and secondly, sensuality ; '- — 

which come of the two parts of our mind, Ov^io^ and hnr- 
Ovfila, understanding and will. 

1. For the first of these ; stomach we may see in Diagoras% 
who, as Diodorus Siculus reporteth, having written a book of 
verses and made it ready to be set forth to his commendation, 
was by stealth deprived of it ; and when he had called him 
that had stolen it before the senate of Athens, he sware that 
he did it not, and so was quit, and afterwards set the book 
out in his own name; which when Diagoras saw, and that he 
was not presently stricken with a thunderbolt, he became an 
atheist. The reasons of Diagoras are very frivolous, and such 
as in that great confuting world none would vouchsafe to 
answer ; for thus he reasoned ; Saturn, Mars, Juno, &c. are 
no gods, therefore there is no God at all ; as if he should 
argue. Many seem to be good scholars which are not so, 
therefore there are no good scholars at all. — Likewise it is 
testified^ of Porphyry and Lucian, which at the first were 
christians, and receiving injury by the church, the one by 
words, the other by blows, in a spite and stomach against 
the church, became atheists. 

2. For the second, which is sensuality ; Epicurus himself 
and Lucretius*^ say that they have an excellent benefit hereby 
that become brutish, and think that the soul is not eternal 
or immortal. 

But the very heathen confute them here. 

a. For the first, in things which are corrupted, corruption 
taketh hold both of the thing itself and of that whereby it 
liveth, both at once; but in ages when the body is most 
weak, the mind is most strong, and therefore eternal. 

/3. Secondly, the soul, the more it separateth itself from 
the body, the more perfect it is, as in temperance, justice, 
learning, and other virtues; and therefore in the greatest 
separation, namely, after death, it shall be most perfect. 

7. Thirdly, the soul is the subject of truth, which is 

• rSuidai, art Diagoras, p. 933.1 p. 88. D.] 

^ [Niccphorus, lib. x. cap. 36. vol ii. « [Lib. iii. IC. et passim] 

26 Whether there be a God. 

PART And thus we see that atheism may be referred to these two 
^' causes^ stomachy and sensuality. As Arcesilaus**, seeing "the 
way to knowledge to be hard^ yet because he would needs be 
a philosopher, denied that there was any knowledge^ so these 
atheists, seeing it is somewhat painful to live a religious life, 
say that there is no religion. 

The doctrine false : shetan first, a priori. 

Now to shew there is a God. 

1. The reason of the philosophers is manifest to prove that 
there is a God, namely, that there is a first mover and a first 
cause of all ; for if this were not so, there should be before 
every mover, another mover, and so in infinitum. And if the 
causes were infinite, they should either have infinite motion 
and so infinite time, or else infinite things should move in 
finite time, both which were absurd. As also seeing the 
inferior thing moved doth not move without a superior 
mover, if there were not a supreme and first mover of all, 
there would not be at all any effect or motion of these in- 
ferior things. 

2. The second reason to prove that there is a God, is from 
the spiritual nature of man ; for there is in man a spirit set 
upon mischief to do hurt both to body and goods, which 
would have destroyed all before this time if there had not 
been a superior power to resist this evil, and that is Orod. 

3. A third reason is from the frame of the world, and 
from thence many reasons may be gathered. 

a. Though we dig long before we come to the head of a 
spring or the root of a tree, yet we know the spring hath a 
head and the tree hath a root ; so we may think that the 
world had a beginning, as we see in the figure of it ; and 
Damascene* reasoned very demonstratively that it had a 
beginning, because it is always in alteration and change. 

13. The agreement of so many divers things sheweth that 
of necessity there must be some modulator of such a har- 

* [Cic. Acad. i. 12. vol ii. p. 75; * [De fid. orthod., lib, i. cap. 3. 

Bnicker. Hist PhiL, vol. i. p. 746; vol. L p. 126 A.] 
Bayle, art Arcesilaus.] 

Whether there be a God. 27 

7. Experience teacheth ns that all things in the world had CHAP. 

a beginning ; as commonwealths^ laws^ learning, &c. Dio- '. 

dorus saith, that laws came from the Jews and common- 
wealths from the Chaldeans, &c. 

S. Pliny's whole Natural History was written to this end, 
to shew that all things had a beginning. 

Object, 1. And for that which they say against this, 
that ew nihilo nihil fit, ^of nothing can be made nothing/ 
Ans. We answer, there is alia conditio rei dumfit, alia 
factm; nutritur quisque in conceptu per umbUicum, post 
conceptum per os, ' the condition of a thing in the making, 
and of it made, is different ; we are nourished in the 
womb by the navel, after our birth by the mouth / in 
generation it is so, but before generation it was not so. 

Object, 2. And for that they say we cannot tell 
whether the motus or movens were prior, ^ the motion or 
mover were first -/ 

Ans. No more can we tell in this sensible thing of 
the systole and diastole, ^the rising and falling of our 
pulse,' which was first ; yet we know that this pulse had 
a beginning from the heart, so both motum et movens, 
' that which moves and the mover,' from God. 
So then there was a beginning ; 

And if there were, it was either by chance, nature, or God. 

First, not by chance ; proved thus ; 

a. If a man should see but a cottage or stye in a desert, 
he would conceive there had been a builder ; and if a man 
should spy a triangle, as Aristippus did, he would say some- 
body had made it. For so in common talk we attribute no 
generation or effect to chance, but corruption and mishap we 
call mischance ; as when we say such a house was burnt by 
fire, we call it a mischance. 

fi. If it were by chance, then there should be no order; 
but in the world there is an excellent order and harmony, 
yea, no confusion, except it be in the corrupt actions of men. 

Secondly, not by nature, as appeareth thus ; 

a. By nature we understand the continual course of all 
things; now if all things should have their beginning by 
nature, then they should bring a natural reason of all things; 

28 Whether there be a God. 

PART but that can they not do, as of the ebbing and the flowing of 

■ the sea, of the colours in the rainbow, of the strength of the 

nether chap, and of the heat in the stomach, which con- 
sumeth all other things and yet not the parts about it. 

/3. The virtues they make not all natural, but are fain to 
make some heroical to come from God. 

7. If nature were the first and chief cause of all things, 
then nothing should be done against nature; but we see 
things fall out contrary to nature, as the sun to have an 
eclipse in the full of the moon, and such like. 

Thirdly, seeing neither by chance nor nature, it followeth 
therefore that all things had their beginning from God. 

Sheum, secondly, from things unthout us. 

Which we prove also further thus ; 

1. All the prophecies shew the same. And these prophecies 
we see to be marvellous, if we mark them ; Isa. xlv. 1, of 
Cyrus, a hundred years before Cyrus was bom; — 1 Kings 
xiii. 2j of the birth of Josias, three hundred years before it 
came to pass; — Josh. vi. 26, the building of Jericho, five 
hundred years before it was re-edified ; and fulfilled, 1 Kings 
xvi. 34. 

2. Also the power and art in the creation shew plainly 
that it was of God, Acts xvii. 27. And even them whom 
miracles would not move, have the least things of all made 
astonished and confoimded, and forced them to confess God's 
power ; as Pliny wonders at the gnat so small a creature yet 
making so great a buzzing, and so also at the butterfly ; so 
Gulen^, when he had profanely written of the excellent parts 
of man, when he came to one of the least, stood astonished^ 
and is compelled to name Gt)d. 

And thus by those things which are without us we may 
see that there is a God. 

Sheum, thirdly, from things within us. 
Now also by those things which are within us. 

1. From our souls. 
We have an immortal soul, as we proved before; then 

' [Lib. iu. cap. 10. vol iii. p. 237.] 

IVheiher there be a God. 29 

this soul must either be the cause of itself^ or have some CHAP, 
other cause. '- — 

Of itself it is not the cause ; for, 

a. we know not ourselves, neither our own parts, no not 
by anatomy, and therefore we cannot be the cause of our- 

/9. our parents know not what they begot or conceived, 
and the cause being reasonable must know the effect ; 

7. we are not able to command the parts, nor to stay in 
ourselves the natural motion in the pulses, and therefore we 
must of necessity have a cause; and there is none in the 
world that hath reason, but man, and none above reason, but 

Therefore as Aratus his poem is. Acts xvii, " we are His 
generation,'* and Rom. i. 19, "that which may be known of 
Grod, is seen in His creatures." 

2. From principles of truth therein. 

In our souls are principles of infallible and demonstra- 
tive truth ; as to honour our parents, to do as we would be 
done to, to defend ourselves, to keep promise, &c. ; which 
principles hold with all men, unless they be horribly profane. 
Amongst which principles this is one, that there is a God, 
and that Grod ought to be worshipped ; and howsoever other 
of these principles fail, yet this never faileth, for though men 
be never so much bent to other wickedness, yet before they 
be utter atheists, they wiU worship some one thing or other 
as Ood. 

How it comeih that there are atheists. 
Quest. If it be questioned here, how then cometh it that 
there are some atheists ? 

First, we may answer with Seneca, mentiuntur qui dicunt se 
non sentire esse Deum, nam et si tibi affirmant interdiu, noctu 
tamen et sibi dubitant, ^ they lie that say they think there is 
no God ; for though they affirm it to thee in the day time, 
yet they doubt of it in the night with themselves.' 

Secondly, it is true that a man may harden his own heart 
much, and proceed in great perverseness ; and indeed some 
make their hearts fat, and are sick with the pleasures of the 

30 Whether there be a God. 

PART world; yet whatsoever he be, if God put His bridle into his 

'■ mouthy those sparks and notions that God hath put into 

every man's soul will break forth^ and the darkness shall not 
always be able to obscure the light; as if Gt>d vex them 
with any of these three ; 

a. firsts with trouble, as in ^schylus his tragedy called 
[▼. 4S9 Persae^ when they must needs fall into the hands of the 
^^'^ enemy unless they be holpen, then though they were never 
so evil, they would down on their knees and pray to God ; 

/3. secondly, with sickness, as a philosopher and an atheist 
called Diogenes being afflicted with sickness and pain of the 
strangullion^ detested his opinion ; 
[vol. vi. 7. thirdly, with age ; so Cephalus in Plato, De Bepub. i., 

p. 270.] '^^ YniA age said to Socrates, whilst he was a young man he 
never thought there were any Stjrx, but now in his old age 
he became to doubt. What if there be one ? — So that these 
three things do make the most wicked to confess God. 

3. From the distinction of good and evil. 

By the distinction of good and evil. We see, Gren. ix. 
22, Ham could perceive it was not good to lie as his father 
did naked ; — G^n. xiv. 21, the Sodomites would recompense 
good for good ; — so Gen. xxvii. 41, though Esau will kill, yet 
not whilst his father lived; — so 2 Sam. xvi. 17, Absalom though 
he were in war against his father yet he could rebuke un- 
kindness towards a friend. So then when the most evil 
would seem good, and being very evil in themselves, yet 
rebuke evil in another, this is really to distinguish between 
good and evil. Now there must be a ground of this distinc- 
tion ; and it is not of man, as Pyrrho would have it, for then 
every thing at man's appointment should be good or evil; 
and therefore the ground of this distinction must be from a 
higher nature, and that is God. 

4. From our conscience. 

Also we may see there is a God by our conscience, 
God's deputy ; else why should the wicked be troubled in 
conscience if there be not a God ? 

Obfect. If any say they are thus troubled lest they should 
be revealed, and so the law should take hold of them ; 


Whether there be a God. 31 

Ans, Let them do some heinous deed in the wilderness CHAP, 

where none seeth them^ yet they will never be quiet, but the ^^' 

conscience will beat and whip the soul ; yea, they will tell it 
themselves either in sleep or in madness, or at least they will 
be afraid that the bird in the air will tell it ; and their worm 
never dieth; Esay Ixvi. 24, "their worm shall not die, 
neither shall their fire be quenched/' 

5. From deaths of atheists. 

To conclude this point, this may be a manifest argu- 
ment to prove that there is a God, that even they which have 
denied Him in their lives have approved Him in their death ; 

a. Pherecydes* an Assyrian being merrily disposed at a 
banquet amongst his friends, bragged how long he had lived 
and had never done sacrifice to any god; but his end was 
miserable, for he was devoured of lice ; 

/3. Diagoras^ for his damnable opinions was the cause of 
the destruction of the whole country of Melos, for revenge of 
his atheism ; 

7. Julian* the apostate being shot in the bowels with an 
arrow as he was in battle against the Persians, pulled out 
the arrow, and receiving the blood as it gushed out into his 
hand, cast it into the air crying, Vicisti GalilcBe, ' Thou hast 
overcome me, O thou Galilean,' and so died blaspheming ; 

S. Lucian^ going to supper abroad left his hounds fast 
when he went, and as he returned home having railed 
against God and His word, his dogs fell mad and met him 
and tore him in pieces ; 

e. Apion* scoffing at religion and chiefly at circumcision, 
had an ulcer the same time and place, as Josephus reporteth; 

^. Machiavel rotted in the prison of Florence, as the 
Italians write. 

These and a number of atheists more, though they denied 
God in their lives, yet by their deaths they have approved 
that there is a God. And therefore as it was written on Ze- 
nachariVs tomb", efc c/x€ rt? opcuov eva-e/Sfj^ l<rra>, ^he that 

t [Diog. Laert, vol. i. p. 90. Jambl. ^ 

De Vit Pylhag.. p. 252.] * 

Suidas, col. 2338 A.] 

Cont Apion., lib. ii § 1 3. voL ii 

* rXhucyd., lib. vj p. 1374.] 

* [Theodoret. H. E.,lib. iil cap. 25. ■ [Herod. Euterp., cap. 141.] 

p. 143.] 

32 Whether God be a 

PART beholds mc, let him be religious and acknowledge Gt>d'8 
: — hand ;' so say we, let him that looketh on the death of these 

men learn to be godly, learn to acknowledge that there is a 


And thus much of that first point against the atheist. 




The SECOND point is, that He hath regard and is a re- 
warder of good and evil. — For we must not only know the 
essence and being of God, by which little glory cometh to 
Him, and less profit to us ; but we must also know His pro- 
vidence; and they which deny His providence are semi- 
atheists, as the Epicures, who though by the reasons of the 
heathen they confess there is a God, yet they deny His pro- 
vidence utterly, and therefore are half-atheists. 

§ 1. Opinions concerning providence. 

Of His providence there are four opinions ; 

1. That there is none at all, but that He doth as it were 
draw the heavens a curtain betwixt Him and us ; 

2. That there is a providence, but it is of general things 
not of particular ; 

3. That there is a providence, both of general and par- 
ticular things, but it is idle and not rewarding ; 

4. That there is a providence both of general and par- 
ticular things, which rewardeth good to the good and evil to 
the evil ; and this is the truth which we hold. 

Objections against a providence considered. 

For the first their reasons are three ; 

a. first, the adversity of the good and prosperity of the 
wicked ; for, say they, if there were any Pro\'idence, he would 
see that it should be bonis beni, malis mali, ' well with the 
good, ill with the wicked ;' 

/8. the abuse of gifts; for Providence would have given 

rewarder of good and evil. 33 

the use with the gifts^ or else would not have given so good chap 

gifts to them that should use them so ill ; '— 

7. the evil effects in natural and moral things ; and God 
would not suffer so much evil if He had any care or provi- 
dence over the affairs of men. 

For answer to the first. 

We must know there is no man absolutely good^ or abso- 
lutely evil ; but as the best have some evil, so the worst have 
some good; and therefore God will punish that evil which 
is in the good with temporal punishments, and give temporal 
blessings to the evil for the good that is in them; that 
seeing all good must be rewarded with good and all evil 
with evil, the good of the good might have an everlasting 
reward of good, and so contrariwise the evil of the evil 
might have an everlasting reward of evil. 

For answer to the second. 

The same answer may serve against the second ; for as, if 
it had been only bonis bene, ^ well with the good,' the devil 
would have said, *'Doth Job serve Thee for nought?'' so 
here, if God had given to all the use with the gifts, the devil 
would have said, "Job can do no other but serve God, it 
is no praise to him :" but when some that are wicked have 
as good gift;s as the godly, and do notwithstanding abuse 
them, it taketh away this exception of Satan, and maketh 
much for the praise of the godly and the glory of Grod in 

For answer to the third. 

Those things which come so to pass, God hath no part in 
the doing of them ; for though the power that does them be 
from God, yet the power is in the soul, and the soul faulteth 
not, but the crooked body the instrument of the soul, God 
so permitting it. 

And of this permission of evil we have three reasons ; 

a. Gt)d permitteth evil, that is, the defect of good, per pri^ 
vationem gratia, ' by depriving men of His grace,' or else 
there would not be. 

34 Whether God be a 

PART firsts such perfect resemblance of chiefest good; nor 

— - — secondly, any variety of things by degrees, but only 

one good thing ; not 
thirdly, any order ; and ordo mater pads, ' order is 
the mother of peace/ 
13. Sundry virtues should be superfluous, as justice and 
fortitude ; and it were unseemly to make all the parts of a 
man's body of like dignity. 

y. That God should be loved in the highest degree ; nam 
bonum carendo magis quam fruendo cemitur, 'for good 
things are discerned rather by wanting them than by enjoy- 
ing them/ 

And generally, God permitteth evil that a greater good 
may come of it; as by the greatest evil and most wicked 
action that ever was, namely tlie betraying of Christ, came 
the greatest good to man, that is, salvation. 

§ 2. TTiat tliere is a general providence. 

Now to prove that there is a providence, and that not only 
in general but of particulars; and that not by nature or 
chance, but as it reacheth to every one, so it rewardeth good 
to the good and evil to the evil. 

For the first, general providence ; 

1. It is natural for every thing to have oTOfrffjv, 'a natural 
love,' toward that which it bringeth forth ; and all men call 
doTOfyyiav, 'want of natural love,' a vice; but there is no 
vice in God, and therefore aropyfj, ' a natural love,' and so 
a providence ; 

2. Things are yet daily in generation ; and no wise man 
leaveth oflf his work before he have finished it; therefore 
God is not without providence. 

And a particular providence. 

For the second, particular providence ; 

1. Aristotle ° saith, and so it is also proved by others, thai 
the sea is higher than the earth; and they can render no 
reason why it should be kept from overflowing the land, and 
therefore it is Gk>d's providence ; 

■ [Meteor., lib. I cap. 14. vol. I p. 852.] 


4 wad 



i rewarder of good and evil 36 

2. Plotinus® reasoneth from the plants which grow between chap. 
a fruitful and a barren ground, and shoot all their roots ^^^* 
towards the moist or fruitful soil; and so from the lilies, 
which shut themselves with the sun, lest they should receive 
evil and corrupt moisture in the night ; 

3. That there is a providence, David of the birds saith. 
The young ravens are fed of Gt>d, being forsaken of their 
dams, and left bare ; for out of their dung ariseth a worm 
which creepeth to their mouth and feedeth them. 

-a. rest in the day time when man goeth forth^ 

Psal. civ; 
p. are not so fruitful as the tame ; 
7. keep in holes and desert places, though they 
be desirous of prey. 
ra. know the place of their nourishment, as the 

5. All lamb her own dam; 
creatures < )3. distinguish their own nourishment ; 
living 7. avoid that which may hurt, as the lamb 

doth the wolf. 

6. Men love their own children, though they be never so 
crooked and untoward. 

7. The sudden cry of all things, quasi vox naturae clamantis 
ad dominum natures, ' as if the voice of nature did cry to the 
God of nature;' which comes at some sudden fear, as though 
there were no help but in God. 

And thus we see the providence of God in particulars ; of 
which Theodoret? wrote ten orations against those which 
thought providence to be as a clock whose plummets were 
wound up in the beginning and go ever after of their own 

§ 3. That providence is not by nature, or chance. 

For the third, that providence is not by nature, or by 

First, not by nature. 

1. Because the means work nothing of themselves, neither 
can bread nourish without the staff of bread, which Christ 
calleth the word of God ; and unless that be added to the 

* [EoiiMd. Yi. lib. 7. cap. 15. fin. p. >* [Vol. iv. p. 482, sqq.] 




IVhfther God be a 

ART bread wc shall decay, and, us Aggc i. 6, put our wages into a 

— bottomless bag. And this ia called by philosophers, infusion 

into nature; for wc sec the beat meats will not nourish 
some, nor the best complexion prolong life, without this 
infusion ; and therefore there is another cause beside nature, 
which is God's providence. 

2. Because we see the things brought to pass without the 
means ; as God created the light before the sun, that we 
might know that it dependeth not of the sun; so did He 
make the fruit with the seed in it. 

3. Because there are some effects, and some things done 
contrary to nature, and against nature : as Christ with clay 
healed the eyes, whereas the nature of clay is to put them 
out ; Elias mended the salt water with salt ; so the christians 
with meanness and siraplencss overcame the great and learned 

Secondly, not by chance. 

1. We see the contrary in that which they attribute most 
to chance; as in war, sora domina campi, 'chance is the 
lady governess of tlic field,' so tlie heathen and profane 
men were wont to say; but we christiiins know that God is 
a man of war, and fighteth for His servants and gives them 
victorj', or else for their sins and to humble them giveth them 
into their enemies' hands and maketh them lords over them. 
And the licathen themselves made their worthies, Diomedea, 
TJlyases, &c. prosperous by the assistance of some god ; and 
even in the heathen stories often there goeth a vow before 
war, and after the victory the performance. 

2. We see it in drawing of lots by the mariners, when it I 
fell upon Jonas. 

3. We see it in the chief chance, that is chance-medley; 
it is providence ; for Cnmbyacs'i lighting off his horse, after he j 
had been sliewing great cruelty to them of Athens, his sword j 
flew out of the scabbard and slew him, 

4. The philosophers call chance but a remotion of t 
cause ; and therefore providence cannot be ascribed toj 
chance or nature. 

- [Hen 

.. 66.] 



rewarder of good and evil, 87 

§ 4. That providence reacheth to every one. 

For the fourth, that providence reacheth to every one, and 

First, to every one, every individuum, 

1. Providence is a part of prudence, wliich is busied circa 
res practicas, ' about things tending to practice,' which are 
individua, 'particulars/ 

2. All the qualities of God are equal, but His power is 
over all, therefore also His providence ; and it is sure that 
His power reacheth to every thing, for virtutis est maximcB 
pertingere quam remotissima, ' it shews the greatest power to 
reach to things most remote/ 

3. It is better to have provided for every particular than 
if only for the general : and therefore is Mithridates'^ com- 
mended for calling all his soldiers by their particular names. 

And reward. 

Now for reward. Though we be bound to serve Him, yet 
the rather to move us He will reward us; and if any say 
He rewardeth some but not all. His rule is, dabo huic novis^ 
simo stout et tibi, ' I will give to this last as I give thee/ 

Thus much against the Epicure; that God hath regard^ 
and is a rewarder of good and evil. 



The THIRD point of the four general points is, that the 
scriptures are God^s word, and true; and so are not either 
the oracles or the miracles of the heathen or Turk. 

The ground for this is 1 Cor. viii. 6, 6, *' though there be 
many gods that are so called, yet to us but one God.^ 

r [Qu. Cyrus? vid. Val. Max., lib. date regibas," fol. 809.] 
▼iiL cap. S60, **De Cyro et Mithri< 




88 Whether the Scripttires 



And here 
note four'< 

''that the heathens which continue' 
in America and in the east isles 
and a great part of Tartary, ! „ . 

that the Turk, ^^^ ^^' 

that the Jews, 
that the christians, 
Of all which there is but one true and the rest false; 
and therefore let us have a care to apprehend the truth, 
and not to hang our religion on our country where we were 
brought up. 

§ 1. Of the way of the heathen. 

First for the way of the heathens. — ^They exceeded all 
men indeed in all wisdom philosophical, but wanted the true 
wisdom of godliness and true religion. 

I. Against their many gods S. Paul hath two arguments 
together in one place, proving that there must needs be 
but One, , 

1. i^ ov ra wdvra' He firom whom all things are, can be 
but One ; as we see, 

a. in superior things, so many motions from one, so 
many lights from one ; and 

/3, in inferior things, so many roots, so many mem- 
bers, so many streams, so many veins, all from one head; 

2. €49 hp ra irdvra, in quern omnia concurrunty ' to Whom 
all things tend;^ for there can be no mutual order nM M 
in uno conjunctus, ' unless it be united in one ;' and therefore 
one, and but one Ood. 

II. Pythagoras saith that there is an infinite power, or else 
our reason should exceed the Maker thereof. For what finite 
thing soever is, we can comprehend it ; and if the power be 
infinite, the subject wherein that power is must needs abo be 
infinite, or else adjunctum excederet capacitatem suijecti std, 
' the adjunct would exceed the bounds of his subject ;' and 
there can be but one infinite subject, and therefore but one 

III. If there be many, yea, or but two gods, and both 
omnipotent, then, as Lactantius' saith, they must be 

* [Div. Inst, lib. i. cap. 3. vol. i. p. 9, sqq.] 




be God's word. 39 

1. equals and f agreeing^ and so one superfluous; or CH Al 
then either (disagreeing^ and then all would be dissolved ; ^^' 


2. unequal, and then one would swallow up another. 

Testimonies against it, from heathens themselves. 

These reasons were not hidden from the heathen them- 
selves, for, 

a. Pythagoras^ bade his scholars search till they came to 
fwvdSa, that is ' unity,^ in everything. 

13, Aristotle hath his primum, ante quern nan sunt alia, 
' first, before whom nothing was / and that there is primum 
exprimis, the ' first of all first/ that is, God. 

y. Zeno hath this saying, dicite plures et dicite nullum, 
'say there be more gods, and say there be none at all/ so 
polytheism is next to atheism. 

8, Plato" in his epistle to Dionysius warneth him to mark 
that when he beginneth to write of a certain truth, he be- 
ginneth with 0€o^, ' God,' but when he writeth that which is 
doubtful, he begins with 0€ol, ' gods / and so partly for fear 
and partly for love, that they would not trouble the com- 
monwealth, they dissembled the truth. 

€. Sophocles^ saith, eU 6 Oeb^, vnus est deus, 'there is one 

AugustineT De dv. Dei, lib. iv. cap. 24, saith that some 
excuse the heathen, and say that they gave their gods those 
names which they had, only to shew their effects, and not 
as having any such conceit that they were gods indeed; 
which if it were so, then it seemeth in their own consciences 
they were convicted that there was but one true God. 

§ 2. In particular, of the heathen gods. 

To come more particularly to the heathen gods. 

1. They commanded images to be erected to them, and 
/ told the fashion that they were of, as Porphyrins saith ; but 

no infinite thing can be resembled by any shape, therefore 
they were not infinite, and so no gods. 

•[Biucker. HisL Phil., vol. i. p. * [Euseb.Prap. evang.,lib. xiii.cap. 
1049.1 13. p. 680.] 

■ [Ep. xiii. ad fin. vol. ix. p. ISti] r [Vol. vij. col. 106.] 


by < 

40 Whether the Scriptures 

PART. 2. They forbid nothing but outward things^ therefore are 
h men and no gods. 

3. They challenge but some particular honour^ as Origen 
saith, some for medicine, some for wisdom, some for war, &c.; 
but God is universal and to be universally honoured, there- 
fore they were no gods. 

4. As Cyril said against Julian', (which made Julian to 
. stagger,) the sin of the body defileth the soul; now their 

religion was only in ofifering frankincense and such outward 
oblations, and therefore could not cleanse the soul. 

5. Their manners, parents, and birth is set down 
poets, Hesiod; 

philosophers, Tullius De naiurd deorum ; 
Cyril against Julian ; 
Augustine De civitate Dei ; 
Eusebius De prceparatione evangelicd ; 
Cyprian De vaniiate idolorum. 

And Alexander'^ having private talk with Leo a priest of the 
Egyptians, was by him certified that the Grecians had their 
gods from the Egyptians, and Romans from the Grecians, or 
else from Asia by Egypt, and that the Egyptians could in 
their chronicle shew their progeny, as Hermes Trismegistus. 

6. They were not only men, but wicked men, yea and some 
of them harlots, as we may see in Eusebius De prteparaiione 
evangelicd; Cyril; Josephus In Apionem; Athanasius; Ter- 

7. They not only worshipped men, and wicked men, but 
even beasts also. 

OftJie worship of men. 

Quest, And if it be asked, how came men to be worshipped? 
and more, how came they to worship beasts ? 

Ans. First, of the worship of men there are two causes. 

1. Because Cham had persuaded them that every thing that 
did them good was their god, and so they worshipped those 
that did deliver them either from peril, evil beasts, or evil 

» [c. g. lib ii. p. 45; lib. x. p. 338, vol. vii. col. 194; lib. xii. cap. 10. col. 
ft passim.] 309.] 

■ [Aug. Dc civ. Dei, lib. viii. cap. 5. * 


be GocPs word. 41 

2. Because as Porphyry, out of a writer not now extant, chap 

called Sanctonicanus, saith, Ninus^ having gotten renown by '— 

his father, set up an image to remember him after he was 
dead; and that his memory should be the more famous, he 
made to it a sanctuary, that whoso fled to it were saved, 
what evil soever they had done. And therefore many that 
would flatter Ninus, and seem thankful, appointed a day in 
the year to meet at it and to be merry, and so it grew after- 
wards to be worshipped. 

And of beasts. 

Secondly for the worship of beasts. — Plutarch* speaking of 
Isis and Osiris, saith that Osiris, that he might the better 
govern the people, set up signs at the places of division, as 
he divided them, and gave to some a dog, to some an ox, to 
some a clod, to some a crocodile, for a sign ; and afterward 
forgetting to what end those signs were set up, they wor- 
shipped the signs ; he that lived by the ox, worshipped it, he 
that lived by the water, worshipped the crocodile, &c. 

Of the miracles and oracles of ike heathen gods. 

Quest. Here also may be asked how they came to work 
miracles, and to give oracles as they did use to do ? 

Ans. First, for miracles; true miracles do always profit, 
as the healing of the blind or lame ; but they did none such, 
neither could the magicians do any such, and therefore their 
miracles were not true miracles. 

Secondly, for oracles; they spake not, but the devils in 
them ; and if they gave any answers, they were as oft;en fabe 
as true, and always ambiguous, as Eusebius saith, no more 
than a politic man may conjecture by the good or evil dispo- 
sition of the cause. 

But more plainly to prove that they were devils, in their 
cruelty they would desire men to be offered unto them ; and 
when they were more mild they would have stage-plays, and 

^ [Vid. Hieron. in Ezech. xxiii., vol. col. 33; Cyril, cont Julian., lib. iii. ad 
iii. col. S56; in Osec ii. col. 1251; fin. vol. vi. p. 110.] 
Ambroa. in Rom. i. 23, vol. ii. append. ^ [Vol. vil p. 492, sqq.J 


:h his chance fl 

W^Mw /A« Scriptures 

' specially that wherein were gladiators, iii which 
_ waa counted the best that could kill the other. 
Thus much against the way of the heathen. 

§ 3. Oft/ie way of Ike Turk. 

The second way is that of the Turk, who doth substitute 
Mahomet, aud will not have Christ, because they think Him 
not to be the last prophet ; and therefore they follow alto- 
gether a religion devised by Mahomet. 

Against Mahomet's doctrine j 

1. It must not be disputed of, whereas truth loveth trial ; 
and to set down that for a rule is as much as if he should 
say, It is good money, but weigh it not. 

2. It hath fables and false tales in it, as Andreas Maurus*', 
a Saracen, and bishop there, noteth nine hundred untruths in 
the Alcoran; whereof two in the eighth section axe very gross; 
one, that Abrara was the son of Lazarus; the other, that 
Mary the mother of Christ was the sister of Aaron'; which 
are both, as all the rest, manifest nntrutha. 

3. In that everything in it is sensible; as sect. xvi. Ma- 
homet himself said he felt the hand of God seventy times 
colder thau ice; and that one angel had seventy thousand 
heads'; and that the devil is circumcised, and such like. 

4. The promises in it are carnal pleasure, fit for nobody 
but Heliogabalua, cap. xxxv., hi., and hv. 

5. The precepts which are in the Ixv. chapter of the 
Alcoran are indulgent to perjury; and cap. sliii., impium 
non vlcisci, 'it is impious not to revenge a wrong;' and that 
they may have many wives; also they favour adultery; a 
man may have four wives and five concubines, cap. xxiii. ; 
none must be accused under four witnesses ; also they allow 
men to couple themselves with beasts, and to spoil one 
another's goods. 

6. The miracles which he preteudeth, had no 'witness, 
nor any possibility of truth ; as, that an angel when he was 
B child opened his heart, and took out that lump of blood 

1. Hlfi.] 

["ConfuHO Stew M.hon,cton 

«?, Lmd. 1734. 

-111111- Andrea. Mfluro," &c.] 

' [Ul BUp 

[Ul.iip.p. 51. Salt, p. a.^1.4 

be Go(Ps word, 4S 

which is the cause of sin : as though the cause thereof were CHAP, 
not spiritual. -£^ 

7. The means of propagation of his kingdom^ cap. xv., 
was by the sword and by compulsion; whereas the truth 
doth draw men of their own accord. 

8. Lastly, the effects, perjury, murder, &c. * 
Therefore Mahomet with his doctrine is false 4ind to be 


§4. Of the way of the Jews. 

The third way is the way of the Jews. 
The contentions between the Jews and us are concerning 
Christ, whom they deny, and we profess. 

The Jews hold the Old testament for true, and also certain 
of their own writers ; therefore from hence we draw some 
arguments against them. 

And herein the Jews hold three errors concerning Christ ; 
that the Messias shall have a princely court at 

Jerusalem ; 
that Christ is not that Messias ; 
that that Messias is yet to come. 

Against their first error, 

1. Esay liii. 6, ^'upon Him was laid the iniquity of 

Psalm xxii. 16 — 18, "they pierced My hands and My 
feet,'' &c. ; ''they part My garments among them, 
and cast lot« upon My vesture /' 
Dan. ix. 26, '' the Messias shall be slain,'' &c. ; 
Zach. ix. 9, ''rejoice, O daughter Jerusalem, behold 
thy King comcth unto thee," &c. 
Out of these places the chaldee paraphrase, Rabbi Jona- 
than, R. Simeon, B. Moses of Nisa, B. Hatzadok, and all the 
ancient rabbins, might and did gather that Christ should be 
such a one as these places describe Him; and therefore in 
the gospel they sent unto John a poor man, saying, "art 
thou He, or shall we look for another?" 

2. In Agge ii. 8, "the expectation of the gentiles." But 
if He be a king of the Jews only, the gentiles would not look 
for Him^ for it is against nature to desire a stranger to be 

H''/ielher the Sar'ipturcs 


lie. frnm amnnit ■ 

their king; and forbidden, Deut. xvii. 15, "one from among 
^ thy brethren ahalt thou set king over thee ; thou mayeat not 
act a stranger over thee, which ia not thy brother." 

3. The Messias must bring felicity to all men; but how 
should an earthly king profit Abraham, or the dead ? and if 
the dead sliould rise again, all Jerusalem were not able to 
hold them. 

Agaiiisf their second error. 

1. Gen. xlix. 10, Jacob's prophecy that the sceptre should 
not depart from Judah nor a law-giver from between his 
feet, nntil Shiloh come; but it wae then departed when 
Christ came; therefore Christ is that Shiloh or Mesaias. — 
The sceptre was in Judah till the captivity; and in the 
captivity they had one of their brethren called the king of 
captivity ; and after the captivity it continneth till Aria- 
tobulus and Hyrcanus, ivho striving for it were both dia- 
possessed, and Herod an Idumcan placed in their room ; and 
then came Christ, as was prophesied. 

Object. The Maccabees were of the tribe of Levi, not of 

Atisw. The prophecy la divided, that there shall be a king 
or law-giver till Christ, and Simeon Justus was the last of 
the levites. — And if they understand tlie prophecy of the 
tribe in geuerid, that the tribe shall last in Judah till Chriat, 
by reaaon of the word ozv^ we see that after Clirist came, and 
after the diapersing of the Jews, there neither was nor ia any 
tribe, but they are all mingled one with another; the em- 
perors labouring still to root out the Jews, and especially that 
tribe, and so made them to confound the genealogies. 

2. Dan. is. 2-1, seventy weeks, which are four hundred and 
ninety yeara, ended at our Saviour'a death. 

3. Agge ii. 9, "the glory of the second temple shall be 
greater than the glory of the first;" and how should that be 
without the Messias ? for the Brst was far more glorious 
outwardly than the second. 

And we see in their Talmud, chap, iii., 

1. The diaciples of Hillel?, seeing the firat seven wceksj 

« [Pelr, GdUL, Ub. iv, cap. 10. inil,] 

be God? 8 word, 45 

Dan. ix. 24, fall out so justly, looked for the coming of the CHAP. 
Saviour in those days, being long before the full due time, '- — 

because they read in Esay that the Lord would shorten those 

2. Esay ix. 7, nniD? with D final, themselves took for a 
great mystery, and that D in that place signifieth six 
hundred, for six hundred years between Christ and Esay. 

To the which arguments we may add, 

1. The continual sending to and fro of the Jews to John 
baptist, which is a manifest token of their looking for Christ 
at that time. 

2. The great company of false Christs and deceivers, more 
at that time than ever before or since, either eight or ten, 
as Josephus witnesseth in his sixteenth, seventeenth, and 
eighteenth books, Judas, Theudas, Galonites, Athronges, &c.; 
insomuch that there were four hundred drowned at once 
following Bar Cosba the younger, whom all the rabbins, 
excepting one, confessed to be Christ. 

3. Suidas mentioned out of Theodosius a noble Jew, that [Col. 
before Christ did rebuke the scribes, they marvelling at His ^ 
wise answers and questions, made Him one of the priests, and 
entered His name 'Iiyo-oO? 6 vto9 Qeov koX Mapia^, 'Jesus 

the son of God and of Mary,' otherwise He being of the 
tribe of Judah could not have been suflfered to preach at 
Nazareth, Luke iv. ; at Capernaum, Math. xi. 23. 

4. The destruction of the second temple, which could not 
be before Christ ; Luke xix. 43, " the days shall come upon 
thee that thine enemies,'* &c. 

5. The desolation of the Jews, prophesied Amos ii. 6, and 
Zach. xii. 2, 3 ; and we see how Vespasian offered them peace, 
and they would not; which made the first breach; — secondly, 
he brake into their city at Cedron, where they took Christ ; — 
thirdly, on the same feast day that Christ was taken; — 
fourthly, he whipped them where they whipped Christ; — 
fifthly, he sold twenty Jews for a penny, as they sold Christ 
for thirty pence. So that he must needs be the Messias, for 
the selling and crucifying of whom they were so handled. 

^^" PART 

ffliether our religion 

Against their third en-or. 
The arguments that proved Chriat to be the Messias prove 
also that He is not yet to come. 
Yet we may see out of themselves; 

1. Thej could not biiild tlie temple at the emperor 
Julian's commandment, for fire flying out of the earth ''. 

2. They have been deceived iu the prefixing of times; in- 
somuch as now, whereas the mean Jews were wont to hire 
the scribes and rabbins to teach them, now the rabbins 
are glad to hire them to hear them. 

3. Tliere is now no Bethlehem where He should be bom, 

4. Themselves confess that He was born before the de- 
struction of the second temple, but they say He lieth yet 
hid; but that is confuted by Augustine. 

5. They say the world must last but six thousand years; 
two thousand before the Law, two thousand under the Law 
till Christ, and two thousand after Christ under grace ; and 
there are past already live thousand and some odd liundreda, 
and therefore their espectatiou of Chriat yet to come ia now 
vain, and their religion false and erroneous. 

Thus much against the way of the Heathen, Turk, Jew. 



The fourth way ia the way of christians, or christian 
religion; which is all one with the fourth general point 
which is set down before, and therefore we will handle them 
both together, and therein prove that our rehgion is truly 
grounded iipon the word of God. 

The ground for this is 2 Pet. i. 19, "we have a most sure 
word of the prophets," &c. where the apostle teacheth us that 
we have the Law from God immediately, and all other scrip- 
ture by the ministry of men, but yet so as they spake nothing 
but that which the Spirit of God commanded them and in- 
spired into them, and therefore that which they delivered 
we must hold for a most sure and infallible truth. 

" [ChrjBogl. d* S. Bob. § 22. vol. ii. p. 57*.] 

be truly founded on God's word. 47 

§ 1. Of our religion, as the same with the Jews', CHAP. 
Now to prove that Christianity is true religion. ' — 

Shewn true,j7'om its antiquity. 

I. The ancienty of it ; for, 

a. seeing man must come to God, and religion is the 
way, it must needs be as ancient as man is, or else should 
man have been destitute at that time when he wanted 
religion; and, 

fi. this religion is copula relationis, 'the tie and bond 
of relation' between God and man, and therefore must be 
of the same continuance with the relata. Therefore Tertul- 
lian' Adversus htereticos saith prima sunt vera, 'the first things 
are true;' and the philosophers call prima entia verissima, 
quia ut verum est affectio entis, sic falsum non entis, ' things 
first existent are most true, for truth is an affection of being 
existent, as fabity of non-existency ;' nam falsum non potest 
subsistere in suo, quia non est, ergo subsistit in alieno, 'for 
falsity cannot subsist in its own, because it is not, and there- 
fore subsists in that is another's,' so that verum est prius, 
'truth is before it/ Now we say, 

7. that our religion is the same which the Jews had 
before Christ; for as the Law is nothing else but the old 
gospel, so the gospel nothing but the new Law; the Law 
evangelium reconditum, 'the gospel under veil,' the gospel 
fer revelata, 'the law unveiled;' and therefore our religion 
the same that the Jews had before Christ, and so the most 
ancient of all other religions. 

// is tlie parent of heathen religion, 
a. As for the heathen fables, it began with their gods Her- 
cules and iEneas, &c. about the Trojan war, which was after 
our religion three thousand years ; and Orpheus the first poet 
was after Moses eight hundred years, as Strabo^, Plutarch "*, 
and Diodorus Siculus^ testify. And the most ancient records 
of the heathen began in Solon's time, which was when Croesus 
was, which was in the time of Cyrus and Esdras ; and Herodo- 

> [De pnescript haer. passim., p. 202, ** [®* K* ^^ mus., vol. x. p. 654.1 

•qq.J * [Lib. i. cap. 94. voL i. p. 105.J 

' [Lib. zvi. vol. ii. p. 1103.] 


WTtelher our religion 

PART tua the most nncient of their writers bcginncth his story with 
— Crcesus, — Therefore what God soever they had, their wor- 
shipping of God came from the Jews, as the FrcnchTncn had 
their Pruids from the Romans, and the Romans from the 
Grecians, and the Grecians from Cecrops an Egyptian ; and 
so the Carthaginians from Cadmus a Phoenician ; and those 
two countries Egypt and Phosnicia, with the Mediterranean 
sea, do compass about Judea; so that all their religion came 
from the Jews. 

i8. So the wise men of Greece asking their gods whence 
that knowledge of arts should come, received this answer, fwvo^ 
7}S dpa XaKSaio^ a6if>oi- that is, solus uliijue Ckaldreus sapiens 
est, 'the Chaldean alone in this very regard is wise;' which 
^' apa uoteth some particular part of the Chaldeans, which 
is the Jews. So saith Orpheus "", when God was angry He 
destroyed all, and left it uni Chaldao. 

7. And Plato in hia Epimenidcs referreth all uni barbaro, 
' to the barbarian alone".' If we ask who this barbarus should 
be, the Egyptians call him "Theut",' which aignifieth 'a, 
stranger,' meaning Abraham ; for so Origen against Celsus', 
and Josephus against Apion, say plainly that when the 
heathen conjure they would say, per deum Abraham, ' by the 
god Abraham.' 

S. Likewise Phocylidesi his verses are plainly translated out 
of Moaea. And themselves say that Plato had hia wisdom 
from the Egyptiana. And Strabo saith that Pythagoras had 
conference in the mount Carracl, lib. xvi. Eusebius De 
prap. ecanij.' saith, that although Aristotle was never in 
Egypt, yet all his conference was with an Egyptian, aa 
Clcarchus a peripatctian testifieth of him. 

e. And it ia found that some of the Old testament was 
translated before the Seventy, and the old poets would have 
translated the .whole into greek, but that for strange visiona 
and sickness they durst not. 

f. So it appeareth that in every famous nation God had 

■n [EuMb. Prap. evang., lib. liii. 
up. 12. p. 66S.] 

• [Sw alio tlie expressions of Lhe 
pUtonJEt Ameliu* concerning St. John, 

' [See " Lin of edd." &e., e 

be.truly founded on God's word. 49 

ever some register; as in Egypt, Manetho'; in Chaldea, PART 

Berosus^; in Asia Minor, Abydenus**, &c. So Herodotus ' — - 

hath the story of Sennacherib'; the edict of Cyrus ^; all 
Daniel, though somewhat corruptly. 

i|. Josephus lib. xi*. as Augustine, lib. viii. De civ, Dei, 
saith, that Alexander being in Babylon would have the 
Jews to help to build a temple to the image Belus, and 
because they would not he went up to destroy them, but 
Jaddus being priest met him in his priest-like apparel, 
whom when Alexander saw he fell off his horse and wor- 
shipped, and told his nobles the cause, namely, that God 
which commanded him to conquer the earth appeared unto 
him in that shape. 

0. Also by the library of Ptolomy in Alexandria was the 
Jews' religion spread abroad. 

4. So Laertius' writeth that Epimenidcs being asked the 
cause of a great plague in Athens, answered that it was from 
a higher power, and that for the staying thereof they must 
sacrifice r^ ajyvdxrrtp 0€^, ' to the unknown god,' for so 
they entitled their altar, Acts xvii. 23. 

K. And the Romans called their temple which they built to 
Bacchus for victory, templum pads (sternum, ' the everlasting 
temple of peace,' because Delphos told them it should stand 
dum peperit virgo, ^ till a virgin brought forth a child,' but 
as soon as Christ was born it fell. 

And thus do the heathen prove the antiquity of our reli- 
gion and therefore the truth of it. 

Shewn true from other reasons. 

II. A second reason for the proof of Christianity, is the 
preservation of God's word, whereon our religion is grounded. 
Notwithstanding the Jews were hated, imprisoned, and 
contemned, yet not one tittle of this book perished ; whereas 
all other knowledge is corrupted and perished, though it have 
been much made of and greatly esteemed ; therefore this is 
the truth which we hold. 

• [Joseph, coiit. Apion., lib. i. § llr. 1 [Clio, ad fin.] 

Tol. ii. p. 1336.] ' [Ant. Jud., lib. xi. cap. 8. § 5. vol. 

» r IbuL, $ 19. p. 1 342.] i. p. 503 ; Orig. cont CcK, lib. v. § 50. 

■ [See rabricius, ed. Ilarles. art. vol. i. p. 616.] 

Abtidenmtf voL i. p. 197.] * [vol. i. p. SI.] 

* [Kuterp. 141.] 

50 Hlielher our religion 

III. The certainty of onr religion ; whereas all others are 
1, unpcrfcct, 2, contradicting one another, 

3, counterfeit, 4, full of question, 

ours is not so. 

1. Unperfect ; so are all other religions, going on by 
little and little, and so coining to what perfection they 
can; whereas God's law was once given, and then all, 
and therefore perfect at the first ; and so perfect as that 
nothing hath been added thereunto or may be detracted 
from the same, but only it hath been made more plain 
and open. 

2. Contradictory ; so are man's laws, and religions 
that are human; in men's laws there is yea, nay; but 
in God's laws, yea and amen, 3 Cor. i. 20. And the 
fathers by seven rules of contradictions have recon- 
ciled all that the malicious could object. 

3. Counterfeit ; insomuch that they have hidden their 
wisdom as much as they could ; but God hath shewed 
His to all that it might be seen ; yea, the christians 
have had it in their frontlets and in their guards, and 
such open places ; nay more, they have died for con- 
fession of the truth thereof. 

4. Questionful ; the latter writers correcting and des- 
canting upon the former ; but none of the prophets ever 
called in question that which other had said, but proved 
and strengthened it. 

IV. A fourth reason for the proof of Christianity is from 
the end of it. The end of other religions is, as an unregene- 
rate man's end in all his actions, only themselves ; but that 
religion which attributeth all to God, — "every good gift 
and every perfect gift is from above, and eometh down from 
the Father of hghts," Jam. i. 17, — is the true rehgion; but 
no religion except Christianity doth attribute all to God, but 
respect and seek man, either in whole or in part. 

V. The precepts in man's laws do neither command all 
good nor restrain all evil ; so the Athenians had their graca 
fides, 'gtccian fidelity,' and the Spartans, furtum gpar- 
tanum, 'the lacediemonian theft;' the seventh command- 
ment is wholly broken of them, and so the whole first table; _ 

be truly founded on GocPs word. 51 

but on the contrary this religion of ours both commandeth chap. 
all that is good and also restraineth all that is evil. — — — 

YI. The laws of men arc restrained according to the time^ 
place^ and person ; as the wise men answered the king that 
wonld have married his own sister^ that indeed there was a 
law that a man might not marry his own sister, but they 
found another law that the king might do what he would ; 
and 80 the king should have more liberty to sin than the 
subject. But the precepts of our religion are general to all 
alike ; so that to the king as well as to the subject we say 
as John baptist said to Herod, non licet tibi, ' it is not law- 
ful for thee/ 

VII. There is no religion but this that reacheth to the 
heart ; for except only this there is not one law that hath in 
it non concupisces, which puUcth out as it were the very core 
of sin. 

VIII. The Trinity, Creation, and Incarnation, the true 
metaphysics, are only in this, and only to be conceived and 
understood by this religion. 

IX. Not to hide the faults of our own father is unnatural, 
to cover the evil of our friends and country is natural ; there- 
fore that which plucketh out this course of nature must be a 
thing supernatural and above nature ; but Moses was con- 
tented to speak in discommendation of his own stock, and 
spared not his brother Aaron, nor his sister Miriam, no 
not his own self sinning at the waters of strife; therefore 
this is only the truth. 

X. AD other laws teach us to enlarge kingdoms and to 
be in favour with princes; but this our religion super- 
naturally teacheth us that live, to hate life. And so the 
prophets did not seek the favour of princes, but reproved 
them to their faces ; and therefore this is that truth which is 
not ashamed^ and is that truth which cannot proceed of 

XI. As God is a spirit, so His worship' must be spiritual ; 
and such is the religion that is described in the scriptures, 
without image or shadow; and as we reprehended other 
religions before for worshipping many gods and having 


Whether our religion 

PART many mediators; so here we say, they worship not oue God, 

— because their worship is not spiritual but corporeal; for God 

requireth the heart, and therefore the true religion which is 
of God must he spiritual ; but all other religions, as they 
proceed from man, so man himself being corporeal, the wor- 
ship that he prcscribeth must needs be corporeal, and there- 
fore not the true religion. 

XII. As we before reproved their miracles, so now in 
defence of our own miracles we say, 

a. they are not hidden, but are done before Pharoah and 
all his servants, Eiod. vii. 20; 

jS. also ours are fruitful and beneficial ; 

7. and lastly, they cannot be done by any of the magi- 
cians ; for what magician did ever part the sea or make 
the aun to stand or go back, or brought manna from 
heaven raining down ? 

XIII. As for our oracles, they are not flattering, no not 
to please the king, ipiXnnri^eiv, 'to say what king Philip 
would;' nor are they doubtful, as those of the heathen 
were; but whereas their prophecies come not to pass, ours do 
certainly come to pass, some oue hundred, some three 
hundred, some a thousand years after, as the enlarging 
of Japhet's tents. Gen. is. 27. 

And these reasons prove the truth of our religion jointly 
with the Jews'; so far as they held with us and did not 
depart from us, 

§ 2. Of our religion as different from the Jew^. 
Now follow proper reasons for the truth of Christianity. 

First, for the credit of the gospel. 

The witnesses thereof were the evangehsts and apostles. 
Now in every witness we note two things, skill, and honesty ; 
both which were in them ; 

1. for skill : — they write not by hear-say or report, but as 
St. John saith, 1 John i. 1, " that which we have seen and 
handled," and none durst ever write against them in their 
own times nor since ; 

be truly founded on God's word. 53 

2. for honesty; — it had been folly in them to lie for CHAP. 

nought ; as Tacitus ^ saith^ they testify best quibus nullum est '- — 

mendacii prcemium, 'who get no benefit by telling a lie;' and 
we know they had nothing for their labour, yea they lost 
their own lives for it. 

Secondly, for the story, I. of the birth of Christ. 

a, Sibylla ^ almost setteth down every action and circum- 
stance ; and by this many have been turned to Christianity, 
as Marcellinus and Secundanus. 

fi. And for this cause both Vespasian and Augustus would 
have destroyed all the Jews, but especially the tribe of 

7. And Rhodigin** and Volateran leave us this of credit, that 
there was an altar in Egypt that was dedicated virffini pari" 
tur<B, ' to the virgin bringing forth a child ;' like as that same 
templum pads, 'the temple of peace,' should stand, donee 
virgo peperit, ' until a virgin brought forth a child.' 

B. So doth also Postellus shew that there was another 
altar intitled ara primogenito Dei, ' an altar to the first bom 
son of God.' 

€. Also Augustus® understanding by the wise men that 
both he and all the people should worship one that was bom, 
would not be called dominus orbis terrarum, 'the lord of 
the whole world,' as he was before, but gave up that title. 

(f. Also for that in the day of His birth there appeared three 
suns ; but especially that of the star, whereof Pliny ^, lib. ii. 
cap. 25. witnesseth, calling it stella crinita sine crine, i. e. 
a comet ; but it was a plain star ; of which many meditating 
have turned to the truth, as Chseremon among the stoics, 
and Challadius among the platonists, who thereupon went to 
Jewry and became Jews. 

2. Of the death of Christ. 

a. The ancient Egyptians, when they write vitam ester* 
nam, 'everlasting life,* they write the sign of the cross, 
wherein howsoever they were directed, the mark was like 

*» [Hist, lib. iv. cap. 81.] « [vid. Sueton. Vit Octav., lib. ii. cap. 

« [Prapsert, lib. viii. p. 61, sqq.] 5S. vol. i. p. 178.] 
** [Lect antiq., lib. ix. cap. 19. col. ' [vol. i. p. 179.] 



Whether our religion 

IIT and agreeable to the action of Clirist's death upon the cross 
to purchase for us everlasting life. 

^. The universal eclipse and earthquake which was at that 
time tliat He died; for by uo natural causes can all the earth 
move, but it must have something to stay upon, confessed 
by Pliuy^ lib. ii. cap. 25, Phlegon Trallianus' Chronicle''. 
Neither is it by nature that the sun should be eclipsed the 
fourteenth day of the moon, when the moon was just at full, 
quite against the rules of astronomy. 

7, In the reign of Tiberius the falling of the oracles ; as 
Plutarch ' writeth, " there came a sound to the mariners that 
great Pan was dead;" which great Pan who it was, all the 
wise men could not tell; and Nicephorus^ reporteth that the 
oracle at Delphos said it was iraiti ifffHuoi, puer hebrteus, 
'an hebrew child.' 

S. Ambrose, Justin Martyr' , and Tertullian™, as Eusebins" 
saith, testify that Pilate himself did witness in a letter to the 
emperor Tiberius all these things of Christ Himself, His 
life, death, &c. 

Thus much for the credit of the gospel, and the story of 
His life and death. 

Thirdly, for the progress of Christianity. 

The greatest arguments for the proof of Christianity are 
drawn from the proceeding and going forward of Christianity, 
contrary to man's reason ; for, 

1, Whereas reason will have apt instruments to every 
action, and the matter well disposed to work upon ; 

a. there was no instrument more unapt than the twelve 
apostles, neither noble men nor learned, but poor simple 

^. BO the matter also to work upon, which was the world, 
was altogether unprepared j for we see both Jew and gentde 
hated the poor servants of Christ, the apostles ; Ulpian the 
chief lawyer, Galen the chief physician, Porphyry the chief 
aristotelian, and Plotinus the chief platonist, were utterly 
against them ; so was Libanius and Lucian, the chief scholaraj 


EuBib. Chmn., jh 7i-J 
'Da DTK. Men., vol. vii. 

' [Apol. 
m [Apol. C 

■ MS.]. 

p. 20 D.] 

be truly founded on God's word, 55 

Julian forbad® schools of religion, and the liberal arts, and CHAP 

made false dialogues between Christ and Peter to induce — 

youth to the hatred of Christianity; also they prepared for 
them and put them to great torments, insomuch that four 
thousand christians have been executed at once. — And though 
the instrument were so mean and so weak, and the matter so 
froward and stubborn to work on, yet we see how Christianity 
hath prevailed ; which is a great proof of the truth of it. 

2. The precepts of this religion are not as those of the 
Turk, whereof we heard before ; but here instead of revenge^ 
" love your enemies •/' instead of lust, " look not on a woman 
to lust after her -/' instead of covetousness, " be ready to part 
with and leave all -/' yea, it doth not allow us the least thought 
to use at our pleasure, non concupisces, ' thou shalt not covet/ 

8. The promises of our religion are not worldly pleasures, 
as other religions do promise, but contrary; ''they shall 
whip and scourge you; they shall bind and lead you whither 
you would not }'' iollnt quisque crucem, relinquat omnia, ' let 
each man take up his cross and leave all/' So that as one 
said. This is not (according to man's reason) to say, sequere 
me, 'follow me;' but rather, mane post me, 'tarry after 
me ;' and rather terrifying than inducing. And thus there- 
fore in this new regeneration there is a resemblance of the 
first creation ; for as there was all things of nothing, so here 
all things contrary to reason ; and nothing is set to confound 
something, that we may see it to be the finger of God. 

4. At the Turk's beginning there was in all the world 
idleness, palpable ignorance, and very few learned men, and 
so the more easily drawn to follow him; but when Christ 
began, and in the times presently after, the world was full 
of wise and learned men, as Paulinus, Clemens, Ambrose, 
Origen, Austin, &c. that were to be converted by simple men, 
that Grod might shew the power of His might above all. 

5. The conversions also to Christianity prove the truth of 
it. Paul before he was converted was a wise and learned 
man, in great reputation and in way of preferment, and 
especially then when he had received the greatest authority 

«' [Socr. H. E., lib. iii. cap. 12. p. 187.] 

Whether our r. 

ART and was made most strong against Christ; in so much as 

_L Porphyry saith, it was pity such a man should be bestowed 

upon our religion ; and yet then he was turned clean nuotlier 
way against that he was before, and was glad to tread many 
a hard step. So was Origen p, Ammonius' scholar, a magician, 
content to be a poor catechist in Alexandria, every day in 
fear of death, wlien he might have been with his fellow 
Plotinns in great authority and favour, if it had not been for 

6. Their conversions were not only strange, but likewise 
also there were never sueli true conversions as of those which 
were converted to Christianity; no such sound repentance, 
no Bucli true justice and fortitude, no such constancy in 
affliction, yea even to death, nor any such willingness to en- 
dure it, insomuch that it was a proverb amongst those that 
lived in those days, soli chiisliani mortis conlemplores, 
'christians only are willing to die;' which appeared well 
in the woman that ran to the fire, her child in her arms, lost 
the christians should be burned before she could get to thera 
to be burned with them. 

7. The miserable end of the persecutors of the christians, 
(Herod eaten with lice, Judas hanged himself, and all the 
emperors came to miserable ends,) saving Libanius that went 
to Basil and became a christian : whereupon TertuUian writ- 
ing to Scapula "i saith, si nobis non'parcis, tibi parce; si non 
tibi, Carthagini, 'if you will not forbear cruelty toward us, 
forbear it towards yourself; if not towards yourself, forbear it 
towards Carthage.' 

8. Tlie deiil's testimony against himself; all the art 
magic that ever they had could never call up Christ; 
Flotinua and Apollonius', and divers heathen that raised up 
the image of Jupiter and other heathen gods, did assay to 
bring up likewise the imago of Christ, but could not effect 
it; He is not subject to that power; nay, Julian' could not 
raise up the devil in that place where Babylas the martyr 
was burned at Antioch. 

!, Bq. lib. i. cap- », p. 170.] 

* be tnUy founded on God^s word. 57 

9. This religion of ours is that which feareth not the face CHAP. 

of man, but Christ must be confessed and professed before Yi — 

all men and at all times ; nay, it is not afraid of Styx nor all 
the Stygian lakes of hell, but hell itself quaketh and trem- 
bleth thereat. 

And therefore this is the supernatural, true, and the only 
true religion. 

§ 3. Of our religion as different from the Papists*. 

Now in the way of Christianity there is yet no diflference 
between the papists and us; let us therefore see wherein 
they and we diflfer. • 

Because they build themselves on the word of God, and so 
do we, but of a diverse meaning ; we must look therefore for 
a right way to the interpretation of the word. 

The question between us is of the means of interpretation. 

And this is the main question between them and us. Who 
have the true means to interpret ? 

They have the Fathers, Councils, the Church and the Pope. 
We have not so. But as it is 2 Pet. i. 20, the scripture is 
of no private interpretation ; so to make it plain what we 
hold, we will first lay down these three grounds ; — 

1. That as to the eunuch. Acts viii. 31, so much more 
to us there is need of an interpreter. 

2. That there is a certain and infallible interpretation; 
else if we were always uncertain, how should we build on the 

3. As we must take heed of private interpretation, not to 
distort the scriptures ; as Hilary saith, non afferre sensum ad 
scripturas, sed referre^ * not to devise a sense for scripture 
but to give it its proper sense;' so must we, as 1 Cor. 
xii. 10, hold, that God hath given the gift of interpretation, 
which gift is not given to any but those which are in the 
church, 1 Cor. ii. 10 — 14, and of those not to the common 
sort of every private man, but to the learned. And seeing it 
is, 1 Cor. xii. 11, singulis prout vult, 'to each man as God 
pleaseth,' it is not to be restrained to some one bishop, as 

IVheiher our reliffion 

the gross papists do. But Stapleton' when he had proved all 
that he could, yet at last he was fain to confess that God 
doth extraordinarily give this gift to others, as well to Amos 
a herdsman, as Jeremy a priest, lib. X. cap. 7. But Andra- 
dius" Iciined to the other aide, saying that the bishop must 
approve their gifts. 

Now for the sense of the word. It is well said in law, 
that apices juris non sunt Jus, ' each small quiddity of the 
law is not the law,' bo eay we, the letter is not the word 
of God, but the meaning, and that is it which we seek ; and 
for the meaning Thomas Aquinas' saith, 

1. in a matter of faith or manners we must take the 
literal sense ; 

2. for other things we may make a tropological sense ; 

3. there is but one true sense of one place ; 

4. that is it which the construction will give, if there 
follow no absurdity. ■ 

Now for the examination of the sense, because we must 
never look to stop their mouths, but they will still wrangle, 
we must therefore bring them to one of these; 

1. to that. Tit. iii. 11, "being condemned of himself;" to 
drive them to condemn themselves in their own heart ; 

2. because the devil bo bliudeth some that they will not 
understand, therefore the second thing wc must drive them 
to is that of the 3 Tim. iii. 9, that their avoui be e/c&jXof, 
their ' madness' be ' manifest.' 

Of our means of interpretation. 
The means for interpretation as we allege them, are sis. 

1. The first, wherein they and we a^ee, is prayer"; so saith 
Augustine, oratio poatulat, lectio inquirit, meditatio invenit, 
contemplalio dirigit, ' prayer requesteth, reading searcheth, 
meditation findeth, contemplation directs.' 

The second, third, and fourth^, are for the phrase of speech, 

2. Conference of places, Augustine De doclr. christ. lib. ii. 
. metLod., Quodl. vii. nrtt 14, IS, OiL up. ir. 

(. cap. 10. p. SSI. 

>. 87t, .qq.] 

' [Prir 

I. %. cap. 7. p. 87t, 

• [Defeni, Tridcn 

n, e. g, p. 2*6.] 

' [Summ. Hd. Pars i. qu. 1. ait. Ii 


• [StapUll . 

.. li. cap. 9. p. *18.] 

' [ibid. pp. 419— ts;.] 

be truLy founded on God's word, 59 

cap. 8'; the less plain must be referred to the more plain; cHAP. 
Acts xvii. 11, 12, '^they searched the scriptures daily, whe- ^' 
ther those things were so ; therefore many of them believed/' 

8. Inspeetio fontium, * to look to the original,' as, for the 
New testament, the greek text; for the Old, the hebrew; 
Augustine De doctr. christ, lib. ii. capp. 10 — 14*. 

4. The acquaintance with the manner of dialect, that we 
may know the Holy Ghost's tongue, Heb. v. ult., having our 
" senses exercised to discern." 

The two last are for the word ; the two following for the 
whole sentence and chapters. 

5. That which they call oculus ad scopumy ' the eye intent 
to the scope,' 1 Tim. vi. 20, ^'avoiding profane and vain 
babblings, and oppositions of science falsely so called;" 
mark the end of the writer ; for so saith Hilary, ex causia 
€Ucendi doctorum habemus intelliffentiam, * by finding the cause 
why a thing is spoken, we attain the understanding of that 
which learned men spake.' 

6. To look to antecedentia and consequentia, with every 

And for these means we must note, that they are to be 
referred diversly to divers things, some to one and some to 
another, and not all to everything. And therefore Stapleton 
in reproving these means committed a double error; first, 
because he saw that some one of these was not necessary to 
some one thing, he thence concluded that it was not neces- 
sary at all ; and secondly, because he saw that to something 
none of these severally could serve, he thereupon concluded 
that they were not at all sufficient. 

Of the papists^ means of interpretation. 
Now the papists' means are these ; beside prayer, wherein 
they agree with us, they set down these means also ; — 
The fathers ; the councils ; the pope ; and the church. 
They say all these are true means of interpretation. 

We say. No ; for 

1. For the fathers and the councils we say, if there be 
doubt in the scriptures, there is much more in the exposition. 

» [vol. m. col. 23.] • [ibid. col. 2*, sqq.] 

Whether our relii/ion 

PART 2. For the pope and the church, we must first see whether 

: the pope stand in the truth or no ; and whether their church 

be the true chnrch or no; and so looking well into their 
means we shall find that they are so far commendable as 
they use ours, and no farther. 

1. 0/ the fathers. 

For the others; they say their exposition is true; now 
that must needs be meant when they agree all in one, or 
else which of them shall we believe ? But we shall not find 
one place of a hundred which they all expound alike, so 
that few of their expositions should be received. And as 
Basil saith of Dionysiua"*, Epist. ix., that they wrote many 
things tlywMo-Twcw?, diapulalionia gratia, ' by way of dispute,' 
not Boyfiariieav, definitive, ' according to their own judgment.' 
And Augustine being oppressed with authorities of the 
fathers saith, he regardetb not quis, aed quid. And Paul 
saith. Gal. i. 8, " if an angel from heaven teach any other 
doctrine let him be accursed." And the papists themselves 
refuse the most, yea almost all of the fathers, expounding 
this, tu ea Petrus, ' thou art Peter,' de fide, non de persond, 
'of his faith, not of his person.' So in the division of the 
comraaiidmcnts, they take against all but Augustine^. 

2. Of the councils. 

For the councils ; they have two parts ; 

1. The action; and therein there is such error that they 
are fain to lay all upon the canon, saying it makes no matter 
how the premises be, so the conclusion be good. 

2. The canon; and thereof we see some plain opposite one 
to another ; as in the two general allowed councils, the one 
of Constance'', the other of Basil*; whereof the one setteth 
down that the councils could err, and so also the pope, and 

" [toI, iii. p. !10.] ■ [vol. isii. ool. 1. tqq. See also 

' [QuBill, in Exod., lib. iL qo. 71. PstriciuB, " HiiWly of the Council* of 

voL iii. pMt i. col. 4i3. Sorm. ccl. nd Baale, Florence," be, snd Turrecre- 

fin. vol T. col. 1033. Semi. ii. de dec tnaU'a speech at the Council of Flo- 

chord., vol v. col. 52. Caul. Fault, lib. nnee, Hirduin'a Councils, vol. ix. coll. 

" [vol. » 

ii. co!. SIS, 

1. 27+, 278.] 

be truly founded on God's word, 61 

that the council was above the pope, the other affirmeth CHAP, 
quite the contrary. : — 

3. Of the pope. 

For the pope; Damasus a pope, as Hierome saith, sub- 
scribed to heresy ; Liberius' an enemy to arians, subscribed 
after to that heresy ; Honoriuss^ was condemned in the sixth 
general council of Constance in seven canons and seven 
BcMous, propter subversionem fidei, ^for subverting the faith.' 

4:, Of the church. 

For the church; all the East, which is half, do not hold 
their supremacy. And if we should follow their bishops, 
many of them have been arians, so that here is both ambi- 
guity and peril. And so Basil**, cap. xxvii. De Spiritu SanctOj 
saith, that mersio in bapiismo, 'dipping in baptism,' was 
at first but una, 'one,' and then trina, 'triple,' and then 
una, ' one' again; so in one of these must needs be error. — 
So that all these grounds are every one severally proved to be 

Now to prove them false jointly, lest we fall into Staple- 
ton's fault*; they all failed in this, the ministering of the 
Lord's supper to infants, whereas Paul saith we must ex- 
amine ourselves, &c., which infants cannot do. 

And so both jointly and severally their grounds are false, 
and ours are the only true means of interpretation. — And if 
they will do as Stapleton doth, who maketh the interpreta- 
tion personal, they fall into that extremity that he doth, 
saying, that the interpretation of an unlearned bishop is 
better than the interpretation of any other learned man; 
which, as the rest of their religion, is a most miserable, de- 
testable error. 

And thus much for the Preface. 

' [Lib. de Vir. illustr. cap. 97. col. ' [Harduin, vol. iii. col. 1422.] 

918. in opp. S. Hieron. ed. Vallara. ad '' [vol. iii. p. 55.] 

calc. vol ii.] » [vid. p. 57. sup.] 


Now religion hath two parts, the Law, and the Gospel. 

The romanists pervert this order, teaching the gospel 
before the Law ; Hosius*, Caaisius', and the last Tridentine 
council", — But that is an unnatural order, for the Law and 
the gospel are two covenants ; — 

a. the one made between God and Adam, ou God's part 
to perform him paradise, on Adam's part to perform obedi- 
ence; hut Adam having strength to do this, and abusing the 
same, incurred the forfeiture of this covenant, which was the 
danger of hell and the penalty of death ; 

/S, when this covenant was broken a new was made, that 
Christ to God should make perfection, to us should restore 
that we had lost; and on our side, that we should perform 
perfect obedience, but by Christ ; and this is the covenant of 

And this course of teaching by humiliation, is usual, that 
by the Law we might see what we are. 

a. This course God Himself useth, first to Adam, ubi es? 
there was the Law ; after that, semen mulieris, there was the 
gospel ; 

0. after the flood, God taught Abraham the Law first. 
Gen. xvii. 1, ambiiia mecum et eato integer, 'walk with me 
and be perfect,' afterwards the gospel. Gen. xxii. 18, "in 
thy seed," &c. ; 

Y- Moses iu Deuteronomy; first the Law, then the gospel ; 

h. Esay, in his first thirty-nine chapters the Law, after- 
ward the gospel ; 

e. Paul to the Bomana (which epistle is called the sum 
of religion) from i. 18. to vii. 16. the Law, afterwards the 

^ the form of inatniction Heb, vi, 1, ia thus; repentance 

by the Law, faith by the gospel. 

• [vol. i. cf. p. 313. cumpriccei 
f rOou* CMceliisL Cf. csD. JiL 

Of God's law in general, 63 



§ 1. What is contained in God^s law. 

In God's law as in every good law are^ 
the word, this ; 
the manner, thus ; 
the reward to the good and punishment to the evil. 

I. The action consisteth of these two, 
not doing evil, I ^^^ y^^^^ ^^^^.^^ f commission, 
domg of good, ) ( omission. 

For doing good there are these three. Tit. ii. 12, 

1. pii, 'piously' toward God; 

2. sobrii, 'soberly' toward ourselves; 

3. just^, 'justly' to our neighbours; 

Augustine hath three rules for these three ; 

For the first, deterius subjiciatur meliori; quod commune 
habes cum angelis, hoc subde Deo, ' let the worse part be sub- 
ject to the better; that which thou hast in thee as have the 
angels, make it subject to Gt)d.' 

For the second, quod commune habes cum brutis, hoc 
subde ratiani, 'that which in thee is like to that in brute 
beasts, make it subject to reason.' 

For the third, yac quod vis pati, 'do as thou wouldest be 
done unto.' 

The corruption of these is the transgression of the law ; 
when we come to this, 

1. as Satan said to Eve, dii eritis, 'ye shall be gods, be 
not subjects ;' 

2. quod libet, licet, 'what it pleaseth any to do, that is 
lawful to be done;' as they did videre et nubere, 'see and 
marry,' no restraint of lust by reason ; 

3. that of Machiavel, quod potes fac, 'do all thou canst.' 

64 Of God's law in yeneraL 

T II. Next the action foUoweth the manner^ Thus. And to 
— this is required that we do, 

1. toti, apply all our strength and power, as Gen. xxxi. 6, 
Jacob to Laban; 

2. totum, all that is commanded, Gen. vii. 5, Noah in 
the ark ; 

3. semper, always, as Job all his life. 

III. For the reward and punishment, we cannot escape 
both ; aut faciendum, aut patiendum, ' either we must do our 
duty, or suffer for neglect thereof.' 
The reward is to the good. 

In temporal things. Gen. xxxix. 3, Joseph's master 

for his sake. 
In eternal things. Gen. v. 24, Enoch. 
The punishment to the wicked. 

In temporal things, as Adam and Joseph's brethren. 
In eternal things, as 1 Pet. iii. 19, the spirits now in 

^2. Of the law written in men's hearts, 

Obj. But why may we not live now without the law as 
well since Moses as before ? 

Ans. They lived not without law, but they had a law, 
Bom. ii. 14, even effective, in the hearts, a thing equivalent 
to the law; and thereby they could accuse and excuse 
themselves, even by the witness of their own consciences, 
the effect of the law being imprinted in the hearts of all 
men by nature. 

The Jews had the law in their hearts. 

First for the Jews, to prove that they had the effect of 
every commandment in them before the Law. 

1. Gen. XXV. 2, "put away the strange gods." 

2. Gen. xxxi. 34, idols. Gen. xxxv. 4, ear-rings. 

3. Gen. xxiv. 3, " swear by the Lord of heaven." 

4. Gen. ii. 3. and Exod. xvi. 23, rest of the sabbath. 

5. Gen. xxvii. 41, "days of mourning for my father." 

6. Gen. iv. 9, Cain hideth his killing of Abel. 

Of God's law in general, 65 

7. Gen. xxxviii. 24, the whore Tamar to be burnt, and CHAP. 
xxxiv. 31, ''should he deal with our sister as with ! — 

an harlot?" 

8. Gen. xliv. 7, " God forbid we should steal.'* 

9. Gen. xxxviii. 20, Judah kept promise, not lying or de- 

ceiving by untruths. 

10. Gen. xii. 17, and Gen. xx. 3, Pharaoh, and Abime- 
lech ; it was sin to look on a woman with lust after 

Also the gentiles had both the ten commandments ; 

Secondly, not only the Jews but the gentiles also had the 
same law by nature in their hearts; though some of the 
commandments more manifestly than other some. 

Manifestly six, namely the third, fifth, sixth, seventh, 
eighth, and ninth. 

Somewhat obscurely four, the first, second, fourth, and 

For the most manifest commandments ; 

The third was a law of the Egyptians, as Diodorus Siculus*^ 
saith, fi^ 6fivv€y 'swear not,' nisi morieris, 'unless you will 

The fifth ; Homer" saith of one that had a misfortune, it 
was quia parentes nan honoravit, 'because he honoured not 
his parents.' 

The sixth is a rule even in nature, homicida quod fecit 
eojpectet, 'let the homicide expect that which he hath done 
to another.' 

The seventh, StephanusP out of Nicostratus, fuge nomen 
moechi si mortem fugies, 'fly the name of an adulterer if 
thou wilt avoid death.' 

The eighth, Demosthenes *> against Timocrates repeateth it 
as Solon's law in the very words, ' thou shalt not steal.' 

The ninth, in the twelve tables, Tarpeio saxo dejiciatur, 
' cast him down firom a high rock'.' 

For those they had somewhat obscurely ; 

" [vid. lib. i. cap, 77. vol. i. p. 87.] is not found.] 

• [The reference is to II. P. 302, but q [vol. L p. 732 sqq.] 

the passage is misunderstood.] ^ [Leew. De jur. civ. Rom., p. 284'. 

' [In Stephanus's " Comic. Gr. (i.e. Aul. Cell., lib. xx. cap. 1. fin. p. 291.] 

Nicostr. all.) sententise," this passage 

66 Of God^s law in general. 

PART For the first, Pythagoras said, ^' If a man come and say, I am 


Gt)d, let him create another world, and we will believe him/' 
For the second, they agreed that every god should be 
worshipped as he himself thought good; and this is the 
very foundation of the second commandment. 

For the fourth, little can be found, but sufficient for their 
condemnation; they knew" that numerus septenarius est Deo 
ffratissimus, ' the number of seven was most pleasing to God •/ 
and it was numerus quietis, ' the number of rest f and thence 
they might have gathered that God would have His rest 
that day. And so the seventh day after birth, they kept 
natalitia, ' the feast of their nativity ;' and the seventh day 
after death, their funeral feasts or exequies. 

The tenth, their laws never touched; yet the scope of 
them was to /a^ eTriOufielv, non concupiscere, ^not to covet;' 
and Menander saith that they should not covet so much as 
a button. 

And the three rules above given. 

Now to prove that the gentiles had also the grounds of 
the three former rules. 

TTie action, This. 

On Delphos' door* were written all the three rules. 

1. el, signifying that if any man would ask counsel of the 
oracle, they should do whatsoever the god commanded 
them ; and this is subde Deo. 

2. yv&di, a-eat/Tov, 'know thyself to be better than a 
beast ; subde brutum rationi. 

3. fj/rjBkv alpelv, no covetousness ; and this is justice, /ac 
quod vis pati, ' do as thou wouldst be done to;' which sen- 
tence Severus the emperor used to malefactors in every 
punishment, and caused it to be graven upon his plate. 

The manner, Thus. 

1. toti, ^ 5Xo9 fj firj o\a>f, 'either fully with all thy 
strength, or not at all.' 

2. totum; they set a mark upon Caesar", and Euripides*, 

■ [See Beyerlinck*8 Magnum Thea- ■ [Cic. De off, lib. iii. cap. 21. vol. 

tnim, art Numerus septenarius.] iii. p. 280 ; Suet. Vit Jul. Cffis., cap. 

t [Plutarch, trtpi rou EI 4y AcX^is, 30. vol. i, p. 44.] 

▼oL vii. p. 512.] « [Phoenisa., lin. 538.] 

Of God's law in general, 67 

which broke justice regni gralid, 'to get a kingdom/ CHAP. 
and Plutarch^ compareth our duties to a fish which eaten _J: — 
sparingly hurteth, but being eaten up all it is medicinable. 

3. toto tempore, 'continually/ for they compared their 
good man to a tetragonismus, all sides alike^ as a dye; no 
cameleon or unconstant. 

Reward and punishment. 

They say God hath a sheet of parchment* made of the 
skin of the goat that nourished him, wherein he noteth all 
men's deeds, rewarding to the good, ires gr alias, 'three 
graces' in this life, and campos elysios, ' the elysian fields' in 
the life to come ; and to the evil, three erynnyes in this life, 
and Styges, Tartarus, Cocytus, answerable to Tophet, or 
Gehenna, in the life to come. 

And so the Jews before the Law, and the gentiles both 
before and since, having both the efiect of the law and the 
grounds of the rules, are, as Paul saith. Bom. i. 20, inexcusable. 

§ 3. Questions hereupon. 

Object. But if the law were in their hearts before, to 
what end should it be written ? 

Ansiv. Adam's fall broke it in pieces, and afterwards it 
grew dimmer and dimmer daily, and the shards smaller, so that 
they could hardly be put together ; and therefore, lest that 
which was in the heart should be clean put out, it was neces- 
sary it should be written. 

Quest. How grew the law darker and darker? 

Answ, 1. Men did what they could to put it out; for 
when they communed with their own hearts, there was 
straight an accuser ; so that they durst not look into them- 
selves, but as Augustine saith, facti sunt fugitivi ^ cordibus 
suis, 'they became fugitives from their own hearts;' and 
therefore it was necessary they should have the law before 
their eyes, that so it might be brought to their hearts, unde 
fugerunt, 'whence they fled.' 

2. There came a super seminator, who sowed after the good 
seed was sown; the devil put false principles into their 

y [Athen., lib. viii. cap. 3. p. 337.] Cent. iv. pr. 11.] 
• [Paroem. Gr. ed. Gainford. Zenob. 


Of Moaes' law in par/lculai: 

KT liciirt, and clioked up the true; as, dii erilis ; bonum est quod 
prodest, ' ye shall be gods ; that is good for you which makes 
for your benefit/ and such like. 

Quest. But is any man able to fulfil the law ? 

Answ. Paul shewcth fiom Rom. i. 18. to chap. vii. 13, 
both Jew and gentile to come short herein, as that the very 
best, even the regenerate, faileth in the manner; he doth it 
not toius, with all his strength and power; for there is a 
law in his members that rebelleth against God's law. 

Object. But how is God just, to command a thing impos- 
sible ? 

Answ. 1. Though the matter be never so crooked to work 
upon, yet the rule must needs be straight. 

2. Seeing God is perfect, His law must needs be perfect 

Quest. But why then were not we made able to do that 
which God commandcth T 

Answ. Adam was made able; but he was like an evil 
servant, receiving money of liia master to do hia business, 
which he maketh away j or else ho is made drunken there- 
withal, so that he cannot do his mostei-'s work. 


5 1. Of Ihe preparation. 

But to come in particular to Moses' law. 

And first, of the Preparation, which hath his ground, 
Exod. six., and standeth upon three heads. 

The first beginueth, v. 4 ; where by a commendation of 
God's benefits Moses maketh us willing to hear. We are in 
God's hands as the pot in the hands of the potter to be used 
at his pleasure, and therefore if He allure us Who might 
command us, we ought in all humility to attend. Moses 
telleth them v. 4, — 

"You have seen what I did to the Egj-ptians;" which 
argument ought to be of no less force with ns, for we have 
also been dehvercd from the spiritual Egypt, from the devil 
and sill, as also from death, and judgments due for sin. 

Of Moses* law in particular. 69 

"And how I carried you upon eagles* wings." — There be CHAP, 
wings of God ; '- — 

a. His providence, whereby He being infinite and eter- 
nal hath respect unto the meanest things upon earth, 
Ps. cxiii. 5, 6, *^Who dwelleth on high, who hum- 
bleth himself to behold the things that are in heaven 
and in the earth ;" even our hairs are numbered. Mat. 
X. 30; 

p. His special love, from whence flow the peculiar graces 
of election, redemption, justification, sanctification, the 
ministry of thfe word, but above all, the good things of 
the life to come, which are such which the eye hath not 
seen, 1 Cor. ii. 9. 

The second part of the preparation is to make us apt, as 
the other was to make us willing; and this beginneth at 
V. 7. unto V. 12 ; — 

"Sanctify the people;" for if a clean thing be received 
into an unclean it will be polluted. 

The time of preparation is there set down, two days. This 
sanctification was to them in ceremony, and such things as 
were figures unto them are examples to us, 1 Cor. x. 11, and 
every ceremony hath his equity. And the equity of this 
ceremony is this, that some due preparation is necessary to 
the service of God. 

a. Ver. 10; "let them wash their clothes," saith God by 
Moses. Garments in the Old testament were either vesti^ 
menta, or stolce, inward or outward; and those garments 
became stained by two means, by touching him that had an 
issue, or if a man had an issue within himself. Answerable 
to the first is the pollution which we receive by evil example ; 
to the second, that which we have by natural corruption. 
In respect of both these there is need of washing, for no 
unclean thing was permitted to enter into the temple, as in 
the New Jerusalem, Rev. xxi. 27. The means to cleanse us 
is the baptism of the Spirit, wherewith we must labour daily 
to be cleansed, expressing the virtue thereof in the practice 
of mortification and new obedience. 

/3. The last part of their sanctification Moses may seem to 
add of himself, v. 15, " come not at your wives." The equity 

70 Of Moses^ law in particular. 

PART of this ceremony is, that even lawful things, when they 
• hinder God's service, must not be used. 

The third point of their preparation is mentioned v. 12, 
and repeated again v. 21, that the people should not pass 
their bounds ; the morality whereof is this, that we pass not 
the marks that God hath set in knowing His will, but content 
ourselves with the knowledge of such things as are necessary 
to be known. We must know that hidden things belong to 
God, revealed to man. Dent. xxix. 29 ; we must not desii-e to 
be overwise, Rom. xii. 3 ; nor eat too much honey, Prov. xxv. 
27; nor doat about questions whereof cometh nothing but 
strife of words, 1 Tim vi. 4 ; for as Augustine saith, qui in- 
venta veritate ttlteriua qvxBrit, nihil qtuerit prceter mendacium, 
' he who finding the truth, seeketh further, he seeketh for 
nothing but a lie/ 

The fourth part of their preparation is taken from the 
circumstance of the manner of delivering the Law, begin- 
ning at the 16th verse, expressed also Heb. xii. ; which was by 
dark clouds, thunder, fire, trembling of the mount, &c., to 
stir them up to reverence, both in attention and practice. 

This argument should move us also, for if the delivery of 
the Law was so terrible, what shall the requiry be ? 

a. It was delivered by angels, but God Himself shall re- 
quire it. 

/8. It was delivered in clouds, it shall be required in dark- 
ness and terror, Amos v. 18, 19; Joel ii. 10. 

7. For the thunder in the delivery, there shall be a fearful 
noise at the dissolution of all things in the requiry; 2 Pet. 
iii. 10, '^ the heavens shall pass away with a great noise.'' 

S. For the earthquake, it shall not be of one mountain 
alone, but of the whole world; Heb. xii. 26, "yet once more 
I shake not the earth only, but also heaven.'' 

€. For the sound of the trumpet, there shall be such a 
sound as shall raise up the dead, John v. 25, "the dead 
shall hear the voice of the Son of God ; and they that hear 
shall live.'' 

f. And as the giving of the Law made the people and 
Moses to quake, so tlie requiry shall make the elect to be 

Of Moses* law in particular. 71 

afraid^ 1 Pet. iii. 14, but the wicked to hide themselves in chap. 
dens and rocks. Rev. vi. 15. — It — 

And thus much of the Preparation. 

§ 2. Of the end of the Law. 

Now of the end of the Law. 

1. It giveth no perfection. 

2. It is our schoolmaster to Christ. 

I. It giveth no perfection, Heb. vii. 11. For though as 
Solon^s law carried the mark of the author's mildness, and 
the laws of Draco of his cruelty, so likewise God's laws, 
of His holiness, righteousness, and goodness; yet it brings no 
perfection, as the gospel doth. To which end consider these 
circumstances ; 

1. The place where the Law was given was a vast and 
barren wilderness ; even so all the souls that have been since 
Adam, none have been added unto God by the Law, Gal. v. 
3, 4. Ismael must be cast out, and only Isaac, which is 
born supernaturally, can have the possession, for the inheri- 
tance is by grace. Again, mount Sinai was such a hill as no 
man might ascend unto it ; but Sion the hill of grace, must 
be ascended, Esay ii. 8. 

2. The circumstance of the person by whom the Law was 
delivered provcth it, for, 

a. if any should have perfection by the Law, then doubtless 
Moses by whom it was given ; but he transgressed it, 
Num. XX. 12, and so could not enter into Canaan; 

/8. again, Moses his miracles were altogether destructive, 
as the plaguing of Egypt, the drowning of Pharoah, &c. ; 
but the miracles of grace were lively, as the raising of 
the dead, healing of the sick, &c. ; 

7. lastly, Moses his face did shine so bright, that no man 
might behold him but through a veil, which veil did pre- 
figure Christ, 2 Cor. iii. 7. 

3. The tables were broken before they were delivered, 
which the fathers affirm to signify the frustration of the Law. 

4. The time of the delivery of the Law was when the 
people were committing high treason against God, worship- 
ping the golden calf, ergo, unfit to receive the Law, or any 
perfection thereby. 

72 Of Mose^ law in particular, 

PART 5. The blast of the trumpet was terrible at the giving of 

— the Law, but in the beginning of the gospel the angels sang 

praises unto God. 

II. The Law is our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ; 
for by the Law we call ourselves to account ; this shews us 
our talent, and so brings remedium iffnarantuB, ' a remedy 
for our ignorance;^ then, finding our debt so great and sin 
so strong, we are brought to repentance, and this is remedium 
8uperbi(B, 'a remedy for our pride/ then it remaineth, that 
being not able to discharge this account, we seek for a surety, 
and this is Christ ; and thus the Law leadeth us to Christ. 

§ 3. Of the sum of the Law. 

Now of the sum of the Law. — The Law containeth two 
things, God's Authority, and Charge. 

Of God's authority. 

I. The authority is the prerogative royal whereby every 
prince doth all things within his dominion, and it is the 
common reason of all the commandments. 

This authority of God fJJ" ^'^^^ ^ 

J , i His jurisdiction, 

IS expressed by Lr,. ,, 

'^His excellent acts. 

1. His Name is nins the name of His nature; that rerpa- 
ypdfi/jMTov, ' name of four letters,' so much talked and writ 
of. Some think that of the three letters the first signifieth 
power, the adjunct of the Father; the second knowledge, 
the adjunct of the Son ; and the third love, the adjunct of 
the Holy Ghost ; and the doubling of the two letters, the two 
natures of the second Person. 

This name is derived of n^n or n^n, 'to be,' quia Deus 
est a nullo, per nullum et propter nullum, ' because God hath 
being firom none, subsists by none, hath none for whom He 
is existent,' Rom. ii. 36. God is absolute of Himself, and 
therefore hath no commission from any ; but all the princes 
of the earth have their commission from Him, and ergo they 
insert this clause into their title, Dei gratid, &c., for all other 
things depend upon Him, but He upon none, Fs. civ. 

Of Moaes^ law in particular. 73 

2. His jurisdiction is twofold, CHAP. 

a. general over every creature, '- — 

/8. particular over His church. 

Deut. X. 14, 15 ; " Behold, the heaven and the heaven of 
heavens is the Lord's thy God, the earth also, with all 
that therein is ; only the Lord had a delight in thy 
fathers to love them, and He chose their seed after 
them, even you above all people, as it is this day.*' 

S. His excellent acts appear, 

first, in that the state of the Israelites was a most 

vile and miserable servitude ; 
secondly, in that they were strongly delivered, 
with the destruction of their enemies. 
And these things belong also unto us, their temporal 
afflictions and deUverances being but a figure of those 
from which we are delivered. 
And thus much of the authority. 

Of God's charge, 

11. Now of the charge j which is nothing else but the ten 
commandments. Which we call Moses' law in this respect ; 
because howsoever the Law was at first ordained and given 
by God Himself in tables of stone, Exod. xxxi. 18, yet when 
the tables by means of their idolatry were broken, Exod. 
xxxii. 19, Moses wrote it again, Exod. xxxi v. 28, and from 
thence it is called Moses' law. 

Division of the commandments. 

For the division of the commandments, it is double ; 

1. from the subject, and so it is divided into two tables, 
Deut. iv. 13, "He wrote them upon two tables of stone;" 

2. from the object, and so it is divided into the love of 
God and our neighbour. Matt. xxii. 37 ; and therefore Paul 
calleth love, the subject of the law, 1 Tim. i. 5, Rom. xiii. 8 ; 
for the true love of our neighbour doth always presuppose 
the love of God. 

Now in resolving these ten commandments into two 
tables, there arise two doubts; 

First, between the Jews and the christians; the Jews 

74 Of Moses' law in ^jarticular, 

PART would have the fifth commandment to be of the first table, 

— because it belongeth unto superiors ; but then it should be 

appropriate unto God, which cannot be, because there is in 
it also a duty to be performed to inferiors. 

Secondly, between the papists, and the protestants and 
lutherans ; for they make one commandment of the two first, 
and two of the last ; against the most of the fathers, and so 
they break their own rule ; again, the tenth commandment 
is all but one verse, and no wise man would thrust up two 
laws within one period. — Their reason why there should be 
but three commandments in the first table is very weak, 
viz. because there are but three Persons in the Trinity ; but 
with as good reason we may answer that the fourth may be 
added because of the Unity. 

What is required in a law-giver. 

T 1 • r wisdom to make iust laws. 
In a law-giver 1 , . , i i 

. J < authority to enact them, and to command 
are reqmred, i , , , 

V. them to be kept. 

1. The wisdom of God clearly appeareth in these His 
laws, because, 

a. 'tis the people's wisdom to observe them, Deut. iv. 6, 
^'keep therefore and do them, for this is your wisdom;" 
and foreign nations profess, "surely this people is a wise 
and understanding people -/' 

fi, and for the laws themselves, " what nation," saith Moses, 
" hath statutes and judgments so righteous, as all this law ?" 
Nor can it otherwise be, for God, whose laws they are, is 
" wonderful in counsel," Esay xxviii. 29. 

2. God's authority and power is manifest, 

a. because He with a mighty hand brought Israel out of 
Egypt; and in many wondrous works He shewed His 
almighty power ; these go beyond all titles of princes which 
they prefix before their laws ; 

fi. but farther, God in the second commandment pro- 
claimed Himself a jealous God, able to punish offenders, 
ready and in mercy to deal with such as observe these laws ; 

In the third commandment He teacheth us not to hold 
guiltless them which take His name in vain ; 

Of Mosea^ lata in particular. 


In the fourth commandment His making of heaven and C H A ] 

earth may assure us of His authority to command all things — 

in heaven and earth, as their Lord and Master. 

The command- 
ments contain^ 
our duties to 


(inwardly, Co7n. 1 . 

perpetual J 

I outwardly in 

gesture, Com. 2. 
speech, Com. 3. 
Com. 4. 





{particularly Com. 5. 
/him- (his life. Com. 6. 
general- J self, jhis^vife. Com. 7, 
^y^^ I his fhisgoods. Cam. 8. 
V gifts, I his name, Com. 9. 
^in very motion, Com.lO. 

§ 4. Of the interpretation of the law. 

The commandment is a perfect law, and therefore for- 
biddeth and commandeth all things that must be left undone 
or done; but not the hundredth part of this in the bare 
words without exposition, therefore there must be an inter- 

Quest. From whence shall we have this interpretation ? 

Ans. Of the levites, God's angels and ministers, Deut. 
xvii. 9; Mai. ii. 7. And this interpretation must be ex- 
amined by the mles of interpretation, which are two ; 

extension, for the breadth of the commandment ; 

limitation or restraint, for the narrowness. 

First, by extension. 

For extension, the Jews set down thirteen rules, reduced 
by christians to these six ; 

1. Every precept is both affirmative and negative, fac et 
nonfac, ' do this; and thou shalt not do this;' Ps. xxxiv. 14, 
" fly evil, do good ;" according to the logic rule a contrariis, 
'from contraries.' And by this rule the rabbins gathered 
two hundred and forty-eight affirmative precepts, according 
to the number of the joints of our body ; and three hundred 
and sixty-five negatives, after the days of the year ; both 

76 OfMoses' law in particular. 

PART added make six hundred and thirteen, according to the 
— letters of the ten commandments in hebrew. 

2. Every precept containeth all the species that are under 
it ; they are reduced by par, and (Bquipollens, that which is 
'equal' and 'of like force;' if it is impar, 'unequal/ a minori, 
'from the less to the greater/ as, we must honour our parents^ 
much more God. 

3. Every precept is spiritual, Bom. vii. 14; kumana lex 
ligat manum et linffuam, divina verb ligat animam, 'human 
laws bind the tongue and the hand, God's laws bind the 
soul and the heart ;' John iv. 23, God will be worshipped in 
spirit and truth. 

4. All the means to any offence are forbidden, and to the 
things commanded the means are also commanded ; and this 
is ambulareper viam regiam, 'to walk by the king's high way.' 

5. All the signs are commanded and forbidden as well as 
the things themselves ; as, 

Esay iii. 16, "the daughters of Zion are haughty, and 
walk with stretched forth necks and wanton eyes, walk- 
ing and mincing as they go, and making a tinkling 
with their feet :" 

1 Tim. ii. 9, "that women adorn themselves in modest 
apparel, with shame-facedness and sobriety; not with 
broidered hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array ;" 

Zeph. i. 8, " I will punish . . all such as are clothed with 
strange apparel," &c. 

6. We must not be accessaries to any fault, for the prin- 
cipal doers and consenters are both alike. 

How we may be accessary to sin. 

And we maybe accessaries fin unlawful things, and. 
to other men's sins, \in lawful things. 

In unlawful things. 

In unlawful things there are six partakings; 

1. Jussio, ^a command,' as, 

Esay X. 1, ' they that decree wicked things ;'' 
Dan. iii. 4, Nebuchadnezzar, for his image ; 
1 Sam. xxii. 18, Saul to Doeg, for the killing of the 
priests ; 

Of Moses* law in particular. 77 

Acts xxiii. 2. Ananias commanded to smite Paul. C HA P. 

And this may be also by writing, — 

2 Sam. xi. 15, David concerning Uriah; 

1 Kings xxi. 10, Jezebel concerning Naboth. 

2. Permission ' a permission,^ 

Lev. XX. 4, " if the people of the land do any ways 
hide their eyes from the man when he giveth of 
his seed unto Molech, and kill him not," — 
Bom. xiii. 4, *' he beareth not the sword in vain ;" 
1 Sam. iii. 13, ^'his sons made themselves vile and 
he restrained them not ;" 

1 Kings XX. 42, " thou hast let go out of thy hand a 
man whom I appointed to utter destruction, there- 
fore thy life shall be for his life ;" 

John xix. 16, Pilate delivering Jesus to be crucified. 
And therefore the magistrate hath the sword put into 
his hand, ut mali si non dimittant voluntatem, amittant 
facultatem peccandi, Augustine ; ' that if wicked men 
will not lay aside the will to sin, they may have taken 
from them their ability to sin.^ 

3. Provocatio, 'provocation,' Job ii. 9, JoVswife; 1 Kings 
xxi. 25, Jezebel ; Gal. v. 26, ^' provoking one another." 

4. Consilium, 'counsel,* 

Ps. i. 1, "walking in the counsel of the ungodly;" 
Gen. xlix. 6, " O my soul, come not thou into their 

secret; unto their assembly, mine honour, be not 

thou united;" 
Ezra iv. 5, the people of the land " hired counsellors 

against them to frustrate their purpose ;" 

2 Sam. xvi. 21, Ahitophel's counsel to Absalom; 
Mark vi. 24, Herodias's counsel to her daughter; 
John xi. 49, Caiaphas to the chief priests and phari- 

Acts xix. 26, Demetrius to the craftsmen against Paul. 

5. Approbatio, 'approbation,* Rom. i. 32, favouring the 
wicked ; 

a. whether it be directly approving them, as 1 Tim. v. 
22, laying on of hands ; 

78 Of Moses' law in particular. 

PART /8. or being an instrument by action; 


2 Sam. xi. 16, Joab for the slaying of Uriah ; 

Acts viii. 1, Saul consenting to Stephen's death; 

Ps. 1. 18, 'thou art partaker with the adulterer;^ 
whereas we ought to find fault with offenders, Lev. 
xix. 17, "thou shalt in any wise rebuke thy neigh- 
bour, and not suffer sin upon him ;" for as Augustine 
saith well, quemadmodum malus sermo ducit in peccatum, 
sic silentium relinquit in peccato, 'as evil speech draws 
men into sin, so silence lets them sleep secure in sin/ 

6. DefensiOj ' defence,' 

Prov. xxiv. 24, " he that saith unto the wicked. Thou art 

righteous,^' — 
Prov. xvi. 29, ''a violent man enticeth his neighbour, 

and leadeth him into the way that is not good ;" 
Ps. Iv. 21, "the words of his mouth were smoother 

than butter, but war was in his heart ;'' 
Esay V. 20, " that call good evil, and evil good,'* excusing 

it, as Ezek. xiii. 10 — 16, "daubers;" an example hereof 

we have in Ahab's false prophets, 1 Kings xxii. 6^11. 

In lawful things. 

In lawful things also another man's sin we may be par- 
takers of; for 

a. if that we are to do be not in the commandments, and 
we know that the use thereof will offend our brother and 
be a stumbling-block unto him, we must not use it for his 
offence ; 

• fi. but if it be in the commandment, we must do it what- 
soever come of it ; for as Augustine saith, malo ut scandalum 
committatur quam ut Veritas omittatur, ' I had rather that 
offence should be taken than that the truth should be lost.' 

And thus much of the extension of the commandments. 

Secondly, by limitation. 

For the limitation or restraint of the commandments, it is 
and hath been much abused ; as we sec, 

a. in the pharisees restraining nonjurabis, to non pejerabis, 
or non jurabis per Deum, ' thou shalt not swear,' to ' thou 

Of Moses^ law in particular, 79 

shalt not forswear/ or ' thou shalt not swear by God ; ' but CHAP. 


our Saviour reproveth them by the first rule of extension ; _ — 

P, for non occides, ' thou shalt not kill/ that is, say they, 
non occides innocenies, 'thou shalt not kill tlie innocent;^ 
but Christ by the third rule of extension sheweth that it 
reacheth to anger, which is equipollent to murder ; 

7. so for adultery; they would have as many wives as they 
list ; but Christ by the fourth rule of extension taketh away 
the means of adultery, that we must not look on a woman to 
lust after her. — So that we may err in restraining too much. 

Rules of limitation. 

And therefore in restraining we must observe these tliree 
rules ; — 

1. Dispensation; and this is rather God's right than 
other princes', for God doth, according to equity, but they 
oftentimes by affection. We see God Himself dispensed 
with the second commandment in setting up the brazen 
serpent ; but this rule is not for our times, to follow exam- 
ples that are dispensive, unless we have the like dispen- 

2. The second rule of restraining is from the nature of the 
precept, affirmative or negative; the affirmative bindcth us 
not ad semper, 'to be ever doing it,' as the negative doth; 
and this rule is sure and infallible. 

3. The third rule is altered by divers occasions, and is 
called aniinomia, 'a conflict of laws,* when one law is 
opposite to another, and so one of them must needs have a 

How act in an antinomia, or conflict of laws. 

And for our direction in this restraint we must understand 
that nemo est inter duo peccata, quin pateat eantus sine tertio, 
' no man is so straightened between two sins but that a way 
of escape lies open without a third sin ;' and we may obtain 
this exitus, or deliver ourselves, on this manner ; — 

I. if the precepts that seem repugnant may be agreed, 
there is no more to do but to reconcile them ; wherein Herod 
erred, for he needed not to have performed his promise, for 
his oath was no oath ; 

80 Of Moses* law in particular, 

PART 2. if they cannot be agreed, agat id ad quod est obligatus, 


' let him do that to which he is obliged/ For, 
a. God hath ordained things in their order ] 

His own glory, which passeth every man's salvation ; 
our salvation ; 

the salvation of others ; and 
)8. every one of these must be respected in his order ; 
first, God's glory ; 
secondly, our own salvation ; and 
thirdly, the salvation of our brethren. 

Examples of antinomia. 

And this antinomia we may consider, 

1. Between the first and fifth commandments; but this 
conflict is easy, for how can we obey man, when God which 
is stronger holdeth us back ? and again, we are not bound 
to obey them further than they are bound to obey God, so 
that our rule must be. Honour them so, as God be not dis- 

2. Between the first three commandments which are per- 
petual, and the fourth which is temporal ; every man's reason 
will prefer the perpetual before the temporal. 

3. In the second table, "thou shalt not kill," and yet we 
must give cuique debitum, 'to every man his due that he 
deserveth,' and some deserve death, and therefore it were 
injustice not to give it them. Or else we may answer, that 
it is God's cause to execute the just ofiice and duty of a 
magistrate, and we may do that in God's cause which we 
may not do in our own ; and it is God's commandment that 
he that will not have the direction of the law must have the 
correction; aut faciendum aut patiendum, ' either he must do 
the duty of the law or sufffer the penalty thereof,' as we 
have shewed before. 

For the solution of a doubtful commandment. 

Every doubt may be referred to one of these ; 

1. Obscurity, when both parts be doubtful whether we 
should do it or not do it, and here we must take the 
minimum ; 

QfMose^ law in particular. 81 

2. Controversy, when there be great reasons on both sides^ CHAP, 
and here we must take the maanmum. ' 

General observations on the commandments. 

There are yet three general things to be noted in every 

1. That they are all in the second person singular ; whence 
we learn, 

a. that they appertain to all alike ; 

fi. that they must be particularly applied. 

2. That they are all with the verb of the future tense; 
whence we observe, 

a. that we have broke them in times past ; 

/3. that the keeping of them should continue with us 

for ever, even so long as it may be said, "thou 


3. That they are for the most part of them negative; 
whence we note, . 

a. the confirmation of the rule of extension to include 
the aflSrmative, for qui prohibet impedimentum prcBcipit 
adjumentum, ' he that forbiddeth what hindereth doth 
command what fiirthereth ;' 
/3. that we are more fit by nature to receive a counter* 
mand than a commandment, because we are by 
nature full of weeds which must be rooted out before 
any good thing can be planted in us. 
And now to come to the exposition of the commandments 


§ 1. Necessity of this commandment. 

The first commandment is prinue necessitatis, first and 
necessary to be regarded ; it was never dispensed withal, nor 
ever shall be. 

It is propounded negatively, "thou shalt have no other 
god before Me,'' (the affirmative part was prefixed, " I am 
the Lord thy God,'') and is quoted by Christ, Matt. iv. from 
Deut. vi. 13, "thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and 
Him only shalt thou serve." 


Of Moses' law in particular. 
Wliat is contained in this commandmen/. 

The first connnandment hath in it three things, 

1. We must have a God ; 

2. Ilim for our God ; 

3. Him alone, nnd none else. 

1. "We must not be our own gods, for so crime the first 
mischief, " dii erilis ;" ao that we must not do or judge after 
our own affections, but acknowledge a superior to teach us to 
know good and evil, and when it teacheth, obey j for so re- 
ligion doth follow God. 

2. All other gods are no gods, and therefore their ser\ice 
error and tlieir religion false. 

3. None but lie can reward and punish as He can, and 
therefore He alone must have the glory. 

Of the sins opposite thereto. 

The sin opposite to the first of these, is Profanencss, wlien 
a man will be under no yoke or law, but do what seems good 
in liis own eyes and stands with his own fancy and affection. 

The sin opposite to the second, is False worship and false 
religion, done to other gods, or strange gods (ao as an harlot 
is called strange flesh; strange worship ia put for idolatry 
and false worship). 

The Ein against the third, is that called by Elias the Halt- 
ing between two opinions, the blending and mingling of re- 
ligions 1 such was their en'or who served God and Baal ; and 
such was the Samaritans' humour, who feared Jehovah when 
he sent lions among them, and yet worshipped the gods of 
the nations whence they came. 

How we are led to these sins. 

To these three the devil brings us by three helps ; 

1, being himself Eelial, a master without a yoke, he leta 
his servants have their own will, and this following our licen- 
tiousness is the next step to atheism ; 

2, he snggesteth unto us a desire of novelties, as he en- 
ticed Solomon to sec what religions are in the world ; 

3, he putteth into us a desire to reconcile God and main- i 

^^^pnon, to 
I thiakliiG 

0/ Moses' law in particular. 

ion, to join temporal commodity with the service of God, c II A l". 
thinking to have a paradise on earth aud in heaven also. '■ — 

Reasons against these sins. 

Against these tlicrefore our reasons to maintain the tliree 
former propositions arc these ; 

1, all things else arc satisfied but man, and the defect in 
man came by the fall of Adam following his own will, and 
therefore we must hearken to a superior, and that is God ; 

2, it is manifest that we must have a true God, for the 
greatest deceiver that ever waa would not willingly be deceived 

3, if we join any thing with Him, it must needs be of a 
lower nature, and so detract from His honour. 

Object. Seeing idols are nothing, 1 Cor. viii. 4, and there- 
fore no godsj and all things in the world are no gods ; it may 
seem strange to bid us have no other gods, when there are 

Ansv'. To have, is to acknowledge or account; so the 
meaning is, wc must not have any other gods in account or 
estimation, wc must account nothing as god but God alone ; 
God the Lord we must have for our God, and Him alone. 

And Him we must have, in knowledge, and in regard. For 
the hrst commandment is divided as the soul is ; now the soul 
hath two parts; — 

1, the mind or understanding, whose duty is to know 
God, for ignoti nulla ciipido, 'no man desireth the thing which 
he kuowcth not ;' and knowledge breeds faith ; as St. Augus- 
tine saith, we may desire things which we have not seen, but 
never those things which we have not heard of. Therefore 
where of two things one dependeth and foUoweth on the other, 
if the first be taken away the second shall never be fulfilled ; 
BO then that on the second place we may love God, it ia first 
required that we should know Him ; 

2, the will and aflection, whose duty is to regard God and 
to love Him; so God must first be known; then loved; and 
love breeds obedience. 

OJ Mose^ law in particular. 
5 2. Oar worship of God founded on His attributes. 

God ia known by Hia attributes, which are ten ; majesty, 
truth, unchangcablenesa, will, justice, mercy, knowledge, 
power, ubiquity, and eternity. 

The two essential attributes are. His 

ja,tice,1 ^, ^^^^ ^^ ^^^, ^,,,^ I knowledge, 
mercy; J (love. 

If to justice and mercy we add the other eight, we shall 
know Him the better and love Him the more. 

From knowledge (justices jfear aud humility, 

apprehending \ mercy j (hope and love. 

The fruit of hope ia invocation, prayer, and thanksgiving 
in acknowledging whence wc have received the ground of our 

The fruit of love is obedience, whereby we conform our- 
Belves and our wills to God's will, and willingly bear and 
undergo whatsoever it pleaseth Ilim to lay upon us. 

In these the worship of God consists, yet scripture some- 
times mentions but one of these, as 

John xvii. 3, " this is life eternal, to know Thee the 

only true God ;" 
Eccles. sii. 13, "fear God and keep His command- 
ments ; this is the whole duty of man ;" 
Rom. viii. 24, " by hope ye are saved." 
The mentioning of one includes the rest, because none of 
them is above and without the other. 

Of knowledffe. 
First, for knowledge. — There is in all the above-named 
virtues an inchoatiou in this life, and a consummation in the 
life to come ; the schoolmen term them a first and second 
perfection; therefore our knowledge here is but a taste of 
the blessed knowledge hereafter. So then, as tlie apostle 
makes a first and second resurrection, and he ia said to be 
blessed who hath his part in the first, because he shall partake 
of the latter also : so there are two knowledges ; the first is 
Jides, 'faith;' the second is nisio Dei, or rila tslema, 'the 

I beatical ' 

' first kno 

Of Moses' law in particular. 

beatical visiou ;' and blessed is he who hath liis part in the CHAP. 

first knowledge, for he shall also enjoy the second ; such is — 

the order of God's goodness in these tilings, that none have 
their portion in the second knowledge or resurrection, who 
had not their share in the first. 

Ttie law is doctrina agendorum ; every action must be with 
a motion, every motion with a will, will with a desire, desire 
with knowledge; therefore take away knowledge, and take 
away all. 

ffTietker ignorance may be excused. 

Some argue out of Acts xvii. 30, that God regarded not the 

time of that ignorance ; and so labour to excuse ignorance as 

no sin, when it is, as they call it, inrincible, namely, 

in children, > , . , , 

■ , 1 > which have not the use of reason ; 

in fools, ) ' 

in them which have lost their knowledge by disease or 

when the means of knowledge cannot be had, — But this is 

not invincible ; for the law of nature may teach them. 
But indeed none of these can take away the sin ; they only 
lessen the same, and excuse a tanto, but not a tola. 

But there are two kinds of ignorance worse than these, 

1, affeciala ignorantia, 'affected ignorance,' when they 
will not understand; Ps. xxsvi. 3, "he hath left off to be 
wise ;" and this many skilful men have; being desirous to re- 
main in an error or a sin, nectunl arguments, 'they solder to- 
gether arguments' in defence of it. 

2, supina ignorantia, ' wretchless ignorance,' quando habenl 
d quo discant et tamen non discunt, 'when they may learn and 
will not.' 

To know God aright we must removere impedimenta, 'remove 
all lets,' 

a. within us, our own reason, Deut. sii. 8.; Eph. iv. 17; 
2 Cor. s. 5. 

{traditions, I Pet. i. 18; 
customs of the time, ori „, ., , 

, , . p,. , > 2 Chron. xvn. 4. 

fashion of the place, j 

Of Moses' law in particular. 
Rules concerning knowledge. 

1, The measure of our kuoivledge must not be slightj 
we must know the true Shepherd's voice, John x. 16 ; give a 
reason of our faith, 1 Pet. iii. And that we may do this the 
better, it is necessary the teachers themselves be not out of 
course ; for as Chrj^aostom saith, no marvel if there be a mist 
in the meadows, when the tops of the mountains are covered 
with darkness. 

2, To our knowledge we must add practice, for as in 
anatomy the veins come from the heart to the hands, bo in 
divinity the life of that which is in the heart is practised in 
the hand. 

Thus much of knowledge. 

Concerning fulness of knowledge; — We are commanded 
to be men in understanding, to proceed from being babes, 
nourished with milk, to he able to digest strong meat ; for 
God hath poured His spirit on all flesh. Acts ii. from Joel ii. ; 
all His children arc taught of God, Esay liv. 13; the people 
which before sat in darkness, after Christ's time saw a great 
light. The same is held out to us, so that all the earth might 
be full of the knowledge of God, Isa. xi. 9, if men were la- 
horious to teach it, and the rest swift and desirous to hear it. 

Now the fulness of knowledge bringeth a second duty, 
which is a full persuasion, a constant faith. 

Of the kinds of faith. 
In divinity there arc three kinds offaith; 
general, Hebrews xi. 6, that God is ; 
legal, to believe the law, the promise, the punishment, 

and the reward, John v, 46; 
evangelical, which is not for this place. 
We are now to speak de fide legali, ' of the legal faith,' 
whose object is, Heb. iv. 2, "the word of God." 

Oflfie means offaith. 
l''aith is cceleslium ei terrcstriwii, 'of hca\'ciily and earthly 
things ;' the sccoud a means tu the first. 

Of Moses^ law in particular. 87 

To fides terrestrium, ' the belief of earthly things/ there CHAP. 

are sometimes means and sometimes none. — 

We must believe whether we have means or no means. 

If we have means^ we must, 

a. Use them ; not seek extraordinary, when we have ordi- 
nary ; but yet 
fi. Not trust in the means ; neither 

our art, Hab. i. 16, '^they sacrifice unto their net, and 

bum incense unto their drag ;" 
our goods. Job xxxi. 24, " if I have made gold my hope, 
or have said to the fine gold, thou art my confidence/' 
mighty men. Psalm cxlvi. 3, ''put not your trust in 
princes, nor in the son of man/' 

1. For a right judgment of them, Deut. viii. 8, we must 
know that it is not bread, but God's decree, which nourisheth. 

2. For the right use of them, because without God's bless- 
ing they are nothing, therefore seek strength for them from a 
further power than is in them ; 1 Tim. iv. 4, 5, '* every crea- 
ture of God is good, and nothing to be refused, if it be re- 
ceived with thanksgiving, for it is sanctified by the word of 
God and prayer." 

§ 3. Of fear. 

The duty of faith is to stir up Fear. 

The object of fear is principally God's judgment and jus- 
tice; in which judgment do concur all things that may 
cause fear, for it is, 

1, futurum, ' a thing to come,' Matt. xxiv. 6 ; though all 
this be thus, and thus, yet the end is to come, and shall be 
worst ; 

2, propinquum, ' a thing which is near at hand ;' because 
God is every where, and all things are naked before Him, as 
it is, Heb. iv. 13; 

3, above our resistance, Ps. cxxx. 3, ''if Thou, Lord, 
wilt be extreme to mark what is done amiss, O Lord, who 
may abide it ?" 1 Cor. x. 22, " do we provoke the Lord to 
jealousy ? are we stronger than He ?" 

88 Of Mose^ law in particular. 

And this Iiath it in four things; 
— a. punishment, 2 Cor. v, 10, "for we must all appear 
before thcjudgment seat of Christ, that every one may receive 
the tilings done in his body, according to that he hath done, 
whether it be good or bad ;" 

^. fcarfulness, violent fire, Ileb. x. 27, " a certain fearful 
looking for of judgment and fiery indignation, which shall 
devour the adversaries ;" 

y. suddenness, 1 Thca, v. 3, "when they shall say, peace 
and safety, then sudden destruction cometh upon them, as 
travail upon a woman with child, and they shall not escape ;" 
Prov. i. 27, " when your feai' cometh as desolation, and your 
destruction cometh as a whirlwind," &c. ; 

8, it is without remedy. 

Now as judgment is the object of fear, so because metuitur 
iUe qui malum injtigere potest, ' we fear him who can inflict 
some evil upon us ;' therefore in God we consider, 

1. His authority. He is a king, Mai. i. 14, "I am a great 
king, snitli the Lord of hosts ;" God above all, laa. xlix. 24, 25j 

2. His power, mighty and furious; 

3. That we all lean aud depend upon Him, and He seeth 
and knoweth all our faults. 

Fear is of two kinds. 

1 . Timor servorum, ' a fear of servants ;' of a defect in our- 
selves: and this a good fear, Rom. viii. 15; it is best of all to 
be a son, but better a servant than an enemy ; as Augustine 
saith, si nan potes propter amoremjuatili(e,fac propter timorem 
piente, 'if thou canst not do it for the love of justice, do it for 
the fear of punishment.' 

2. Timor Jiliorum, ' the fear of sons,' which proceedeth of 
love, Ps. xix, 9; love castetb not out this fear, 1 John iv. 
18, hut we must make it as Solomon saith, Prov. i. 7, the 
beginning, and Eccles. xii. 13, the end of all. 

Here are forbidden, 

a. hardness of heart, Eccles. viii. 11, when "because sen- 
tence against an evil work is not executed speedily, therefore 
the heart of the sons of men is fully set in them to do evil ;" 

Of Moae^ law in particular. 

fi. waut of fear, Ps. 1. 21, " thou thouglitcst »-ickedly that c H A r. 
I am even such a one as thyself ; but I will reprove thee, and - - ■ — 
set before thee the thiugs that thou hast done," 

I Means (o beget fear in our hearts. 

I, The consideration of such scriptures as set forth God's 
judgments J 

Heb. X. 31, "it is a fearful thing to fall into the hiuida of 
^^L the living God ;" 

^^^V — xii. 20, " for our God is a consuming fire ;" 
^^V Isa, livi. 15, "behold the Lord will come with fire, and 
^^^B with His chariots like a whirlwind, to render His auger 
^^H with fuiy, and His rebuke with flames of iire." 

II. The consideration of those tria novissima, 'the three last 
things' befalling us; 

1, our end by death; Pa. xc. 12, "so teach us to number 

our days, that we may apply oixr hearts unto wisdom ;" 

2, our account after death, 

2 Cor. V. 10, " we must all appear before the judgment 
seat of Cliriat, that evtry oue may receive the things 
done in his body, according to that he hath done, 
whether it be good or bad ;" 

Heb. ix. 27, " it is appointed unto men once to die, 
but after this the judgment;" 

3, the terror of hell torments. 

III. The examples of God's judgments for sin, 

1, upon the whole world which He had made; 

2, upon Uis church, the quintessence of the world, 
when they sinned in the wilderness; 

3, upon His saints, the quintessence of His church; 
as David His beloved; 

4, on the angels in heaven offending; 

5, on His Son when He took our sins upon Him, and 
felt the bitterness of God's justice, of which one 
saith well, magna amariludo peccati quts tanlata 
amaritutlinem peperil, ' great is the bitterness of 
sin, which is the cause of such bitterness and woe.' 

90 OfMoae^ law in particular. 

§ 4. Of humility. 

Ailer fear comes humility.— IlumUity was reacmbled of 
old by easting dust and ashes on their heads, as not worthy 
to be above the ground. 

True humihty is to give all glory to God, and none to our- 
selves, from whence will follow exaltation, Luke xiv. 11, 
"he that hunibletli himself shall be exalted." 

The graces of God are compared to waters, laa. xii. 8, 
" with joy shall ye draw water out of the wells of salvation ;" 
Rev. vii. 17, " the Lamb . . shall lead them unto linng foun- 
tains of waters ;" and as waters poured upon hills will not 
stay, but run down to tlic lowest places and fill the valleys; so, 
saith Augustine and Clirysostom, the graces of God descend 
unto the lowliest and humblest, and abide not with auy other- 
Humiliation comcth by knowledge of ourselves, what we 
are, and what we ought to be ; which truly to know is the 
true yvStSt aeavrov. 

Nature of true humiliiy. 

1. To ascribe nothing to our own power; Deut. viii. 17, 
not to " say iu tbiuc heart, my power and the might of mine 
hand hath gotten me this wealth ;" 

2. Nothuig to our own merit, Deut. is. 5, "not for thy 
righteousness, or for the uprightuess of thine heart" 

Humility teacheth us to deny ourselves; Matt. xvi. 24, 
" if any man will come after Me, let him deny himself, and 
take up his cross, and follow Me;" to go in fundum, 'into the 
centre of the earth,' and there to see nostrum nihil, ' our 
nothingness,' we have no good in us; and so resign our 
reason as not worth obeying, aud our will as uot worth the 

Advantages of humility. 

1. Humiliation hath tliis privilege, that he that is thus made 
low cannot fall ; for there is nothing lower than the earth, 
and so no fear of the threats of cutting or casting down. 

2. And it hath also the promise of exaltation : which passeth 
reason ; but God, that made all of nothing, and light out of 
darkness, hath made humiliation the way to exaltation ; the 

Of Moses? law in particular. 91 

liumble shall be exalted^ but superbus miser indignus mi^eri- CHAP. 
cordid, ' a miserable man that is proud is unworthy of pity/ — 

Humility comprehendeth three things, 

1, humiliationem cordis, 'the humility of the heart/ to 
desire that God may have all the glory ; 

2, to restrain our appetite from desire of degrees of ex- 
cellency ; 

3, submission to our brethren, 

Ps. cxxxi. 1, " Lord, my heart is not haughty, nor 
mine eyes lofty ; neither do I exercise myself in 
great matters, or in things too high for me ;" 

Phil. ii. 3, ''in lowliness of mind let each esteem 
other better than themselves/' 

Of pride. 

Pride, the contrary to fin the subject, or 
humility, is either \in the object. 

In the subject, 
in superiors' disdain, as Saul to David in the triumph ; 
in inferiors' murmurings, as in Chore. 

In the object, and that either, 

in respect of the gifts, whether they be outward or 
inward; or, 

in respect of something which only seemeth and indeed 
is not, as Rev. iii. 17, "thou say est I am rich, and increased 
with goods, and have need of nothing ; and knowest not that 
thou art wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and 
naked,'' Laodicea; worse than the devil, for he had some- 
thing to be proud of. 

Satan saith of himself, Isa. xiv. 14, ero similis altissimo, 
' I will be like the highest God ;' and to our first parents, 
eritis sicut dii, 'ye shall be gods,' Gen. iii. 5. But we must 
learn, not similis Deo, ' like God,' but humo, ' to the earth,' 
that is humilis, ' humble.' 

Pride is in five things, 

1. Ill tliiukiug we have that which we have not, llev. iii. 
17, Laodicca. 

92 Of Moses' law in particular. 

2, la thinkiBg every little good we have, greater tfann it ia, 
3 Cor. X. 14, "stretching . , ourselves beyond our mea- 
sure ;" 

Ezek. xxviii. 12, "tLou Eealcst up the sum, full of wis- 
dom, and perfect in beauty." 

3, To attribute that we have to our own power, as did 
Nebuchadnezzar J Dan. iv. 30, "is not this great Babylon, 
that I have built for the house of the kingdom by the might 
of my power, and for the honour of my majesty 'f" 

4, To make ourselves the end of that we do or of that we 
have, as did also Nebuchadnezzar, "for the Iiouour of my 

Of these two last there are two signs ; 

a. if bdng rebuked for mis-spending God's blessiugSj 
we say they are our own, and we may do with our own as 
we will ; 

fi. if we murmur against God when He taketh away 
any of His gifts &om us; for seeing we have nothing but 
that God hath lent us, we must be content to pay Him 
that we owe Him. 

5. To give more excellency to ourselves than to others: 

this was the pharisee's fault ; though he did attribute all to 

God, yet he said he was better than other men; Luke xviii. 11, 

" God, I thank thee that I am not as other men are." 

Means to pride. 

1. Because those things which should humble us, puff us 
up and make us proud. 

2, Whereas other sins are in base and vile things, pride ia 
in excellent things ; and when all other sins are beaten down 
and consumed to ashes, even of those ashes nriseth pride; 
yea we are proud that we are not proud, and so pride cometh 
even from humihty. 

Further rules/or humilittj. 

There is also forbidden in this commandment constrained 

humility; such as was in Pharaoh, who was humble for a 

time, so long as God's hand was upon him, hut no longer : 

such men Bernard"' calleth humiliatos non humiles. 

" [In Cm. Serm. 34. to'. 67* F.] 

^ Neither 


0/ Motes' law in pariicular. 

Neither must we be bo humbled aa to give back in a good CHAI 

cause, for detrimenhim veritatis non est commendalio humiii '— 

tatis, ' to cause detriment to truth, can in no wise be a com- 
mendation of humility.' 

We muat thus think of the evil that ia in us, that our evil 
passeth all men's ; of the good that we have, that there is 
more in others than in us. 

Means to h 


1. To consider the baseness of our metal, that we are but 
dust and ashes; and this will bring us to that humility that 
is in the brain. 

2. To bring it into our heart, we must consider that we 
are sinners, bondmen, and slaves to Satan, not having in us 
one good thought. 

3. To consider our afflictions and diseases, the forerunners 
of death. 

4. To consider the examples of humility, and especially 
Christ, whose birth, preaching, miracles, and death, were all 
in humihty. 

Bigns of humility. 

1. In speech, not to talk of high matters and proud things, 
Phil. iv. II, "I have learned in whatsoever state I am there- 
with to be content ;" 

3. To set ever before us bona aliena et mala nostra, ' what 
good ia in others, and what evil is in ourselves ;' 

3. To sufier backbiting and shame, Ps. xsx\-iii. ; 

4. To he content to be condemned that God may have the 

5 5. Of hope. 

Now as out of knowledge apprehending God's justice, came 
fear ; so out of the same, apprehending mercy, cometh hope 
and love. 

And as true fear is timor humilians, ' joined with humility,' 
so true humility hath joined with it hope, lest it should drive 
to despair ; as in Judas, Matt, xxvii, 5, " he cast down the 
pieces of silver in the temple, and departed, and went and 
hanged himself." 

Of Moiea' law in particular. 

To liopc is to look for God'a mercy, whicli is porta spei, 
'the gate of hope;' whence hII good things come. 

How related to other t/races. 

Faith in respect of our weakness bringeth fear, and in 

respect of God's mercy bringeth hope. Faith bclieveth the 

promise, hope looketh for it ; for that maybe believed that is 

not hoped for, as hell. 

Of faith, hope, and charity, Bernard' aaith, 

fides \ freposita sunt bona, 

spea \ inquit J mihi reseri'anlur, 
carilas) i^cun'o ad ilia. 

Fear cometh by the faith of the law, and hope by the faitli 
of the gospel. 

Tlie use of hope. 
The use of hope is twofold ; 

that we rest in hope in this hfe ; 
that we rest not here, but look for a better. 
As our life is a sea, hope is compared to an anchor whereby 
we hold fast ; as it is a warfare, our liope is a helmet to save 
our heads from hurt. As the body liveth spirando, so the 
Boul sperando ; and if it come once desperare, then the party 
is in a miserable case ; for spes vilce immortalia eat vita vitte 
mortalis, ' the blessedness of this life is only the certainty of 
the life to come.' 

Rules Jbr hope. 
In hope three things are to be regarded ; 

1 . We must take heed, that as we went out of ourselves by 
fear, so we do not by hope return to hope in ourselves, but 
our hope must be in God, 

Pa, xssix. 7, "my hope is in Thee;" 

1 Pet. i. 21, " that your faith and hope might be in God." 

2. It must be of things to come ; for hope that is seen is 
no hope. Bom. viii, 24. 

3. The things we hope for must not be looked for with se- 
curity, as if It were an easy matter to be attained ; but 1 Cor. 

• [111 r*. Senn. x. eo!. 538 E.J 

Of Moaea' law in particular. 95 

ix. 27, we must chaateu our bodies and bring tbcm in sub- t 
jectiou. - 

Tfte nature of hope. 
In the nature of hope there arc, 

1. Joy, because we hope for that wbicli is goodj 

2. Grief, because the good wc hope for is delayed ; now 
because dilaiio boni habcl ralionem malt, 'the deferring of 
good is in some kind counted an evil,' therefore our hope 
cannot be secure. And the remedy of the delay is only 
patience, as Augustine* saith in Ps. xsxvi. smj/ihc lu ipsum 
qui guslinwit ie i si suslinitit itle te dam corrigeres vltam 
malani, suatine iu ilium dum coronet viiam boTiam, ' be patient 
towards Ilim, Who was patient towards thee; if He was 
patient with thee till thou didst correct the enormity of thy 
life, be patient at His delay, until He crown thy life godly 
spent ;' and therefore "hold fast," Heb. x. 23. 

Basil compareth tlie gospel to a net, and fear to be the lead 
which maketh it sink and keepeth it steady, and hope the 
cork which keepeth always above ; without the lead of fear 
it would be carried hither and thither, and without the cork 
of hope it would sink down. 

For outward things, or God's temporal gifts, there ia a 
desire lawful when God giveth lawful means to come by 
them; but wc must take heed that we do not mal^ agendo 
quarere, ' seek to get any thing by ill means.' 

Extremea to be avoided in hope. 

The objecti ^^^ (posHbile, ^ f posible, 

of hope is ) \ arduum ; \. hard to obtain. 

That good we look and hope for, is 'to come,' or else it were 
no hope; and not on\j futurum, but arduum, ' hard to come 
by ;' possible, but hard. And from these two come two ex- 
tremes of hope, which are here forbidden, Presumption and 

The firat, presumption. 

The first extreme is, when we consider it to be possible, 
but not bai'd; and so wax idle and fear not, but fall to pre- 

' [vi<i. lol. iv. col. 2G7.] 

96 Of Moses' law in particular. 

r This presumption is, 

— 1. When we presume of ourselves and our own strength, 
whereas we muat know that there is gratia priBveniens, ' pre- 
Tenting grace,' Ps. hx. 10, — "the God of my mercy shall pre- 
vent me," — before wc can do any good ; and so a.\so gratia per- 
ficiens, 'perfecting grace,' to continue in well doing ; and to 
bring it to perfection ; so that of ouraelvea we can do nothing, 
nisi gratia praveniat et subsequaiur, ' unless grace prevent 
and still assist us,' Ps. xxiii. 6, " goodness and mercy follow 
na all the days of our life." 

2. When we presume of others, and hope of help from 
them ; whereas we must know that if God will strike, no raan 
can withstand Him. Fiduciam homini cum Deo prtEStat solits 
Deus homo, id est, Christ us ; 'only God-man, that is Christ, 
can afford and assure ua of confidence before God;' for He 
is the only shield between ua and God's axe; Pb. xviii. 30, 
" the word of the Lord is tried ; He is a buckler to all those 
that trust in Him," 

3. When we presume upon God, not grounding ourselves 
upon Hia word, which begetteth faith, and faith begetteth 
hope ; and this is a false hope, to presume upon God's mercy 
■without repentance for our sins, or amendment of life. 

The second, desperation. 
The second extreme is, when wc consider this bonumfutu- 
rum, ' good to come,' to be hard, and not possible to be 
attained ; and that is called desperation ; and is, 

1, that which cometh of sensuality; when this bonum 
fitturum hath either no taste unto us, or it is not esteemed by 
us ; this is epicurism. Let us eat and drink, to-morrow we 
shall die ; 

2, that which cometh of too great sorrow ; when we 
ima^nc that there is such a thing in the creature as exceed- 
eth the power of the Creator ; which was Cain's error, for 
God's mercy is greater than our misery ; it is above all. 

Tlie means to hope. 
1. Compare the enduring hope of the faithful with the 
perishing hope of the wicked ; Prov. xi. 7, " the hope of un- 
just men perisheth." 

Of the first commandment. 97 

2. Mark the examples of others that hnve hoped and were PAB 

not deceived, Ps. xxii, 4, " our fathers trusted in Thee ; they ~ 

trusted, and Thou didst deliver thora ;" for this is the devil's 
craft, to persuade us that our cause is worae than any man's. 

3. Remember what experience we have had of God's 
mercy, 1 Sam, xvii. 37, " the Lord that delivered me out of 
the paw of the lion and out of the paw of the bear, He will 
deliver me ont of the hand of this Philistine." 

4. Consider the faithfulness of Him that hath promised, and 
that His dicere eatfacere, ' His word and deed are all one.' 

The signs of hope. 

1. Uprightness of conscience, as in Ezekias, 

2 Kings XX. 3, " I beseech Thee, Lord, remember now 
how I have walked before Tiiee in truth and with a 
perfect heart, and have done that which is good in 
Thy sight ;" and, 

1 John iii. 3, "every man that hath this hope in him 
purifiethliimself, even as Ue is pure;" 

custos spei comcientiay 'conscience is the preserver of our 
hope j' 

2. Care to do well ; 

3. Comfort in trouble, 

Rom. V. 3, 4, " we glory in tribulations also : knowing 
that tribulation worketh patience ; and patience, ex- 
perience ; and experience, hope ;" 

Esay sxs. 15, "in quietness and in confidence shall be 
your strength ;" for such as we are in adversity, such 
we are indeed. 

§ 6. Of Prayer. 

The fruit of hope is prayer. Jnlerpres mentis oratio ; spei 
operatio oratio ; precibus, non pasaibas, ilur ad Deum ; 'prayer 
is the interpreter of our mind ; the operation of our hope is 
prayer; we go to God by prayers of our minds, not by 
the paces of our feet ;' therefore ascendat oratio, at descendat 
ffratia, ' let thy prayer ascend, that grace may descend.' 

By prayer is not only meant open prayer, which is called 
' the calves of the lips,' Hoa. xiv. 2, (which is not in this first 
commandment,) hut, 

0/tAefirtt commandment. 

a. the iaward meditation of the heart, 
I Cor. xiv. 15, " praying with the spirit ;" 
Esay xxKviii, 14, Hezekiah's prayer ; Rom. viii. 26, the 
groaning of the spirit, and 
/S. private prayer, in pritate families. Prayer is called 
clavia diet, and sera noclia, ' the key to open the day,' and 
the 'bar to shut in the night.' 

Prayer tnakelh for God's glory. 

Prayer maketli much for God's glory ; and that two ways ; 

1, we acknowledge His goodness and power when we 
become suitors to Him for supply of things ueedfid ; 

2, when we render thanks to Him for whatsoever we 
obtain and enjoy. 

In Psalm cvii. David sets down five sorts of men who in 
this kind glorify God ; 

such as wander out of the way, 

they which are troubled, 


they which are in tempests, 

they which arc in danger of the enemy ; 
all which are delivered by God's goodness and mercy, and 
David thereupon addetb, "0 that men would therefore pmise 
the Lord," &c. 

By prayer, 

the poor are comforted, — Pa. ixxiv. 2, " my soul 
shall make her boast in the Lord ; the humble 
shall hear thereof, and be glad ;" — 
sinners ai-e restored, and 
God glorified ; 
therefore a necessity ia imposed on us to use it. 
Christ, who never instituted any needless thing, indited a 
form of prayer for us. Matt. vi. ; 

And God required morning and evening sacrifice, ex- 
pounded to be nothing else but morning and evening prayer, 
Num. Ksviii. 3, " two Iambs of the first year without spot 

day by day, for a continual bumt-ofi'ering ;" 
Pa. cxli. 2, " let my prayer be set forth before Thee as 

Of Ihe first commandment. tJ9 

incense, and the lifting up of ray bands as the eveumg PA l 

sacrifice ;" 

Dan. vi. 10, Daniel "kneeled upon hia knees three times a 
day, and prayed, and gave thanks before his God, as be 

did aforetime." 

It worketh miracles in all the elements. 

In the air; Elias by prayer shut up the middle region that 
it could not rain, 1 Kings xvii. 1 ; 

In the fire ; 3 Kings i. 10, prayer brought fire from heaven 
to destroy the captaius and their fifties ; 

In the earth; Ps. cvi. 17, at Moses' prayer the earth 
opened, and swallowed Corab, Datban, and Abiram; 

In the water ; Exod. xiv. 16, the Red aea was divided by 
prayer ; 

In the heavens ; the sun stood still, as we read, Joshua x. 

In earthly things ; Esod. svii, 1 1, " when Moses held up 
his band, Israel prevailed ;" 

In death ; Esay xxxviii. 5, EzekJas' life lengthened ; 

With God Himself; Exod. sxxii, 10, when i^oses prayed, 
God as though He suffered violence, bade him, " let Me 

Encouragement to prayer. 
But how may I, miserable man, be bold to pray to the 
eternal God ? 

As one saith, non lua prasumptione, Bed divina permissione, 
'not out of presumption, but by divine permission;' for 

a. God commandctb it; Ps. 1. 15, "call upon Me in the 
day of trouble ;" and, 

ff. if we pray we shall be delivered out of trouble, 

Ps. xci. 15, "he shall call upon Me, and I will answer 
him; I will be with bim in trouble, I will deliver him ;" 
Acta ii. 21, "whosoever shall call on the name of the 
Lord shall be saved ;" but, 
y. if we do not, we shall be cursed, 

Jer, s. 25, " pour out Thy fury upon the hcatbeu that 
know Thee not, and upon the families that call not on 
Thy name." 



100 Of the first commandment. 


PART But if we joiu these two places together, 

^— Matt. yii. 8, unusquiaqve gui petit accipiet, 'every man 

that asks shall speed,' and 
John xvi, 23, qutecunque petieritU, 'whatever ye shall ask,' 
it will make us pray with great confidence, if omnis omnia 
accipiet, if ' every man shall have granted to him every 

fVkal is contained in prayer. 
Invocation ia here commanded ; wherein is 

1, a lifting up of our souls to God with confession of our 
sins, Ps. XXV. 1—7, "unto Thee, O Lord, do I lift up my 
Boul; my God, I trust in Thee, let me not be ashamed, 
let not mine enemies triumph over me; yea, let none that 
wait on Thee he ashamed ; let them he ashamed which 
transgress without cause. Shew me Thy ways, O Lord, 
teach me Thy paths ; lead me in Thy truth, and teach me ; 
for Thou art the God of my salvation, on Thee do I wait all 
the day. Rememher, O Lord, Thy tender mercies and Thy 
loving-kindnesses, for they have been ever of old ; remember 
not the sins of my youth, nor my transgressions ;" 

2, a pouring forth of our hearts to declare our desires, Ps. 
cxlii. 2, " I poured out my complaint before Him ; I shewed 
before Him my trouble." 

• • C' 

Prayer fP«*><'-j 

is either i others . . intercession, frreu|ts, 

V thanksgiving, ^vxapiarla. 

first, of deprecation. 

Deprecation must be, — as James v. 13, " is any among you 
afflicted ? let him pray ;" — in time of affliction, or fear of evil ; 
because remotio mali habet rationem boni, ' the taking away 
of evil is in effect a doing us good,' and so cometh under 
hope, and so to he prayed for. 

Deprecation is in three Ihinya ; 
1, ut malum avertatur, ' to prevent an evil before it come ;' 
Dan, ix. 16, " let Thine anger and Thy fury he turned away 
from Thy city Jerusalem, Thy holy mountain ;" 

f for ourselves j JeP-™"!"". S^'"-, 
(precation, -rvpoaevy^. 

Of the first commandment. 


, u^ malum auferatur, ' to be delivered out of it ;' Ps. xxv. P A a 

22, "redeem Israel, O God, out of all his troubles ;" 

3, tit minuatiir, that it may be uo more thau we may be 
able to bear it; Ps, kxxv. 4, " turn ua, O God of our salva- 
tioa, and cause Thine anger toward us to cease." 


Rules for deprecation. 

1. We must not say as commonly we do, I would I were 
out of the world ; but as Christ prayed for His disciples to 
the Father, John xrii. 15, not that He would take them out 
of the world, but deliver them from evil ; and so doing we 
have God's promise not to be tempted above our strength, 
1 Cor, X. 13, for either our strength shall increase as the 
cross increaseth, or else our trouble shall dimiuiah. 

2. Wc must stand affected aa Jehoshaphat, 2 Chron. xx, 
13, and say, " Lord, we know not what to do," our troubles 
he 80 great and our enemies so many, " but our eyes are upon 
Thee ;" and aa the Three chddren appointed to the fiery fur- 
nace, who said, " we are sure our God can deliver us ; but 
if He will not, we will trust in Him and not serve other 
strange gods," Dan. iii. And Christ set us, a perfect good 
pattern, saying in His agony, " not My will, but Thy will, 
O Father, be done !" 

Secondly, ofprecation. 

Frecation is the desiring of something that is good ; and 
this is very usual in the psalms. It hath three degrees, 
to give to them that want, 
to stablish and confirm them that have, 
to increase it in them that have little. 

Here we must observe certain steps ; 

Unum petit, that is, ' one thing especially,' Ps. xx\-ii. 4, 
Luke xi. 13 ; first pray for the Holy Ghost ; and then for 
temporal things, secundum voluntaiem ef'us, 'according to His 
good pleasure' And here restgnatio is an excellent virtue, to 
submit and resign all we have, yea even ourselves, into God's 
hands; 2 Sam. xv. 26, "here am I, let Ilim do to me as 
seemeth good in His eyes." 

102 Of the first commandment. 

'■ Que»t. But dotli omni» omnia accipere? hath every man 

- granted to him all good ? 

Answ. Surely mnny ask and receive not ; and then seeing 
God hath commanded us to ask, and if we do not ask He is 
offended with uh, surely therefore the cause why we receive 
not, must be in ourselves, and in our asking. 

So that in asking, this we hold, 

1. That it is not a demonstrative sign of grace and favour 
always to have our prayers heard and our requests granted, 
Fb. Ixxviii. 29} and that the devils sometimes have their 

2. We must know that the denying of our requests is not 
a sign of reprobation; as we see in Paul, 2 Cor. xii. 8; and 

a. Qod doth not deny ua our just requests, but defer the 
granting of them, that we might ask more earnestly and 
esteem them more highly ; for desideria dilalione crescunt, et 
cito data vilescunt, 'our desires by being delayed are inflamed, 
and requests easily granted seem not worth acceptance;' 

/3. or else God defen-eth the granting of our requests to 
bestow a better thing upon us, as grace to Paul; 

y. or if oiu- requests be not made aright, then they are like 
children's prayers, that will ask a knife to hiurt them, as well 
as bread to feed them, and those things, non accipiendo acci- 
pittius, ' we receive, yet receive not.' 

Of interceation. 

Intercession is to pray for others ; (of this Angustine to 
Ambrose, Frater, si pro le solum ores, solus pro le oras ; si 
pro omnibus oras, amnes pro ie orant, 'brother, if you pray for 
yourself only, you pray alone for yourself; if you pray for all 
men, all men pray for you;') 

for the L-hurch, Ps. cxxii. 0, "pray for the peace of 

Jerusalem ;" 
for governors, Rora. xv. 30, "I beseech you, brethren, 
. . that ye strive together with me in your prayers 
to God for me;" 
for our natiu^ brethren, 1 John v. 16, " if any man see 
his brother sin a sin which is not unto death, he shall 

Of the first commandment. 103 

Bsk, and He ahall give Him life for them that sin not PAR 

UDto tieath;" HL 

for our enemies. Matt. v. 44, "pray for them which 
despiteful ly use you, aud persecute you," 

Gregory upon the Evangelists', speaking on Jer. sv, 1, 
where it is said, "though Samuel and Mosea," &c. asketli the 
question, Why these men are mentioned? and anawereth. 
Because they prayed for their enemies ; Mosea for the Israel- 
ites when they would stone him^ and Samuel for them when 
they woidd depose him from ruling over them. 

And these prayers are most effectual ; for qui pro a/iis oral, 
is pro ae laborat, ' be that prayeth for others, lie striveth for 
himself;' for though he profit not them, it shall profit him- 
aelf, his prayer shall be turned into his own bosom, Fs. 
ixxv. 13. 

Thirdly, of thanksgiving. 

Thanksgiving is the last point of prayer. 

God's glory is the chiefest end ; and therefore, whether we 
receive before wc ask, Esay Ixv. 21, or when we ask, Matt. 
vii. 8, it is reason we consider, ^id relribuam, ' what shall I 
return unto the Lord?' Pa. cxvi. 12. 

The heathcu could say, gratus animus est meta benignitatis, 
'a thankful mind is all which a kind and good heart airaeth 
at.* And it is the condition of the obligation wherein God 
hath bound Himself by His promise to hear us, Ps. 1. 15, 
" thou shalt glorify Me ;" so that if thou dost not glorify 
Him by thanksgiving, thou breakest the covenant, aud art 
an usurper. 

Thanksgiving standeth infow things. 
1. Confession, that we have received it from heaven, and 
not from oiu-selves; as Austin saith, tit is qui confitelur 
liabere se quod non habet, est tenierartus, sic qui habere ae 
negat (pus habet, ingralus; ideaque utendum est ut daiia, non tU 
innalis, vt alterius, non noalri, ' as lie that coufesseth that he 
hath that which he hath not, ia rash ; so he that dcnieth that 
ho hath what he enjoyethj is unthankful : therefore we must 

• [Horn, xxvii. i 8, vol i. coL 1664.] 

Of the first commandment. 

what we have as things given us, not as things spriiigiug 
- from ourselves, as things that are another's and not our 

2. Contentation, when we rest in the gifts of God, and are 
satisfied with that which we have, Ps. xvi. 6, " the hues are 
fallen unto me iu pleasant places, yea I have a goodly 

3. Annunciation, to tell it to others what God hath done 
for ua; Ps. Ixvi. 16, "come and hear, all ye that fear God, 
and I will declare what He hath done for my soulj" 

— in the congregation, Ps. cxi. 1, " I will praise the Lord 
with my whole heart, in the assembly of the upright, 
and iu the congregation ;" 

— yea to all nations, Ps. Ivii. 9, "I will praise Thee, O 
Lord, among the people, I will sing unto Thee among 
the nations;" 

— yea to all posterity, Ps. sxii. 31, "they shall come, and 
shall declare His righteousness unto a people that shall 
be born, that lie hath done this ;" not to keep close the 
graces of God. 

4. Exhortation to others to do the lilfC; Ps. xcv. 1, "O 
come, let us sing unto the Lord, let us make a joyful noise 
to the Rock of our salvation ;" and if there were no men, we 
should call upon the creatures to praise God, Ps. cxlviii. 

Thanks is never truly given to God, but there is a better 
thing received; as Bernard" saitli, ascenstis gratiarum est 
descensus ffratia, ' upon the ascending of thanks followcth a 
descending of grace;' and grace fails when our thauks fail. 

The excellency of thanksgiving. 

The excellency of thanksgiving is well to be considered. 

Chrysostom asking the question, Why David was called a 
man after God's own heart ? answcrcth, Because David saw 
thiinksgiviug most of all pleased God, and therefore used it 
most of all ; he esteemed prayer as an excellent thing, Ps. Iv. 
17, and appointed certain hours thereunto, yet he preferred 
the praising of God above all, and therefore used it seven 
times a day. 

Of the first commanduwnt . 


And for this cause the christiaa church, and hmumerable PAR' 
angels, yea all the creatures in heaven, earth, and sea, sang — .— ^ 
praises, saying, "praiae, and honour, and glory, and power, 
be unto Him that sitteth on the throne, and unto the Lamb 
for evermore," Rev. v. 11, &c. 

Hence David counted his tongue exercised in the praises 
of God the best member which he had; therefore in the 
church of God every mau should speak of his praise. 

And this was the reason why the fathers ended with a 
doxology, " Now to Jesus Christ with the Father and Holy 
Ghost, be given all honour, praise, glory," &c. "for evermore." 

Why it is that we may ask and not receive. 

But to speak a little more concerning that question, quare 
turn omtds omnia accipit qua petit ? 
For the matter of our petitions ; 
Right invocation must be, 

1. Animata, 'our hearts set upon it;' therefore it is that 
David chargeth his soul to praise the Lord ; our praycra iniist 
be with understanding, or else they are without life ; there- 
fore saith Paul, " I will pray with the spirit and with the 
understanding also," 1 Cor. xiv. 15. 

2. Our prayer must be constant, not like the waves of the 
Bea; bnt seeing prayer is tnterpres spei, and abbreviarium 
fidei, ' the interpreter of our hope, and the brief sum of our 
faith,' therefore it must be aa an anchor to take fast hold, 
not wavering or slippery ; 

James i, 6, " he that waveretli is hke a wave of the sea 

driven with the wind and tossed;" 
Pa, cxlv. 18, "the Lord is nigh unto all them that call 

upon Him, to all that call upon Him in truth." 

3. With humiUty, or else it is no prayer; a form whereof 
we have, Dan. ix. 18, "we do not present our supplications 
before Thee for our righteousnesses, but for Tby great 

4. We must not make absurd prayers, orationea sine 
ratitmef 'orisoas without reason;' namely, when we do acce- 
€lere pro pace $ive pro retnisaione peccatorum, et ipsi peccata 

106 Of the first commandment. 

T relinemus, as TertuUiau'' saitb, 'pray for peace and remiBsioa 
— of our aius, and yet persist in our sins ;' Low can we say to 
God, Forgive mc, and to our brother, Pay me ? 
a. We must give therefore if we will receive, 

Prov, xsi. 13, " whoso stoppcth his ears at the cry of the 
poor, he also shall cry himself, but shall not be 
heard ;" 
j9. and we must forgive, if we will have forgiveness, 
Mark si. 25, "when ye stand praying, forgive, if ye have 
ought against any, that your Father also wliich is in 
heaven may forgive you your trespasses." 

5. "We must not set days to God, wherein if we be not 
heard, we will leave prayer and God too ; but we must pray 
continually, without faintiug ; 

1 Thes. V. 17, "pray without ceasing;" 
Luke xviii. 1, "men ought always to pray, and not to 

Means to prayer. 

Prayer is the menus of all other graces ; therefore it hath 
110 means, yet helps it liath. 

1. To consider our own imperfections; to have aa it were 
a table of our wants. 

2. To consider God's benefits, to have a register of them. 
— David made a diligent search after God's benefits, even the 
least of them ; and his course was, 

a. first to give thanks for new benefits, Ps. si. 1, 3, " I 
waited patiently for the Lord ; and He inclined unto me, 
and heard my cry ; — and He hath put a new song in my 
mouth, even praise unto our God;" 

/3. if there were no new, then blessed be God for His old 
loving-kindness ; Ps. cxiLxix., he thanks God for taking 
him from his mothei''s womb. 

If thus we would recount God's goodness to us, we should 
never have any idle time, so great are His mercies, so many 
first and last, least and most, arc His blessings upon us. 

3. Fasting, which is as it were the wings of prayer; as 

" [ Ornt., { 10. p. las.j 

Of the first commantlmenl. 



Augustine' saitli, jejimium orationU robur, 'fnsting rUs PAR' 

strength to prayer/ oraiio vis jejunii, ' prayer gives strength 

to fasting.' 

4. To desire other men's prayers to help us, as one saith, 
si oratio tuafulmen sit, ascettdal ad ccelum sola et per se ; si 
non, sit grando inter imbrem ,- * if thy prayer be as a thunder- 
bolt, let it be sent up to lieavcu alone, and by itself; if not, 
let it be as hail amidst drops of rain,' that is, assume the 
prayers of the godly. 

Signs of thankfulness are, 

To have the soul satisfied as with marrow and fatness. 
Pa. kiii. 5. 

To have a care of God's glory. Pa. Ixri. 8, " bless our 
God, ye people, and make the voice of Hia praise to be 
heard ;" 

And a care to please God for His benefits, Ps, liv. — For 
the joy of the benefit received must not take away our care 
to be thankful. 

We shew our readiness to this duty when we provoke 
others to it, " Come, let us rejoice," Ps. xxsiv. 3, yea to call 
all creatures to praise God, Ps. cxlviji,, as David did. 

§ 7. Of the Love of God. 

After the obtaining of that whicli wc pray for, followeth 

love ; and whereas we said before that to have a thing was, 

first to know it, and then to esteem it ; this esteeming doth 

properly appertain to love. 

Love is 

1, concupiscenlicB, ' of concupiscence,' when we love to the 
end to receive some good thing of him whom we love, called 
amor mercenarius, ' mercenary love ;' 

2, benevolentite, 'of good will,' without respect of any 
good looked for, called yratuitus, ' a free love.' 

Others divide love to be, 

^oniam, ' because" He hath heard our voice ; 
tametsi, 'though' He kill us. Job xiii. 16. 

' [vid. Setiii. in Qii«dr. ccvi., iq., vol, v, col, 922, 92*.] 

108 Ofthejii-st commandment. 

We may also distinguish love, as if ^ meats, 
wo ahoidd be said to love our \ friends. 

In the one we love oiir own good, quvd cupimus, 'which we 
have a desire uuto ■' 

In the other, to do them good, quiime benevolumus, 'to 
whom we wish well.' 

The Apostle saith, 1 Cor, xv. 46, " that is not first wliich 
IB Spiritual, but that which is carnal;" which Auguatinej 
Basil, Ambrose, and Bernard refer to faith aud love, shewing 
that Cresar's virtues were in greater account than Cato's; 
Cesar's being courtesy, affability, clemency, liberality, &c., 
Cato's, constancy, faithfulness, justice, &c. ; because these 
reached not to the commodity of others, as the former did. 
That which is natural will be first, concupiscentia, ' a concu* 
piscence," before it be cupidilas, ' a desire ;' aud because nemo 
repeniefit gummua, 'no man presently cometh to the highest 
pitch' of love, we must take this amor viercenariua, ' merce- 
nary love,' as the inchoation aud mean whereby to attain to 
the other which is gratuitus, * a free love.' 

Love above faith and hope. 

Love is the greatest virtue, even above faith, and liope ; 

1. In breadth, for faith and hope are withiu the bounds of 
man's person, but love is to God Himself, and from Him to 
our friends, yea our enemies ; beatus gin amat te el amicos in 
te et immicoa propter te, ' blessed is he, who loveth Thee, and 
his friends in Thee, and his enemies for Thy sake,' saith 

2, In length; where the other end with life, love is after 
this life, even in heaven. 

Aud whereas faith and hope are in us, but not in God at 
all; love is in Godj yea. He loved us first; as Bernard saith, 
nescio quid amore majus; deduxit Deum de calo, hominem 
invexit in calum, Deum homini pacavit, hominem Deo recon- 
ciliavit, ' I know not what is greater than love ; it brought 
God from heaven, it elevated man to heaven, it appeased 
God's anger towards man, it reconciled man to God.' 

1 [Coiifea*., lib. iv. cap. 9, vol. i. cuL 102.] 

^^^^ An^ l-liATi Bin 

Of the first commandment. 

Why we should love God. 

And then seeing magnet amorU e»t amor, 'love is the lode- 
stOHC attractive of love,' Riid God hath loved us first ; great 
cause have we to love God again, who hath loved ua^ 

1. Prior, 'first;' 1 John iv, 19, "we love Him, because He 
first loved us;" durus eat qui amorem non rependit, 'he is 
hard liearted who requites not love with love ;' 

2. Tantus, 'so great;' as Augustine, non licet conari expri' 
mere quantus, 'we may not attempt to express how great 
He is ;' 

3. Tantillos, ' as small as could he ;' even before we were, 
Kom. ix, 11, "the children being not yet bom, neither 
having done anv good or cWl ;" 

4. Tales, ' so ill conditioned ;' Rom. v. 10, " when we were 
enemies ;" 

5. Tantiim, 'so highly;' as we may see in God 

I a. the Father, His tanlum, 'so much love,' John iii. 16; 

tic, 'so greatly,' that He spared not His own Sonj 
^. the Son, His tantum, 'so much love,' content to 
leave heaven and to come down and suffer 
ignominy, Matt, xxvii. 63, "that deceiver;" 
poverty, Luke is. 58, "the Son of man hath not 
where to lay His head ;" 
sickness, Esay liii. 4, 5, " He hath borne our griefs, 
and carried our sorrows ;" 
hatred, John V. 18, "the JevFs sought to kill Him;" 
death itself, John xv. 13, "greater love hath no man 
than this, that a man lay down his life for his 
friends ;" 
and all for our aakcs, for the love He bore us ; 
7. the Holy Ghost, His tanlum, 'so much love,' as to 
come and dwell with us when Christ left us; Rom. v. 5, 
" the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the 
Holy Ghost which is given unto us." 
So that wc may say, Wliat could God do more? 

6. Gratia, 'freely;' Pa. svi. 2, "my goodness extendeth 
it to Thee ;" He can receive nothing of us but love; ruMl 

• [S. Bern. Dc < 

e, CKp. 51. col. !SSg.] 

1 10 Of the first commandinent. 

T autem decentina quam ut amor amore compcjtsetur, 'notbing 
doth more beseem us than to return lore for love.' 

How much we should love God. 

Qitest. Now how much should we love God again ? 

Atisiv. Bernard answereth this question; quia fecisti me, 
idea me tibi debeo ; nunc aulem cum renovasH, quantum ? dicta 
me fecisti, aed renovasli mullis dictis,factis, passia, 'because 
Thou hast made me, therefore I owe myself to Thee; but 
now seeing that Thou hast made me aneWj what do I owe 
Thee? Thou madest me with a word, but Thou hast made 
me anew with many words, deeds, sufferings.' 

And with the second making there came the gift of God 
himself; nisi dedisset se pro te, non reddidisset te tibi; si me 
solum mihi reddidisset, potui me ilH denuo; at cum se mi/ti, 
quid illi reddam ? ' had not Christ given Himself for thee, 
He had not restored thee to thyself; bad He restored 
myself only to myself, I could have given myself to Him 
again ; but when as He bath given Himself unto me, what 
shall I return to Him again?' Yet that which followeth is 
our comfort, etenim si non passim quantum debeo amare, ultra 
quod possum, si possim, velim ; et si minus reddo, quia minor 
sum, quia tamer), totd ammd dtligo, nihil deest, 'surely if I can 
not love Ilim so much as I ought, I would go farther than I 
can, if I could ; and if I return leas to Him because I am leas, 
yet because I love Him with my whole heart there is nothing 
defective,' — And so this we must labour to attain unto, to 
love Him with all our heart and all our soul. 

Our love to God may be examined by this, whether we be 
contenti lege Domini, ' content with God's law ;' for qui regem 
amat, legem amat, ' he that lovcth the king, loveth the law ;' 
and so it is with God and His law. 

The contrary f amor mundi, ' the love of the world,' 
to this is \ amor sui, ' the love of a man's self.' 

Means of love. 
Among many, one means to make us love God, is the con- 
sideration of the profit we shall reap by it ; He hath given 
His Son for a price. His Spirit for a pledge, and He reserveth 

Of the first commandment. 

Himself for a reward ; dedit Fllium pretium pro nobis. Spirt- PART 

turn sanctum testem, el seipsum pro nobis sei-vat, daturus coro ' 

nam, ' He gave His Son a price to purchase us, the Holy 
Ghost a witness testifying His truth to us, and He hath 
reserved Himself for ns, when He will give ua the crown of 

Sifftis of love. 

1. To think of God with a deep thought, a long thought, 
and an often thought, cogitatione profundd, continuatd, crebrd; 
for Matt. vi. 21, ubi thesaurus, ibi animus, ' where the trea- 
sure is, there will the heart be also ;' 

2. To esteem well of the pledges of God's love, the word 
and sacraments ; 

3. Ubi amor, ibi oculus, 'where the love is placed, there 
will the eye be;' as Esau's eye was on the pottage, Gen. 
ssv. 31 ; 

4. A grief for God's absence from us, Ps. cxx. 5, " woe is 
me that I sojourn in Mesech, that I dwell in the teats of 
Kedar 1" 

5. Not to think the time long that we serve Him, as Jacob 
because he loved Rachel, thought seven years a short time. 
Gen. xxix. 20; 

6. To be afraid to lose Him ; quod cupis habere, times per- 
dere; cuicunque cupis coniungi, ab eo times separari, 'that 
which thou desirest to have, thou art aii-aid to lose; to 
whomsoever thou desirest to be united, thou wilt fear to be 
separated from him ;' 

7. To be grieved when we think we have lost Him, and 
feel not our former comfort ; 

8. To have a care to recover God's love again, Ps. cxxxii. 4, 
" I will not give sleep to mine eyes, or slumber to mine 
eyelids," &c.; 

9. If we can be content to love God so much the more, if 
all men beside ourselves should hate Him, as Ps. cxix. 126 sq., 
" they have made void Thy law, therefore I love Thy com- 
mandments above gold, yea above fine gold;" 

10. If neither water can quench it, nor fire consume it, 
but we can forego all for it. 


112 Of the first commandment. 

Effects of love. 

Now the two eEFects of love arc, obedience, and patience. 

Of obedience Gregory Baitli, probatio dileciioais est exhi- 
bitio oper'in, ' the proof of our love is seen by the prompt- 
ness of our good works ;' obedience then as the active, and 
patience as the passive, do both depend upon love. 

First effect of love, obedience. 

Love between equals ia called amicida, 'friendship,' but 
where one party is superior, reverentia, 'reverence,' or rather 
observantia, 'observance,' the natural act whereof is obedience ; 
and though Christ be our friend and our brother, yet the 
apostles call themselves His servants, and Bom. vi. 16, 
" whom ye obey, his servants ye are," 

In the Lord's prayer, in the first petition we desire to 
glorify God's name, and that is by the kingdom of God 
coming, and that comcth by doing His will, which is obe- 

Nihil facii bonoa vel malos mores, sed boni vel tnali amores, 
' nothing raaketh our carriage good or evil, but our good or 
evil love,' Augustine. 

The causes of all evil, and of the want of obedience arc 

amor male injlammans, ' love inflaming to evil,' 
timor maid humilians, ' fear dejecting us to evil,' 

That our obedience may be true, there must be idem velle, 
and idem itolle, ' a willing and nilling the same,' betwixt God 
and us ; suffering all our actions and all our wills to be ruled 
and directed by God's will. 

Obedience better than sacrifice. 
Though sacrifice be acceptable unto God, yet obedience is 
better than sacrifice; 

1. In obedience offertur propria voluntas, 'our own will is 
offered ;' that which is onr own, as it is dearer to us, so it is 
better accepted of God ; but in sacrilice we offer strange flesh, 
and not our own. 

2. In obedience we offer up ourselves a lining sacrifice ; in 
the other, dead flesh of slain beasts. 

Of the first commandment. 

8. In sacrifice the things may be our own, but in obedi- PART 

enee we offer ourselves ; and obedientia non potest plus dare '■ — 

quam dedil, dedil enim se, 'obedience cannot give more than 
it hath given, for it gave itself.' 

4. Obedience is juge sacrijicium, ' a daily sacrifice ;' a per- 
petual mortifying of tlie will, reason and members, &c. 
whereas sacrifices are consumed in an honr. 

Obedience is a compound word of oh and audio ; and the 
rule of compounds is, in composilis et copulativis ulruwque 
faciendum, 'in compounds and copulatives both parts must 

We have great reason to hear Him, because He heareth 
us ; neither can we hear a better counsellor, and if we hear 
not Ilim we shall hear a worse ; for oves qui non audiunl pas- 
torem, incidunt in lupos, ' tlicy that will not follow the shepherd 
to the pastures, shall follow the butcher to the sliambles.' 

And the next thing in obedience is to keep that we hear. 

The degrees of disobedience are, 

1, negligeiUia ubiqite culpabilis, 'negligence, which is every 
where culpable ;' Matt. xxii. 13, " friend, how earnest thou in 
hither not having a wedding garment '(" 

2, contemplvs ubique dainnabilis, ' contempt, which is eveiy 
where damnable;' Luke xiv. 18, "they all with one consent 
began to make excuse." 

Sifftts of obedience. 

1, If we obey iu God's law as well that point which the 
prince's law doth not take hold of as that which it doth, as 
namely, the third and fourth command incnta ; 

2, If iu those things wherein God aeemeth to strive with 
nature, we follow God, and prefer Him before our parents, 
our brethren and kindred, as Abraham did. 

Second effect of love, patience. 
Tlie second proper effect of love is patience; "Charity 
suffereth long," 1 Cor. xiii. 4; it is a fruit of love. A 
heathen man said, non amo quenqnam, nisi ojfeadam, ' I love 
not any man, unless 1 offend him,' for so I shall know 
whether he love me or no, by his forbearing of me; and 

Ofthejirtt commandment. 

ART AuguBtine Bfiith, qui desinii sustineFe, desinil amare, 'he that 

— - — - ceaseth to bear with me, ceasetli to Igve me,' 

Durum pati, 'it is a difficult matter to suffer,' for evil is 
the object to patience ; so that patience is never propter se, 
ted propter magis bonum, 'for itself, but for a greater good,' 
And this is the reason of Christianity, that ve sufl'er wrong 
and forbear a little pleasure licre on earth, that we may have 
greater joy iu heaven ; so that ai'dor desideriorumfacit loleran- 
Ham malorum, ' vehcmency of desire makes us patient of evil.' 

We offend against patience, when we are ignorant of 
the original of affliction, and consider not the cause from 
whence it cometh, and ho separate God from being the 
author thereof; and 

1, if the afiiiction be within ua, we take unto ourselves 
terrenas consolationes, 'earthly comforts,' our pleasurea and 
our friends, and so labour to drive it awaj' ; 

2, if the affliction be without, ascribe it humori natura, non 
raliovi i/ratm, ' to the course of nature, not to the course of 
God's grace ;' then we tliink we have injury, and so look not 
to God that is the smiter, but unto man that is but God's 

Means to patience. 

1. To consider that we suffer justly, we deserve it, Luke 
xsiii. 41, " we receive the dne reward of onr deeds ;" 

2. As it is just, so it is of faith in regard of the promise, 
Ps. Ixxxix. 33, sq., that His mercy shall never be taken away; 
" My loving-kindness will I not utterly take from him, nor 
suflFer My faithfulness to fail ; My covenant will I not break, 
nor alter the thing that is gone out of my lips ;" 

3. To consider, that continual prosperity in temporal 
things is not always a sign of God's favour, but rather the 

4. Seeing thou canst not help it, make a lirtue of neces- 
sity, Acts ix. 5, "it is hard kicking against the pricks;" 
therefore do it willingly, and suffer patiently. 

Of the cause of affiiction. 
A great mean to patience is to consider the cause of afflic- 
tion, both the beginning and the end. 

■ Of the first commandment. llu 

' Of the beg'mnini/ of affliction. 

For the beginning of affliction, it is from God, Who is 
indeed not only the sovereign goodj but the author, origi. 
nal, and fountain of all good; from Whom it is as impos- 
sible that any evil should be derived, as for Himself to be 
evil. God's smiting us is good and healthful for us; He 
abhors to hiut and to he hurt, for He is an only and sove- 
reign power doing us good. 

Those that do not consider this are like Simon of Cyrene, 
that carried the cross and was not crucified on it ; and such 
men, if their afflictions be within them, they take terrenaa 
eonsolationes, 'earthly consolations,' to drive them away; if 
they be without them, they judge them ex aliorum facto, ' by 
others' deeds,' to be injuries ; and so omittenfes Deum pei-(ms~ 
Borem homines baculo petunt, ' passing by God Who sroiteth 
them, they fall upon men with their weapons,' who are but 
God's instruments. 

Whereas they should consider that God's punishments are 
of two sorts, 

a. some mere punishments, which befal plainly without the 
concurrence of man's intention or hand, as famine, dearth, 
earthquake, the earth's barrenness, inundations, diseases, 

, death; iu all these there is nothing impure, because they 
flow from a most pure fountain ; 

I j9. other punishments arc of a mixed nature, because they 
are inflicted by using men as His inatruraenta ; such are 
tyranny, wars, oppressions, slaughters; in these there is 
Bometbing impure, because they flow and stream along 
through the impure channel of human affection. 

Of men a» God's irtstruments herein. 

I Quest. But is there any injustice in the execution hereof? 

Answ. In regard of men there is often injustice, but in 

I regard of God never any. The instruments are oftentimes 

' as the Sabeans were against Job; look therefore to the 

I author, not to the actor ; as David did when Shimei railed 

on him, 3 Sam, xvi. 10, 12, "the Lord hath said unto him, 

Curse David ; who shall then say, Wherefore hast thou done 

Of the first commandment. 

? — It may be that the Lord will look on mine aEQiction, 
and that the Lord will requite me good for his cursing." 

Neither must we curiously enquire why God uscth the 
wicked to punish the godly ; consUia enim Dei miranda sunt, 
non rimanda, cut uni licet quod libet, et nihil Met nisi quod 
licet, ' God's counsels are to be admired, not questioned j 
because He alone can do what He pleascth, and lie lists to 
do nothing but what is best.' 

Princes deal by inferior magistrates; magistrates have 
their executioners; parents sometimes punish by their ser- 
vants ; why may not God do the like, and when He pleaseth, 
to punish by His own hand ; and when it secmeth good to 
Him, to punish by the hand of some other? Nebuchad- 
nezzar is called God's servant ; if an angry servant have a 
mischievous bent, it's no matter ; for thy part let him alone, 
and look to the mind of Him that sets him on work ; for thy 
Fatfier, Who bids him smite thee, stands by, so that the ser- 
Taut shall not midtiply one stripe more than thy Father's pre- 
scription gives way to. The devil also God sometimes useth 
to aflict His children, but he is bound within certain limits, 

What point of wisdom is greater than to draw good out of 
evil, and to turn destruction into salvation ? Now the power 
of God doth especially demonstrate itself, because it not only 
doth overcome His enemies, but doth also draw them to Him 
and to His tents and party, that they war for Him. Which 
thing falls out daily, when God's will is done upon evil men, 
though it he by evil men; when those things which ill men 
do against Hia will. He so moderates, that yet they be not 
done beside His will. 

Of the etuis of . 

Now for the ends of afflictions ; they are tliree 
to exercise good men ; 
to chastise such as have slipped; 
to punish wicked men. 

First, to exercise good men. 
First, to exercise the good ; and this very profitable, both 


Of the first commandment. 

confirm themselves and othersj and alao to try and prove paeT 

1. To confirm themselves; the seaman is taught by a 
tempest, the soldier by dangerous enterprises, and a faithful 
man by afflictions ; trees shaken by the winds take deeper 
root, and good men assaulted by the waves of affliction stick 
closer to virtue. 

2. To confirm others also; the courage and patience of 
good men in affliction is as it were a torch light to this dark 
world; and they call others by their examples, as it were 
chalk out their way where they should go. Paul was killed 
by Nero, but the aie which killed him animates and secures 
us boldly to die for the truth. To conclude ; so many select 
iujuriously and violently smitten and slain, by the streams of 
their blood embolden us to persist firm and constant. Now 
all these things would be buried in obscurity, without the 
bright shining of affliction. 

3. To try and prove them also ; how else could any man 
be assured of hia firmness? It was therefore a noble speech 
of Demetrius, No man seems to me more unhappy than he 

»who never felt adversity. 
I Secondly, to chastise such as have slipped. 

Secondly, to chastise and correct those that are fallen. 
Affliction is to us as a whip wlien we have sinned, as a 
bridle before we sin to keep us from it ; so that, 

1, as the Persians, when they wotdd punish a nobleman, 
took his garments and smote them as the man himself; so 
God our Father in all our castigations toucheth not us, but 
our body, riches, lands and outward estate; 

2, chastisement also is a bridle, which Grod opportunely 
puts into our mouths when He sees us about to sin, as provi- 
dent physicians sometimes let thee blood, not because thou 
art sick, but lest thou shouldst be sick ; so God by calamities 
takes those things firom us which would be the fuel and 
bellows kindling vice in us, for He knows the nature and 
bent of all men which lie hath made. 

Thirdly, to puvish vncked men. 
Thirdly, to punish the wicked. Punishment doth properly 
taia to evil men ; yet is not evil, but good, 

118 Of the first commandment. 

a. firat, if you look unto God, tlie law of Whose justice 

- requires that men's sins should either be amended, or taken 

quite away ; now chastisement takes away those which can 

be washed off, those which cannot, punishment takes away; 

ff. secondly, if you regard men, whose society eauDot 
stand if violent and wicked-natured men shall slip away 
im punished ; 

7. thirdly, if you regard the wicked men themselves run- 
ning headlong into vice and mischief; they cannot be 
drawn therefrom without cutting off, therefore God's plea- 
sure is to take them away lest they should ever sin ; 

B. fourthly, in respect of justice, for all punishment is 
good, and all impunity is evil. 

And thus much of the first point, that we must have a 

There remain yet two points, 

The second, to have Him for our God, which is Religion ; 

The third, to have Him alone, which is Sincerity; 
and out of the words "before Me," Integrity; 
and out of the word " shalt," Perseverauee. 

5. 8. Of religion. 
Our affection is evermore bent to some religion ; 

either an idol ; 1 Cor. «ii. 7, " some with conscience of 
the idol unto this hour eat it as a thing offered unto 
an idol," &c. ; 
or the world ; 2 Cor. iv. 4, " the god of this world hath 

bhnded the minds of them which believe not;" 
or our belly ; Phil, iii. 19, " whose god is their belly ;" 
or money; Eph. v. 5, " covetous man, who is an idola- 
ter ; " 
All these dishonour the true God ; and therefore it is not 
enough to have a god, but we must have a true God. 

Chief errors in reliffion. 

In religion there arc three usual errors; 
1, when we never seek more, but, "in this I was born, 
and in this will I die," and so religion Bndcth us, and not 

Of the first commandment. 

2, when we take unto ourselves a religion upon some PAET 
offence, and stubbornness to be revenged of some injuiy ; '- — 

3, when religion is upon & sudden found out, and as it 
were stumbled upon, without cither ordinary study or ordi- 
nary time. 

Cutest. But if a man be born in time of true religion, 
what need then any more search? 

Anaw. I say, yet he must probare, ' try and examine' it, 
whether it be true or no, which is proportionable to the seek- 
ing of it. 

We must seek it therefore, and that, 

1, before all other things, Matt. vi. 33, " seek ye first the 
kingdom of God;" first of all, for it sanctifieth all other 
things J we must " seek the Lord while He is near," laa. Iv. 6, 
lest while we are seeking other things He be gone farther 

2, with our whole heart, after a, serious and earnest and 
hearty manner; Dent, iv, 29, "thou shalt find Him, if thou 
seek Him with all thy heart and with all thy aoid ;" Jer. 
xsLt. 13, "ye shall seek Me, and find Me, when ye shall 
search for Me with all your heart." 

Having sought religion, and found it, we must rest in it, 
" consenting to wholesome words," 1 Tim. vi, 3, and make 
it our girdle, Eph. vi. 14, our " loins girt about with truth," 
Contrary to this resting in true religion, are 
schism in things indifferent ; 
heresy in great matters ; 
apostasy, denjing and falhng from all. 

Means to true religion, 
a. Beading the scriptures; Acts viii. 38, the eunuch; 
/3. prayer, alma and fasting; Acts x. 10, Cornelius; 
y. to increase our small knowledge; Acts xviii. 24, Apollos. 

Signs of true religion. 

A-uputioe in his book De chdtale Dei, mentioneth four ; 
the antiquity ; 
the purging of the soul ; 

Of the first commandment. 

the small begiiiniug ; 
the examples of virtue. 
Thus much of religion. 

§ 9. Of sincerily. 

aiucerity is to have God alone for our God, commnnded 
in those words, Matt, iv. 10, "with all thy heart, with all 
thy soul;" so expounding that word "only," Deut. vi. 13, 
for He will not give His glory to another. 

Onr worship of God must be sincere, 

1, in respect of the matter, that it be not corrupt, not 
mingled with falsehood ; 

2, iu respect of the quality or affection, that it be not, 

lukewarm, half hot, half cold. Rev. iii. 16; 

like to them, Isa. xxviii. 15, to whom all things are 

alike, " we have made a covenant with death, and 

with hell are we at agreement;" 
double hearted ; James iv. 8, " purify your hearts, 

ye double minded." 

Of inleffrity. 

Now for integrity ; " before Me." 

This commandment is by this addition distinguished from 
the other three that follow; the other concerning God's out- 
ward worship, this His inward. 

The Lord fashioned the eye, Ps. xciv. 9, yea He framed 
the spirit, Znch. xii. 1, and therefore seeth more than the eye 
or spirit, yea more iu us tlian we do ourselves ; and there- 
fore, though bonum coram hontlne sit bonum apparena, ' what 
is good before man be an apparent good,' yet if it be reeera 
bonum, 'good indeed,' it must needs be bonum coram Deo, 
'good before God,' or, 'in His sight.' 

God must have not only the outward but the inward man, 
the heart, "the inward parts," Ps. li. 6; and in this respect 
the kingdom of heaven is said to be within ns, Luke xvii. 21. 
God requireth the heart, because from the heart Cometh 
life and all the faculties of soul and body, and without it all 
the parts are dead. 

Job i. 1, integer et rectus, ' straight and sound,' are joined I 



Of the first commandment. 

together; so wc must have tlicse two properties, we must be PART 
recti, straight, not crooked, and inteyri, sound, not IioUow ; 
for so is a good work comely hoth witliin and without; 
Exod. XXV. 11, " thou shnit overlay it with pure gold, within 
and without thou shalt overlay it." 

Means to inteyrily. 

To set God before our eyes continually. 

To thiuk upon judgment, aad our account. 

To consider that eye-aervice is nothing pleasing to God, 
Eph. yi. 6. 

To consider how Christ gave His heart-blood for us ; there- 
fore Bernard snith', juste cor nostrum vendicat, qui suum pro 
nobis dedit, ' He justly ctiallengeth our heart, who gave His 
heart for us,' 

I SiffTts of inlegritj/. 

p If we be not conecii malt, 'guilty of evil to ourselves,' and 
so fear not what men can do unto us, 1 Cor. iv. 3. 

If we continue our strength and stedfaat mind under the 
cross, as Ezekiah did, 2 Kings xx. 3, " I beseech Thee, 
Lord, remember now how I have walked before Thee in truth 
and with a perfect heart, and have done that which is good 
in Thy sight." 

If the hatred of sin begin in ourselves, Rom. rii. 24, " O 
wretched man that I am 1 who shall deliver me from this 

If we can truly say the two last verses of the 139th Psalm, 
"'Try me, O God, and know my heart; prove me and know 
my thoughts, and consider if there be any way of wickedness 
in me ;" or a milder trial, Ps, vii. 3, " If there bo any wicked- 
ness in my hands;" or at least, Ps. iv. 4, let us examine 
our ovfn hearts upon our beds, " Commune with your own 
heart upon your bed, and be still." 

Of perseverance. 
Now for perseverance. Tlie answer to non habebis, ' thou 
shalt have no other gods,' is not non habeo, ' I liave no 
I other,' but non habeho, ' I will have no other.' These verbs 

122 0/the first commandment. 

ART of time, fui, mm, era, may all work in us a fear to see what 

U-i we have been, what we are, and what we shall be, especially 

because we know not whether God will forsake us or not. 

Perseverance is distinguished from patience, in that the 
object of patience ia trislitia cnicia, ' the sorrow of bearing 
the cross,' and the object of perseverance is ttedium diutur- 
nilalis, ' the tediousness of long delay.' 
Here are condemned, 

Those that persevere and continue in an evil thing, 
" rise early that they may follow strong drink, that con- 
tinue until night, till wine iuflame them," Esay v. 11; 
"they that tarry long at the wine," Prov. xxiii. 30; 
Those that do at once fall quite away, or if not, yet are 
wavering and unstcdfast, as Pharaoh was. 

Means to perseverance. 

As in patience, to prepare ourselves against our enemies, 
Joab. i. J 

to set much by religion, for if we set little by it we shall 
not continue ; 

to desire not to run in vain ; 

to consider the continuance of the reward, which shall last 
for ever. 

Siffna of perseverance. 

1. Not to look back but forward, nunguam dicere, svfficil; 
for aim deainU esse melior, incipU esse delerior, ' never to say, 
it is enough,' for ' when you cease to be better, you begin to 
be worse;' as they that row against the stream, if they hold 
still, are carried backward. 

2. That which is. Rev. ii. 19, "I know thy works, and 
charity, and service, and faith, and thy patience, and thy 
works i and the last to he more than the first ; " if our last 
fruit be more than our first ; and if we " grow from strength 
to strength," Ps, Ixxxiv, 7 ; if our " love may abound yet more 
and more in knowledge and in all judgment," Phil. i. 

Thus much of the first commandment. 



Of the second commandment. 


It tcoclietli the manner of God's outward worship, and 
hath in it tvro things ; 

1, the precept itself, " thou shalt not make to thyself any 
graven image," &c. ; 

2, the reason of the precept, "for I am a jealous God, 
and visit the sins of the fathers," &c. So princes after that 
they have set down the things which they command in their 
laws and statutes, add presently, gui aecus fa.vii punietur, ' he 
that transgresscth what here is commaiided, shall undergo 
condign punishment,' and thereby declare liow he shall be 
corrected by law, who would not be directed by the law. 

1^ 1. Of the precept. 
The precept prescribeth two things ; 
1, That for His honour in outward worship. Ho will have 
mtodum a se prrpscriptum, ' the maimer prescribed by God ;' 
2. He will have reverentiam exhibitam, ' reverence yielded 
^ that manner.* 
' T 

Of the general thing here forbidden. 
The general thing here forbidden is the making of images. 
I But a further thing ia set down, Col. ii. 23, invented worship, 
I for 'to make' in tins place signifieth'to invent.' By the 
i foult here expressed and forbidden we must understand all 
1 of like nature; for so by a synecdoche in other com- 
mandments under one gross sin expressly forbidden, the 
rest of inferior or equal impiety are forbidden. So that 
iGe\o0p7ffTK€ia, ' will-worship,' Col. ii. 23, ia forbidden ; man 
must not think himself so wise to devise a worship for God, 
nor must he be so humble as to bow down to any represen- 
tation of God ; this honour is only due to one Lord God. 

Testimony of scripture hereupon. 
Against the use of images, we have 

1. God's express command, "thou shalt not make to 
I th^lf," &c. 

124 Of the second commandment. 

'Z. We have Mose»' commentary on tliia commandment, 
- Dcut. iv. 13 — 15; in the mount no object was presented to 
their senses, hut " only a voice was heard." 

3. We have the interpretation of Christ ; 

a. God must be worshipped " in spirit ;" He is a spirit, 
and cannot be expressed by an image ; 

;S. God must be worshipped "in trnth;" but an image is 
at the beat a counterfeit representation of the truth, and not 
truth itself J hence it is that the truth is opposed to feigned 
worsliip, John iv, 23. 

God saitli, "tliou shalt not make to thyself;" so then, 
though God the law-maker appointed the representation of 
cherubim, and of the braaen serpent, yet may not man pre- 
sume to devise the like ; he must take such resemblances as 
God Himself gave him, and not of his own invention pro- 
pound any ; except God have said to him as to Moses, these 
and tliese representations shalt thou make. 

Of the general thing here commanded. 
The general thing here commanded is, that we should 
worship God after the order that He hath prescribed ; " see 
that thou make all things to the pattern," Heb. viii. 5, 
Exod. XXV. 40 ; for as Chrysostom e saith, won est honor sed 
dedecus, si vel contra vel prceler mandatum fiat, ' it is not 
honour but dishonour, if it be done either against or besides 
God's command.' 

This that is here commanded we express by 

"hearing of that one Prophet," namely Christ; Acts 

iii. 22, " Him shall ye hear;" 
not adding or detracting any thing, Dcut. xii. 32, "what 
thing soever I command you, obsen'e to do it : tlion 
ahalt not add thereto, nor diminish from it;" 
not altering any thing, Jer. ii. 11, "My people have 

changed tlieir glory ;" 
nor leaving any thing undone, Dent. v. 32, "ye shall 
observe to do therefore as the Lord your God hath 
commanded you : ye shall not turn aside to the right 
hand or to the left." 

« [In Mstlk Horn. I. { 3. vol. vii. p. 518,1 

Of the second commandment. 

to consider ■" 

' the eternal substance, 
_ the ceremony. 

Of Ihe eternal substance. 

Tlie eternal substance standetb in four things; 

1. Preaching the word, which we see hatli been always 

Before the flood, Noah; 1 Pet. iii. 19, "He went and 
preached unto the spirits in prison;" 

In Moses' time, Deut. xxsiii. 10, "they shall teaeh Jacob 
Thy judgments, and Israel Thy law;" 

In the prophets' time, Isa. Ixi. 1, "the Lord hath anointed 
me to preach;" 

In the time of the second temple, Neli. viii. 2 — 4, " and 
Ezra the priest brought the law , . and he read therein, , . and 
Ezra the scribe stood upon a pulpit of wood," &c. 

In Christ's time, Luke iv. IG, " aa His custom was. He 
went into the synagogue on the sabbath day, and stood ap 
for to read;" 

In the christian church, Mark xvi. 15, " lie said, Go ye 
into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature;" 
1 Cor. i. 21, " it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching 
to save them that beheve." 

2. Invocation, called "the calves of our lips;" which is 
a. Petition, 

Gen. iv. 26, " then began men to call upon the name of 

the Lord ; " 
Gen. ics. 7, " he is a prophet, and he shall pray for thee, 

and thou shalt hve;" 
Exod. viii, 8, " intreat the Lord, that He may take away 

the frogs from me and from my people ;" 
Numb. X. 35, sq., this was at the beginning of battle, 

"rise up, O Lord ;" and at the ceasing of the battle, 

"return, O Lord;" 
1 Kings viii. 22, Solomon's prayer ; and 
Luke xi. 1 — 4, Christ's. 
/S. Thanksgiving, 

commanded, Deut. xxxi. 19, " vrrite ye this song for you, 

and teach it the children of Israel ; " 

126 Of the second commandment. 

T practised, Gen. xxiv. 'Z7, "blessed be the Lord God of 

— my master Abraham, who hath not left destitute my 

master of Hia mercy and His truth ; " so also, 

Esod. XV. 1, "then sang Moses and the children of Israel 
this song unto the Lord;" 

Pa. xcv. 2, " let us come before His presence with 

3 Chron. vii. 6, " the priests waited on their offices ; the 
levites also with instruments of music of the Lord, 
which David the king had made to praise the Lord, 
because His mercy endureth for ever;" 

Ezra iii. 10, " when the builders laid the foundation of 
the temple of the Lord, they set the priests iu their 
apparel with trumpets, and the levites the sons of 
Asaph with cymbals, to praise the Lord, after the 
ordinance of David king of Israel ; " 

Matt. sxvi. 30, " when they had sung au hymn, they 
went out into the mount of Olives ;" 

Eph. V. 19, sq. "speaking to yourselves in psalms and 
hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making 
melody in your heart to the Lord; giving thanks 
always for all things unto God and the Father in the 
name of our Lord Jesus Christ ;" 

Col. iii. 16, " let the word of Christ dwell in you richly 
in all wisdom ; teaching and admonishing one another 
in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing 
with grace in your hearts to the Lord." 

3. Sacraments, 

Gen. xvii. 10, circumcision; Matt, xsviii. 19, baptism; 
Exod. xii., the passover; Matt. xxvi. 26, the supper. 

4. Discipline, 

a. commanded, Matt, xviii. 18, " whatsoever ye shall bind 
on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatsoever ye shall 
loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven ;" John xx, 23, 
" whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them, 
and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained ;" 

j8. executed. Acts v. 3 — 10, by Peter, on Ananias and Sap- 
phira; 1 Cor. v. 3, by Paul, on the incestuous person; 



verily have judged already 
Satan," &c. 

Rules for it, 1 Tim. v. 

Thus much of the eternal subatauce. 

Of the second commandment. 

to deliver such au one unto PART 

Of the ceremony. 
For the ceremony, we have four things ; 

1, that the ceremonies be not many, and those necessary, 
Acts XV. 19, sq., "my sentence is, that we trouble not them 
which from among the gentiles are turned to God ; but that 
we write unto them, that they abstain from pollutions of 
idols, and from fornication, and ft'om things strangled, and 
from blood;" 

2, that the ceremony be to edify, not to pull down that 
which the substance settetli up, 1 Cor. siv. 2G, " let all things 
be done unto edifying;" Gal. ii. 18, "if I build again the 
things which I destroyed, I make myself a transgressor ;" and 
this is against prayer in an unknown tongue ; 1 Cor. xiv. 4, 
" he that speaketh in an unknown tongue ediiieth himself, 
but he that prophesieth edifieth the church ;" 

3, that it be for order, 1 Cor. xiv. 40, " let all things be 
done decently and in order ;" and ver. 33, " for God is not 
the author of confusion, but of peace, as in all churches of 
the saints ;" 

4, that it be for decency; 1 Cor. xi. 13, "judge in your- 
selTes, ia it comely that a woman pray unto God uncovered ?" 

Means to perform this commandment. 

1, To keep volumen utriusque feederis, ' the volume of both 
covenants,' Josh. i. 8; leyendo, 'by rending,' God's book, 
not the legend and scholastical fancies ; but to keep the de- 
positum, ' that which ia entrusted to us,' 1 Tim. vi. 20, with- 
out adding or detracting ; 

2, that we keep it without spot, 2 Cor. iL 17, "not as 
many, which corrupt the word of God ; but as of sincerity, 
but as of God, in the sight of God speak we in Christ;" 
1 Tim. vi. 14, "that thou keep this commandment without 
spot ;" for one spot will mar all ; 1 Cor. v. 6, " a little leaven 

Of the second commandment. 

PART leaveneth the whole lump ;" we must take heed that Uriah's 
'- — altar creep not near the Lord's altar, 3 Kings xvi. 14, 

Signs hereof are, when we say or prove nothing in matter 
of rehgioti but in this manner, 

1, na the prophets did, dictum Jehova, 'the word of the 

2, as Christ, Matt. xxii. 32, hy a syllogism, " the God of 
Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob ; God 
is not the God of the dead, but of the living/' 

3, as the apostle, 1 Cor. xi. 23, that which we " have re- 
ceived from the Lord," 

Now whereas to non fades, 'thou shalt not do it,' it might 
be said, non fado, sed factum reperio, 'I do it not, but I find 
it done;' it is therefore added, "thou shalt not bow down fo 
them," by whomsoever they be made ; " thou shalt not wor- 
ship them." 

Of the worship of images. 
Whether God will be worshipped with images or no, all 
the stir between the papists and us, ia about eiKosv and eiSoi- 
\ov hut the word iu the original is more than both these, 
Vdb, which cannot be well expressed either in greek or latin, 
and signifieth any kind of conception or imagination whicli 
may arise. 

The kinds of images were usually these, 

sctilptile, ' a thing graven,' 

fusiie, ' a thing cast,' 

ex utrlsque confiatum, 'one made of both,' 
To take away all images, God made sxire work by forbid- 
ding all manner of likeness in heaven, earth, waters ; 

a. In heaven ; then, 

not of the Deity, Isa. xl. 18, "to whom then will ye 
liken God? or what likeness will ye compare unto Him?" 
in defence whereof the papists now are almost weary ; 

nor of angels; forbidden for special i 

philosophers worshipped their Intelligentias ,- 

nor of men's souls ; 

, because thefl 


Of the second commattdmeiit. 


nor of the sun, which they called the queen of heaven, 
because iu hebrew it was iu the feminine gender; Jer. xliv. . 
1 7, " to bum incense unto the queen of heaven ;" 

nor of the stnrs, as Moloch the star of Saturn was wor- 
shipped, Acta vii. 43. 

p. Inearth; the images of men, women, serpentSj dragons, 
worms, plants, &c, 

7. In the water; the images of syrens, water snakes, 
fishes, &c. 

And generally against all images ; 

1. The Israelites heard only a voice, Deut. iv. 12, "ye 
heard the voice of the words, bnt saw no similitude, only ye 
heard n voice ;" but a voice cannot be painted ; 

2. The nature of faith is not to see what it believeth ; 

3. The true worship is spiritual; John iv. 24, "God is a 
Spirit, and they that worship Him must worship Him in 
spirit and in truth." 

Quest. If all images were forbidden, why then were the 
cherubim ? 

Answ. They were set iu the Holy of holies, where the 
people came not, and the priest but once a year. 

History of image worship. 

And to shew the beginning and going on of images ; — 

Irenieus'', who lived two hundred years after Christ, and 
Epiphanius', make mention of certain heretics that had images 
of Christ and His apostles received from Pilate ; also of the 
Cross, whereunto they attributed divers operations. 

Also Epiphanius'' sheweth that the Valentinians had images 
of the Virgin; and Augustine' sheweth that both they and 
the Manicheea had images in policy, to please the gentiles. 

Also divers for the love of their friends departed, set marks 
on their faces and in other places, to remember them ; some 
had their images engraven in a ring, and from their rings 
they grew to their parlours, and so into their streets, then 
into the church-yards, and afterwards into churches. 

* [Com. Hiet., lib. i. op. 

p. 102; op. 29. i 6. p. 105.] 

' [Hat. iKvii, I fl. vol. L p. 

t S 5, ' [H» 

1 [Co 

8,j tol. ViB 

I. ; 4. vul. i 

I. IDIil.] 

130 ()/ the secant} cuinmandment. 

The papists' arguments, 1. From fathers and councils. 

Object. The papists, out of Basil"', allege that the same 
hoQOur is due to the abstract whicli is due to the patteni. 

Ansv). But wc answer, that Basil's meaning is to prove 
tliat Christ is equal with God ; now if they can shew us any 
such image of God as Christ is, we will worship it. 

Olyect. Also, say they, Eiisebius" mentioned that the gen- 
tiles set up Christ's image for the miracles that He wrought 
on the woman of Syrophoauieia. 

Anaw. An absurd reason, the heathen did so, ergo, the 
christian ought to do so. 

To allege counterfeit fathers, as AthaDasius, Damasus, &c.; 
of them we will say no more, but, noreris oderis, ' if thou 
hast known them, hate them.' 

Among the councils, they only allege the second council of 
Nice", at the which there were more unlearned and evil dis- 
posed men than ever at any. Constantia was their president, 
an heathen and unnatural woman, who plucked out her son's 
eye because he loved not images. This council is so absurd, 
that it hath more than the papists would have it, viz. unam 
adorationem et unum honorem Dei el imayinis, ' one adoration, 
and one honour of God and the image.' 

Other councils directly are against images. 

The fathers also against them, as Ireuieus''; Clemensi; Ter- 
tullian''; Origen'; Arnobius*, who calls thera/nftron/m opus^ 
'the work of smiths;' Lactantius"; Ambrose"; Hierome'' upon 
Ezek. xvi. 17, una est imago, Christas imago Dei, ' there is but 
one image, Christ the image of God ;' Epiphanius', who rent 
down the image of Christ as he spied it upon a wall. Yet 
after these fathers, about the year six hundred, images 

i. voLiii. ■ [ConuCel».,lib. vili.eati. 17. vol, i. 

■h rpart- p. 7fi't B.] 
«!.] ' [Adv. Gsnt., lib. vi. cap. 9 sqq. 

E. U.. lib. vii. cap. IS. p. 343.] p. 20S.] 

\oL xii. eol. OSl sqi).] " [Di*. Ii«t., lib. ii. cap. 2. val. i. 

'-id. p. priced.] p, 1 10 tqii.] 
. g, Slroni., lib. v. cap. 5. p. B62 i ■ [De fiig, sffc., cap. 5. vol. i. 

G67i Kit. nL cap. i. p. US ; 4ZD ; EpUt. xviii. { 8,* ol. ii. coL S3j,] 
i GenL, p. *4.] » [vol. iii, col. 7l)+.1 

[vid. Apol., capp. 13—16. pp. IS, ■ [EpiaL ad Jo«n. Kpiic. Hierow)., 

Cuhore. ad GenL, p. *4.] i [vol. iii, col. 70+. 

[vid. Apol., capi - 

»Hi^ cap. 41. p. 33 1); 
l)e Idol., p. 85 «qq.] 

iqit.^csp.4l.p.33 Bi cap. *7. p.40Ai vol. ii. p. SI 7.] 


Oflla- otcoiid comma ndmi-nl. 131 

Tgot some hold; about tlie year seven hundred, more; anno PART 

eight liiindred, very much. ^— 

2. Fi-om differences ofwarda. 

The romauiata leaving the original of the hebrew, betake 
themselves to the greek translation. 

Object. They profess -rrpoa-icvveiv, ' to fall down to/ but not 
XarpeiKiir, 'to worship with lalria,' because say they, Matt, 
iv. 10, liovot. ' aloue,' is not joined with -rrpocricvutiii, but with 
Xarpeuew, so that we may irparrKweiv to saints. 

Annw. But we aay to this, that the devil required no more 
of our Sariour Christ but irpoaicvvelv, and therefore unless 
we make irpoa-Kvuelv proper to God, Christ's answer will not 
serve nor be suflicient. 

Aa for their distinction of BovXeia, ' service,' and \aTptia, 
'worship,' though it hatli been long in the schools, yet in 
none of the fathers but Augustine, of whom, though he were 
a reverend man, we may say, as he saith of himself, he hud 
no great knowledge in greek or hebrew. 

But to distinguish them aright indeed, BoiAtyi ia a servant 
of our own, and XdrpK is a hired servant, (and so came 
Mro, ' a hired soldier,' of Xinpov, merces, and by the abuse 
of their calling came to that odious name as it is now used ;) 
and the Seventy interpreters used it here, because the Israel- 
ites should not be hired for money to dress and adoru the 
images of the heathen, as it was their use at that time. 

3. TTial they worship not the image itae^f. 

Object. But now the learneder sort seeing this distinction 
them, have found out another shift, non colere et adorare 
imagines, ted Chriittum et sanctos per imagines, ' not to wor- 
ship and adore images, but Christ and the saints by the 

Answ. And this was the very allegation of the heathen, 
non idola aed numen aliqiiod cut idolum (sdificatur, ' not the 
idol, but some deity to whom the idol was erected,' Lac- 
tantiua* De orig. error., cap. 2; tiow aimvlachra sed Mortem 
et Venerem per nmulachra, 'not the images, but Mara and 


• [vol. i. 

1, (Lqq.] 

1 32 Of the seconil commandmefil. 

PART Venus by the images,' saith Chiysostom, Horn, xviii. iii Epiat. 

'- — ad Eph.** And indeed it was plainly the error of the Israelites ; 

they would not worahip the ealf, for they did not think it to 
be God, but by the calf they would ivorship God, the ca!f 
being used aa a representation of God. 

+. That (he ignorant need the help of an image. 
Object. And here the Eoninns fly to a tliird sliift, which is, 
that the ignorant people must have sometliing to help them 
to remember God. 

Artsw. But if the people must be put in mind, of what 
shall it be? 

a. Not of the Deity, for they themselves are weary of that, 
aiid Ilosius saith, In Decalog., cap. G6, such images crept in, 
doitnienli/ms pastoribtis, 'while the pastors slept.' 

j8. Not of Christ as God, for His attributes are infinite; 
and that were but to divide Christ, seeing His deity cannot 
be painted, and so they fall" into that anathema, 1 Ephes. 

y. Not of Christ as man and now glorified, for as Eusebius 
saith to Constantia'i, His glory is now greater than it was 
upon the mount, when the disciples could not look upon Him. 

B. Nor as He was mau in the flesh, for that were to teach 
lies. Abac. ii. 18; and it teacheth us to forget His passions, 
which cannot be painted. 

And if they will remember saints by them, we see to them 
is denied -n-poaKwelv, Rev. x.tii. 9, "see thou do it not, for 
I am thy fellow-servant;" and as Augustine' saith well, si 
audirenl angelos, discereut ab iilis noii adorare angelos, ' if they 
would be ruled by the angels, they should learn of the 
angels not to worship angels;' and we see, Coloss. ii. 18, 
worshipping of angels condemned. 

§ 2. Of our behaviour in God's worthip. 

Now let us see how we ought to behave ourselves in God's 

1. As this commandment is for God's outward worship, 
so if it be in our hearts we must bring it forth ; bono debe- 

' [12. vol li. col, 129.] p, 725.] 

■ [vii. M dividing Cliriit, vol, iv.] ■ [Iii Pi. xcvi. } 12. vol. iv, col. 

■> [Biuviil, innotid Niceph. Greg., 10*9.] 

Of the second commandment. 


tur ntanifentatio, ' it is requisite that what is good should be : 
outwardly mauifested ;' we mnat not put our candle uuder a - 
bushel ; bonum liicia nan est poaendum nub malo tenebrarum, 
'light which is good must not be put under tlie evil of dark- 

3. In copulalivU ulrumque faciendum, ' m duties conjoined 
by a copulative both must be done ;' and I Cor. vi. 20, ' body 
and spirit ;' and the devil knowing that God will be glorified 
in both, requireth of our Saviour the one, namely, the bow- 
ing down of the body. Matt. iv. 9, because he knew if God 
had not both, he would have neither of both, 

3. lu the sanctuary, that is, iu times and places of reHgious 
exercises, obserra ulrumque pedem, 'look to both feet;' have 
a care of thy lowest members, much more of our eyes, ears. 

Had heart: 

I Of the sign of 

This outward wor- ( siyno, 


the sign of it,' 
ship of God is in {facto, ' the doing of it.' 
The signs of outward worsliip arc two ; 

1. To empty ourselves, and deponere magnijicentiam ; 
Job. xix. 9, to take our crowns, or our glory, the best 

things that we have, and to cast it at His feet; Rev, iv. 10, 
they " cast their crowns before the throne ;" 

2 Sara. vi. 22, " I will be more vile;" 

1 Cor. si. 4, nudotio capitis, ' uncovering the head ;' for 
pileo donari, ' to have liberty to put on the hat,' waa a sign 
of honour, and peculiar to freemen. 

2. Humiliari, 'to make ourselves near the ground,' to bow 
down ; that which the devil desired of Christ ; and is a sign 
of God's worship, 1 Kings xis. 18, "I have left me seven 
thousand in Israel, all the knees which have not bowed uuto 
Baal ;" the contrary is plagued, Esay ii. 9, " the mean man 
boweth down, and the great man humbleth himself; therefore 
forgive them not." 

I Of the act of worship. 

H The fact itself of worshipping hath two things, 

F 1. To be at command, Matt. viii. 9, "go, and he goeth ; 

come, and he cometh." To come, and to come willingly; 


Oftlte aecoml commandment. 

PART for that 7ie»cio voa, 'I know you not,' wliich Clirist sliall 

-'- — pronounce in His judgment, is either to them which never 

come to His house, and so He knows them not ; or they 
come of ill-will, and so hear of Him, but know Him not. 
We must come viaturc el quotidii, 'in due time, and daily,' 
Proverbs viii. 17, "those that seek Me early shall find Me;" 
wait at His door, verse 34, "blessed is the man that lieareth 
Me, watching daily at My gates, waiting at the posts of My 

2. To do His will, " do this, and he doeth it," Mtilt. viii. 9, 
and to do it first of alt, Luke xvii. 8, as Abraliam's servant. 
Gen. xjtiv. 33, would not eat till he had done his master's 


Of behav^iovr in the four pitrU ofivorship. 

To apply these things to the point of God's outward 
worship, PraytT, Preaching, Sacraments, and Discipline, 

We must have the form of our behaviour in them from 
our fathers the faithful; Jam. v. 10, "take, my brethren, 
the prophets . . for an example;" 1 Pet. iii. 5, 6, "the holy 
women . . whose daughters ye are," Sic. 

First, in coming and going to them. 

They never came together without bowing down, neitlier 
ever departed without external signs of reverence. 

1. For their coming together, it was with coming, kneel- 
ing, worshipping, and falhng down to the ground; 2 Chron, 
Ti. 13, 14, " Solomon had made a brazen scaffold . . and 
upon it he stood, and kneeled down upon his knees before 
nil the congregation of Israel, and spread forth his hands 
toward heaven, and said," &c. 

3, For their departure, they bowed themselves and wor- 
shipped, 2 Chron. xxix. 29, "when they bad made an end of 
offering, the king and all that were present within bowed 
themselves, and worshipped." 

The first thing then in all these four parts of God's wor- 
ship, Prayer, Preaching, Sacraments, and Discipline, ia, that 
there be a reverend behaviour in uccessu el receasu. 

0/ l/ie .tecoiid c 

Secondly, in onr presence at them, 
■ 37ic second thing ia, for our presence at them. 

0/ behaviour in prayer. 

i I. lu prayer ; seeing it Cometh of humihty and hope, we 

ive outward signs like luid answerable to these two. 

1. For hmnility, there must be in oui- prayer dejioxHh 

magnificenliie, ' a hiving aside of greatness and part ;' 

I Cor. xi. 4, with uncovered 1 Kings viii. 54, the prophets ; 

heads; Luke xxii. 41, Christ; 

Gen. xviii, 2, kneeling down, Acts ix. -10, Peter; 

Eph. iii. 14, Puul ; 

Acts XX. 36, the whole church; 

Acts xsi. 5 the elders. 

s Abram did ; and 

Gen. xxiv, 26, his servant ; 

Exod. xii. 27, the people; 

But the word in hebrew for kneeling signitieth service; 
and service may be also standing, as Gehazi stood before 

tiaha, and Samuel stood and ministered before the Lord. So, 
Gen. xviii. 22 ; six, 27, " Abraham got up early in the 
morning to the place where he stood before the Lord ;" 
Geu. xxiv. 13, 13, Abraham's servant prays standing; 
Sxod. xxxiii. 10, " all the people rose up and worshipped ;" 
Nnmb. xxiii. 18, "rise up, Balak, and hear;" 
Ps- cxxxv, 2, " ye that stand in the house of the Lord ;" 
8 Chron. xxiii. 13, "the king stood at his pillar;" 
These are for pubUc prayers. 
In private prayer a man may, if he be so affected, pro- 
strate himself before the Lord, as did Closes and Aaron, 
Numb. XX. 6; Mosea at the mount, Deut. ix. 18; Christ, 
Matt. xxvi. 39. 

2. For hope, in our prayer the sign thereof is onilu.% ele- 
valus, ' eyes lift up,* and hands stretched out. 

Ps. exxi, I, " I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills from 

whence cometh ray help ;" 
John xi. 41 ; xvii, I , " Jesus lifted up His eyes, and 

said," &c. 
Exod. xvii. 11, "when Moses held up his band, . . 
Israel prevailed;" 

136 Of the second commandment, 

PART Pa. Ixxxviii. 9, " I have stretched out my hands unto 

—HI:— Thee/' 

1 Tim. ii. 8, ^' I will that men pray every where, lifting 
up holy hands/' 
Oculus el$v(Uu8 expectat, manus extensa petit, ' the eye lift 
up expects, the hand stretched out craves/ 

Sitting at prayer is not warranted ; Balaam willed Balak 
to stand by his burnt offering, Numb, xxiii. 15, and being 
set he bid him rise, verse 18. 

This is the behaviour that is to be used in petition ; but 
in deprecation our eyes may be cast down, with the publican^ 
Luke xviii. 13. 

Ofbehaviovr in preaching, 

II. In Preaching, or hearing the word, 
a, it is lawftil to sit j 
Ezek. xxxiii. 31, ^^they sit before thee as My people, 

and they hear thy words ;" 
Mark iii. 32, " the multitude sat about Him /' 
Luke V. 17, "as He was teaching, there were pharisees 

and doctors of the law sitting by ;" 
Luke X. 39, Mary '^ sat at Jesus' feet, and heard His 
word ;" 

Acts XX. 9, Eutychus sat while Paul was preaching. 
/8. it is lawful also to stand; Neh. viii. 5, when Ezra 
opened the book, " all the people stood up." 

Of behaviour in sacraments, 

III. For the sacraments, the form of them sheweth what 
our behaviour ought to be in them. 

Of behaviour in discipline, 

IV. For discipline, it is plain j the judge sitteth, and the 
accused standeth before him. 

Fitting carriage of the body why of use. 

The decent and fitting carriage of the body is of use, 
1, because we ought to glorify God with our bodies, 
1 Cor. vi. 20 ; 

^V 2, tht 

Of the second commandment. 

2, that our hearts may learn their duties by the outward part 
gesture of our bodies, and be alike affected, that thereby we — ^— — 
may move others to worship God with us; 1 Cor. xiv, 25, 
" falling down on his face he will worship God, and report 
that God is in you of a truth." 

Here arc forbidden the contrary to the former ; as to be 
proud, and not humble; slack, and not diligent in God's 
serrice, either in coming or obeyiug. Of such people Chry- 
Bostom speaketh, ludus vocal, el renis ; jubet, et fads : tuba 
Dei vocal, el non ve»is,jnbet et non fads, 'pastime calls, and 
thou goest to it; it commands, and thou obcyest; the trum- 
pet of God calls, and thou gocst not ; it commands, and thou 
obeycst not,' Thou mayest judge by the centurion's servant 
whose senant thou art ; even his that saith. Go, and thou 
goest. Matt. viii. 9. 

^^^P Rules of behaviour in divine service. 

I But to come more especially to the point of God's liturgy 

or public service ; wc must observe therein these five points, 

1, to observe unity. 

II. Unity, as we may see by that, 
I Cor, xi. 33, " tarry one for another ;" and 
Matt, xxii, 12, he that was not uniform was punished ; 
Ps. cxxii. 1, "I rejoiced when they said, Wc will go to 
the house of the Lord ;" 
Acts ii. 1, they met with one accord ; 
Acts iv. 24, with one accord they prayed ; 
Acts viii. 6, so they heard ; and 
Pa, sxxiv. 3, David exhorteth them to sing so. 
The confusion of tongues was a great curse, and it was a 
blessing that all the earth was unius labii, ' of one kind of 
speech.' In the heavenly Jerusalem there shall be a sweet 
consent and harmony, as of harpers making pleasing melody. 
Rev. xiv. 2 ; and all sing one song. Rev. xv. 3. 

2. not to sleep therein. 
2. We must not slumber nor sleep at it. 
For we must serve Him with fear, and sleep is without 
fear ; Jacob fearing his brother Esau, slept not all night. 

Of the second commandment. 

Of tliis we have an example, Acta xx. 7 ; Paul preaclied, 
— and the people heard till midnight ; of which Chrysostom 
Baith, medid nocle viffi/abanl, ut eos condemnent ^i medid die 
dormivnt, ' they watched at midnightj to condemn them who 
sleep at raid -day,' 

And surely the actions of a natural man being eating, 
drinking, and sleeping, sleep ia by the same reason con- 
demned that the other two are, 1 Cor. xi. 22, namely, be- 
cause we have houses to sleep in. So 1 Thess. v. 7, "watch, 
for they that sleep, sleep in the night;" but we may say, 
they that sleep, sleep in the day. And so where the place 
of sleeping should be our houses, and the time of sleeping 
should be the night; we in the day time sleep at chnrch; 
and we know not whetlier God will in tliat sleep utterly for- 
sake US ; we see Matt. xxvi. 40, when our Saviour had com- 
manded His disciples to watch and they slept, some of them 
afterward departed from Him, and some forsware Him. 

The two disciples going to Emmaus, had cor ardent, 'their 
heart burning,' when Christ talked with them, Luke xiiv. 32; 
and that cannot be *ai oculo gravi. 

3, to be present in heart. 

S. Our hearts must be present, or else our outward watch- 
ing will not serve the turn ; 

If we have corfatui, ' a fool's heart,' Eccles. vii, 1, it will be 

in the house of roirth where sport is ; 
but a wise heart will seek for knowledge, Prov. xv. 14; 
the fool's eye is in all quarters, wandering here and there, 

Prov. nil. 24 ; 
but the wise fasten their eyes, as they did, Luke iv. 20 ; 
it is nothing to hear, unless we be attentive, Luke viii. 18 j 

as Lydia, Acts xvi, 14; 

with a wise ear, Prov. sviii. 15. 

4. not to talk therein. 

4. We must not talk during the time of God's service ; it is 
a sign of reverence to be silent ; as if one should turn from 
us to speak with another while we tell him a message, we 

Of the second rommamiment. 139 

would think he little regarded lis; Zeph. i. 7, "be still nt part 

the presence of the Lord," who speaketh by His messenger. . -: — 

And therefore in the primitive church, the first word was 
avfa Xa«, ' be atill and silent, ye people ;' nnd so Pnul 
beckoned with his hand to this purpose. Acta xiii. 16. 

5. not to depart till it is ended. 
5. Depart not from it till it be ended ; 

Exod. xxsiii. 11, Joshua "departed not out of the taber- 
nacle ;" 
Tit. ii. 10, "not purloining;" 
For as we pray that God should hear us, 

Ps. XXX. 10, "hear, Lord, and have mercy;" 
Pa. xxxviii. 21, " go uot far from ua ;" 
so wc should take heed we go uot from Him; for tlmt 
dreadful sentence, "depart from Me," Matt. xxv. 41, 
shall be a punishment to those that go from Him here. 

Preaching is a speaking of God to us, and prayer is our 
speaking to God; and the law is equal, — Ps. cvii. 11, 12, 
"because tliey rebelled," &c.^ — -as we deal with God, so God 
should deal with us : and if we complain. Lord, why hast 
Thou forsaken us ; the Lord may answer us again, xerve mi, 
quare dereiiquisti me, ' thou My servant, why hast thou left 

In the primitive church it was excommunication to go 
out till the end ; from the first word <r^a Xaht, ' he atill and 
silent, ye people,' till the last word \aov d<f>eiTK, ' the dismis' 
sion of the people,' as appeareth in the fourth council of 

QiteH. But may we not be absent for any cause ? 

Answ. Yes; 

1, If we be sick, and so cannot come ; 

3. If we offer a. sacrifice ourselves, we may be absent from 

another man's sacrifice; for it is best to be the principal 

agent in God's sen-ice ; 
8. The necessary visitation of the sick may stay us ; for. 

Matt. ix. 13, " I will have mercy and not sacrifice." 
Thus much for the precept. 

1 10 Of the seiond pommandmcnl. 

§ 3. Of the reason of ike precept. 
Now the reason of the precept, which is jitena et prcBmium, 
punishment to the offenders, and reward to them that keep 
the commandment. 

Mrst, of the punishment. 

Quest. Why is this commaDdment the first with puaish- 
Rient, aa the fifth the first with promise ? 

Anstv. 1. Because the punishment must be proportionable 
to the fault, Deut. xxv. 2 ; and the sin against the first com- 
mandment is hidden, and therefore left to God; as the know- 
ledge of it, so the punishment ; but this is visible, and there- 
fore this punishment is set down, "that others may fear," 
1 Tim. V. 20. 

2. Because men do commonly inflict puuishment upoa 
them that worship God ; therefore God to meet with them, 
because fear of men's punishments should not keep us from 
worshipping of Him, threateneth a punishment if we worship 
Him not. 

Quest. Where it is said here that God is a jealous God, 
hence ariseth this question. Whether there falleth the affec- 
tion of a mau into God or no, avOpaiiroTrdOeia? 

Ansto. We answer, No; but both here and where it is 
said, God repented Him, and such like, it is only meant 
that God will do as men do whieh have the like affections of 
jealousy and repentance, &c. 

Before the punishment there is a censure of the sin, and 
it standeth iu two things ; 

1. It is called iniquity or perverseness ; 

2. That those offend herein are said to hate God ; for if 
the case stand betwixt ours and God's for His worship, 
if wc prefer not Him and His will before our own, we 
hate the Lord. 

The punishment itself is called a visitation, and the griev- 
ousness of it we measure, 

1, by the greatness of it, being in our children, which are 
as ourselves, 2 Sam. xviii. 33; Luke viii, 41, 42; ix. 3t*, and a 

Of the second commaHdment . 

* principal pnrt of ourselves, evea tlie seed, aa tliougli now PART 

there were nothing left in us but the chaff; '— 

2, by the continuance of it, the whole memoiy of raan, a 
generation ; nay more, three or four generations. 

Of sins visited on the children. 
Quest. But if tlic punislimcnt be upon our cliildreu, May 

one man be justly punished for another man's offence? 
Jmw. Tliat which seemeth to stand against it. is, 

I Deut. xsiv. 16, 'the fathers shall not be put to death for 
the ehiidren, nor the children for the fathers ;' 

I Jer. xxxi. 29, 30, " in those days they shall sny no more. 
The fathers have eaten a sour grape, and the children's 
teeth are set on edge : but every one shall die for his 
own iniquity; every man tliat eateth the sour grape, hia 
teeth shall be set on edge ;" 

t Ezek. xviii. 2, 20, " What mean ye, that ye use this pro- 
verb coDceruing the land of Israel, saying. The fathers 
have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set 
on edge?" "The soul that sinneth, it shall die; the 
son shall not bear the iniquity of the father, neither 
shall the father bear the iniquity of the son ; the righ- 
teousness of the righteous shall be upon him, and the 
wickedness of the wicked shall be upon him ;" 

[_ S Cor. v. 10. " we must all appear before the judgment- 
seat of Christ, that e*ery one may receive the things 
done in his body, according to that be hath done, whe- 
ther it he good or had ; 
Gal. vi. 5, " every man shall bear his own biirden." 

How explained by the schoolmen. 
To these the schoolmen answer, as to that, Esay xxxviii. 1, 
• thou shalt die and not live ;' that is, say they, not meaning 
r/uid futunim est, sed quid ex dispositione noslrd fuiurum esset, 
' what is to come to pass, but what was to come to paaa an- 
swerable to our condition and estate;' so here God speaketh 
not, say they, quidfadet, sed quid ex dispositione meriti noslri 
faceret, 'what He will do, hut what should be done according 
to the condition of our desert.' 

Of the gectiiul commandment. 

But thia would breed a neglect of the commaudmeut. 
More fully therefore to answer it : — 

What the true account. 
There are three kinds of punishment ; 

1. Satisfaction; and this must needs be just one for an- 
other, as Christ satisfied for us, and as iu suretyship. Where 
one owcth a debt, and another taketh upon him to pay it, 
this satisfaction is just ; for Christ iu tliis manner satisfieth 
for us j our case was woeful if this satisfaction was unjust, 

2. Medicine ; and in this also it is just ; the head being 
sick, the arm may be let blood ; and for tlie presenation of 
a better member, we may put in jeopardy a worse. So to 
deliver the father from eternal punishment, the son may 
suffer temporal. 

3. Correction; the covenant of blessing being made with 
us and our seed, if we break the covenant, our seed may also 
justly be punished; as we read Cant. ii. 15, the church 
findeth a nest of little foxes, which have not yet destroyed 
any vineyard, nor worried any lambs ; yet " take us the little 
foxes," saith the church, for if they grow up they will do 
both ; and so because there is a poisonous nature in the 
cockatrice' eggs, we may tread them under our feet. 

The use hereof is double ; 

1, to breed mutual care in fathers and children, 2 Sam. 
xii. 15, 16, " the Lord struck the child that Uriah's wife bare 
unto David, and it was very sick ; David therefore besought 
God for the child, and Daiid fasted, and went in, and lay 
all night upon the earth ;" 

2, to acknowledge our corruption, Deut. xxvi. 5, "a 
Syrian ready to perish was my father;" and with David, 
Ps. cvi. 6, to confess, " we have sinned with our fathers." 

Thus much of the punishment. 

Secondly, of the reward. 

The reward is mercy, and that to thousands, whereas the 

punishment was only to four generations ; not that His mercy 

is greater tlian His justice, but that He is more delighted ia 

the one than the other. 

Of the third comiiitindmeitt. 


This mercy is to tlicm that love Ilini ; the trial of this love 
ia the keeping of His commandments; imd the keeping of - 
this wftj'j the way of God's commandments, is the keeping of 
our own souls. 

Aiid thus much of the second eonimandnieut. 


Object and end of tkia comntandmeHt. 

The object of this commandment is the Name of God. The 

thing commanded is praise, and this praise must be to His 

name; we must "publish the Name of the Lord, and give 

glory to God," Dent, xxxii. 3. 

The end of this commandment is the praise of God. And 
as the former commandment spake of the external exhibited 
worship of God in signis, 'in the outward signs;' so this 
speaketh of the same in verbis, ' in our words." 

Tliis great work can never be sufficiently done by us ; for 
who can set forth all His praise and glory? 

God made all things for His glory, Esay xliii, 7; now if we 
must be like our Creator, and if He created ua for Hia glory, 
^^^t the glory of God roust be 

^^^H inwardly, the scope that we must aim at; and 

^^^H outwardly, the matter of our speeclics and actions. 


Glory and praise 

is given to God's person, and to Hia name; Ps. xxix, 2, 
" give unto the Lord the glory due unto Hia name ;" 

6. and is performed by our mouths and tongues; Pa. xxjiiv. 
1, " Hia praise shall continually be in my mouth;" the 
manner of it Moses sheweth, enunciabo. Dent, xxxii. 3, 
"I will publish the Name of the Lord ;" 

7, Daiid was not content to praise God, hut sayetli, " make 
His praise glorious," and would have his mouth filled 
with God's praise, and other ears attend thereuuto ; 
Ps, Ixvi. 16, " come and licar, all ve tliat fear God, wid I 

will declare what He hath done for i 

,- soul;' 

Of the third commandment. 

and that coutinudly. Pa. Issi. 15, "my mouth shall shew 
forth Thy riglitcousuessj and Tliy salvntiou all the day;" 

e. and iu the great congregation, Ps. cxl. 1, " His praise in 
the congregation of aaints ;" Ps. xl. 9, " I have preached 
righteouanesa in the great congregation ;" 

f. this praiae David would have to continue aa long as the 
sun etiduroth, and that all nations blessed in Him 
should call Him blesaed; 
Ps. Kicii. 27, " all the ends of the world shall remember 

and turn unto the Lord, and all the kindreds of the 
nations shall worship before Thee ;" 
Pa. Ixxii. 17, "His name shall endure for ever; Hia 
uame shall be continued as long as the aunj and 
men shall be blessed in Him; all nations shall call 
Him blessed," 

What is contained herein. 

This commandment hath a Precept, and a Penalty. 

First, of the precept. 

The precept in these words, "Thou shalt not take the 
Name of the Lord thy God in vain." 

The precept hath in it three things, 

I. "The Name of God." The uame ia that whereby we 
know a man or a thing, and whereby we are known; and by 
the name we distinguish a thing from all other things ; 
whatsoever God ia knowu by, is meant by His name in this 

God proclaimed His name, E:^od. xxxiv. 6, 7. His name 
there proclaimed ia cither, 

a. pertaining to His essence, as Jehovah ; or 

/9. expresseth His adjuncts, whereof 

some are affirmative, as merciful, eternal, omuipotent; 
others negative, as invisible, incorporeal, immutable; or, 

7. effects, as Creator, Redeemer, Sanctifier. 

All these and the rest whatsoever are reverently to be 
used; the angel saith his name ia fearful, Judg. xiii. 18; 
much more is God's, Deut. xxviii. 58, "this glorious and- 
fearful Name, The Lord thy God." 


Of the third commandment, 145 

II. " Take." The Hebrew word for this hath two mes, PART 

1. in gloriosis, 'in things glorious/ to bear up, or lift up, ' — 

as to lift up a standard, Exod. xvii. 15, as servants do their 
masters^ badges on their shoulders; so they honour their 

We do contrary to this, 

a. when we strive for our own praise, and think to get us 
a name : this is to play the giants, as they, G^n. xi. 4, 
" go to, let us build a city and a tower, whose top may 
reach unto heaven ; and let us make a name, lest we be 
scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth ;" and 
fi. when the Name of God is abused to cloak sin; as 
when Jezebel feigned a religious proceeding in judg- 
ment, that she might unjustly destroy Naboth. 

2. in necessariis, ' in things necessary,' to lift up a burden. 

The first of these uses is for those that take Gt)d's name 
upon them, those that are called by His name, as we are 
called christians by Christ's name. Acts xi. 26. 

The second use is for them that swear, for that is a burden 
and a heavy thing. 

III. " In vain." — For the understanding whereof we must 
note in every action, the End, the Agent, and the Work. 

1. For the end; we know that is in vain which hath jjo 
end ; and therefore we must look cui bono, ' to what good 
end,' our words or actions may tend ; and our ends must be, 

a, God's glory, or else God will account of us as David 
did of Nabal, 1 Sam. xxv. 21, all is in vain He hath 
done for us, and all we do is in vain ; 

fi, our own salvation ; 

7. the edifying of our brethren. 

2. For the agent; in him his heart must be considered, 
which is the principal agent ; for if that be not stedfast, all 
is but chaff, fit to be blown about with ever}' blast, and so 
light and vain, yea "vanity" itself, "tossed to and fro," 
Prov. xxi. 6; "like the chaff which the wind driveth away," 
Ps. i. 4. 

146 Of the third commandment. 

3. For the work ; that must needs be vain, when it is not 
- to some good cud and purpose. 

When an oath is to be used. 
Therefore, an oath is taken necessarily to end strife, whidj 
cannot be done before there be a stronger confirmation on 
the one side than the other; now 

a. if this can be effected by reasons and proofs, they are 
to be used, as Gen. xxxviii. 25, "discern, I pray thee, 
whose are these, the signet, the bracelets, and staff;" ' 
/3. when arguments fail, the matter is to be confirmed by 
two or three witnesses, Deut. sis. 15, "at the month of 
two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall 
the matter be eetablisLed ;" 
7. if two witnesses fail, an oath is to be used, and here it 
is to good purpose and seasonable. 

How to be used. 
Now for the taking God's name in an oath ; 

{jus/urandum assertorium de facto, 'an oath 
affirming something to have been done ;' 
J ■ ■ J e . < .t. 

jusfurandum promtsaonum de juturo, an oath 
promising something afterward to be done.' 
And these must be, 

a. sub Deo teste, 'taking God to witness;' which is called 
cwiteatation. Judges viii. 19, "as the Lord liveth;" and 

;8, 8ub Deo vindice, 'before God the avenger of falsehood ;* 
called execration; sicfaciat mihi Dominus, 'so and so God do 
unto me.' 

Now when a man hath thus sworn, it is in greek called 
SpKo^i 'a hedge' that he hath set about himself, which he 
may not break through ; because he is bound peraislere in 
dicta et pratstare poUicita, 'to stand to his word and do what 
he promised.' 

And because that the hebrew word dzv, which signifieth 'to 
Bwear,' signifieth also 'to satisfy;' he to whom we do swear, 
must be thereivithnl contented ; as juro, ' 1 swear,' is inter- 
preted pro jure habeo, ' I account it law,' as sure as the jut, 
'law itself,' and so the controversv ended. 

Of the third 



How it makelkfor God's glory. ' 

Quest. But how maketli this oath for God'8 glory ? 

Answ. 1. Quod confirmatur per cerlius confirmaiur, 'that 
which is confirmed must be confirmed by that which is more 
certain;' then this is God's glory, that His name should be 
accounted more ccrtaiu than alt things else whatsoever. 

2. It sheweth a great faith in us ; 

a. in the contestation, we shew that we believe that God 
will bring every thing to bght, 1 Cor, iv, 5, " the bidden 
tilings of darkness," and "the counsels of the hearts;" 

ff. in the execration, we shew that we believe the power 
of God to bring judgments upon ua; Rom. xii. 19, "I will 
repay, saith the Lord." 

Is allowed and commanded of God. 
God commandeth to swear, Dent. vi. 13, "thou shalt fear 
the Lord thy God . . and shalt swear by His name;" 
and alloweth of an oath rightly taken, 

2 Chron. vi. 22, 23, "if a man sin against his neigh- 
bour, and an oath be laid upon liim to make him 
swear, and the oath come before Thine altar in this 
house ; then hear Thou from heaven," &c. 

Ps. Ixiii. 11, "every one that sweareth by Him shall 

And used by the saints. 
And God's saints have sworn, either, 

1, For the glory of God, 

3 Chron. kt. 14, "they sware unto the Lord with a 
loud voice, and with shouting," &c. 

Neh. X. 29, they " entered into a curse and into an 
oath, to walk in God's law ;" or, 

2, for the help of mankind, as in a league betwixt Abra- 
liain and Abimolech, Gen. xxi. 23, 24, " swear unto me here 
by God that thou wilt not deal falsely with me," &c. ; "and 
Abraham said, I will swear;" or, 

8, in mutual conspiring together, aa Judges iLxi. 1, "the 
men of Israel had sworn in Mizpeh, saying. There shall nut 
■ny of us give his daughter unto Benjamin to wife;" or, 

Of the third commandment. 

4, for union, as Josh, is, 15, the princes of the congrega^ 
tion to the Gibeonites ; 

or between a king and his subjects; of a king to God, as 
1 Kings i. 29, David coQceming Solomon ; 

of subjects to their king, as 2 Sam. sxi. 17, "the men of 
David sware unto him, saying, Thou shalt go no more 
out with us to battle, that thou quench not the light of 
Israel;" or, 

5, for the safeguard of one's life, as Josh. ii. 12, the spies 
to Rahab ; or, 

6, for a serious matter, as trust in marriage. Gen. siiv. 3, 
Abrahani and his servant ; or, 

7, to decide a matter in doubt where no other means help, 
as Esod. xxii. 8, 11, he "shall be brought unto the judges, 
to see whether he hath put hia hand unto his neighbour's 
goods;" "then shall an oath of the Lord be between tliem. 
both," &c. or 

8, in some case of a private man, as 

Bom. i. 9, " God ia my witness, whom I serve with ray 
spirit in the gospel of Ilia Son, that without ceasing I 
make mention of you in my prayers;" 

2 Cor. i, 23, " I call God for a record upon my soul, that 
to spare you I came not as yet unto Corinth." 

Objection of the anabaptists answered. 

Object. The anabaptists object, that we must not swear at 
all ; grounding upon that speech of our Saviour Christ, Matt. 
V. 3-t, " swear not at all." 

I Answ. But we must interpret this speech after the scope 
of the place, which was to confute the doctrine of the phari- 
seea, who taught that a man might swear and forswear, so 
he took not in his mouth God's name ; and our SaiHour 

1, forbiddeth thera so to swear at all ; and 

2, teacheth us, when we do swear, that we must swear 
only by His name; 

a. we must not leave out His name, and swear by other 
things, Amos \*iii. 14, "by the sin of Samaria, and say, 
Thy god, Dan, liveth ; and. The manner of Beer-sheba 
liveth ;" for it is called. An oath of Jehovah ; 

0/ the third commandment. I'lS 

y3. we must not add any thing to it; as vivit Dominua et part 

Moloch, ' the Lord and Moloch live.' '— 

It appeareth then, that ive may awear j and that in awear- 
ng we must take the Name of God. 


IVe must not take God's name in vain. 

Now that we may not take His name in vain, we must 
swear, Jer. iv. 2, in truth, iu justice, and in judgment. 

1. "Truth;" cctomanded Lev. sis. 12, we must uot swear 
falsely to perjure ourselves, 

cognilo, ' when we know ;' 
dubio, ' when we know not.' 

iu assertion, either ■< 

raut non statuimus prmslare, 

. . , ther we resolve not to perform 

a promission, wheu-^ , 

aul non prastamus, 'or do uoti 



- 2. "Justice;" and that requireth that we should swear 
only in honestis et potsitnltbus, ' in things honest and pos- 
sible;' for that wliich is inhonestuin, non est jus, 'dishonest, is 
not just ;' and impossibik non est omnino jurandum, ' an im- 
possible matter is not at all to be sworu unto.' 

A thing impossible or dishonest is so, either from the very 
beginning, or conieth so to be afterwards. Herod's oath was 
not simply unlawful at the makiug, but when the damsel 
asked St. John baptist's head, it was unla\Tful, and might 
and ought to have been broken, because by keeping it he 
added two other sins to the first of rash swearing; those 
were, unlawful manslaughter; and foohsh superstition in 
performing his oath. So then if we have sworn unjustly, we 
must take heed that we sin not in performing, as we have 
done in promising ; but in malts protaissis conscinde filum, 
' when any evil thing is promised, cat the thread.' Hence it 
waa that David, having rashly sworn to be revenged oa 
Nabal for his churlish answer, afterward blessed God that he 
performed not what he had sworn, 1 Sam. xxv. 22, and 32. 

3. "Judgment;" and that requireth three things at our 

hands ; 

. that wc take an oath revereutly, not rashly, Eccles. \ 

LuO Of the third commatidmeal. 

" be not rash with thy mouth, and let not thine heart be * 
haaty to utter any thing before God ;" 

;9. to take it as a holy thing, and therefore not to make it 
common ; 

y. we must account it a matter spiritual ; and not to say, 
Juravi lingua, meniem injuralam gero, ' I sware with my 
tongue, my mind and intention was not sworn;' for 
God will take that sense that the Morda carry ; Deua sic 
accipii ut ille qui dat, ' Qod so understands an oathj sa 
he who propounds it.' 

Meant to keep oursehesfrom rash Sicearing. 


The means to keep ourselves firom rash swearing, are these 

1. As Augustine' saith, cave facilitatem , nam facilUaa af- 
ferl consuetudinem, et consueludo Masphemiam, ' take heed of 
proneness to swear, for easiness to swear brings on a custom 
of swearing, and custom leads to blasphemy.' This blas- 
phemy is that horrible sin which in scripture wants a name, 
and Cometh under the name of berek, which is 'blessing;' 
as in Job ii. 9, "bless QoA. and die," meaning thereby blas- 
pheming Him ; 

2. Leave those imperfect oaths, per fidem, ' by my faith,' 
or ' in good faith,' &c. ; which is as much to say, as obligo 

fidem meam Deo, ' I swear by my faith to God,' or ' oblige my 
faith in God' for the truth of what I speak; which being 
God's gift may be taken from us ; 

3. By ridding ourselves of irapatiency and vain glory ; for 
in an augry man's mouth nothing is so ready as an oath, and 
in a vain glory wo think it a bravery and a magnificent thing 
to swear ; idea leviter existimamus jurare, quia leve exUfima- 
mua juramentum ; el ideo feve exislimamus, quia levea sumua 
aslimalores, ' we therefore lightly esteem swearing, because 
we think an oath a slight matter ; and therefore we account 
it slight, because we are slight and unskilful judges of an I 



^. f a 

1. 435.] 

Of the third commauditien/. 151 

4. Consider that no precept liath been more visibly 

0/ ,.«... 
Besides oaths we must also take heed how we take the 
Name of God iu vows. 

A vow differeth from au oath thus ; an oath is necessary 
between man and man ; a vow is voluntary between God and 
man : and this vow is, when by the pnrticalar consideration 
of God's graces in us we bind ourselves, either secretly iu 
heart, or openly in word before others, to yield nnto Him 
any duty which of necessity we arc not bound unto. 

To vow were uu easy matter, if that were all : but we must 
reddere, ' pay our vows,' as well as vovere, ' vow ;' for non red- 
dere est devovere, 'not to pay is to devote' and giie up our- 
selves to misery, and to forswear, yea to bring a curse upon 
ourselves; so that we must have a full purpose to perform. 

But with our purpose in all our vows we must have these 
conditions ; 

that he that promisetli be sui juris, ' at his own govern- 
ment,' and free; neither »cttiw necpuer, 'servant, nor 
I a child under age ;' 
that the thiug vowed be in his power; 
that it be lawful to be performed ; 
that it be no frivolous matter, but worthy to be vowed 
unto the Lord. 
us much of the precept. 
Second!)/, of the penalty. 
e penalty followeth, " The Lord will not hold him guilt- 
less that taketh His name in vain." 
The reason of this penalty ia ; 

1. Because many men, to spare themselves or to save their 
credit, will take God's name iu vain, the Lord telleth them 
that which they thought to be safe for thera shall turn to 
their destruction ; it shall draw down God's curse upon them. 
3. The laws of the land punish the abusing of men's 
names, but we have none that take order for the Name of 
God that that be not taken in vain ; and tliercforc God him- 
ielf will look unto it and take order for it. 

Of the fourth commandment. 

PART For the pimiBLment of the breach of this commandment, 

a. Zach. V. 4, the curse of God upon the fabe swearer and 

upon hU liousc ; 
jS. Lev. xsiv, 14, the blasphemer sliall be atoned; and, 
f. for execration, Numb, v. 27, according to the wish, so 
ahall it come to pass, if the party be giiilty; and, 
1 Sam. ii. 30, God will honour them that honour Him, 
but they that despise Him shaD be despised. 
Thus much of the third commandment. 


How punctually expretsed. 

Because publicorum cura e»t minor, 'the care of public 
matters is less,' therefore God hatli set down this command- 
ment in very particular manner. 

We see that in the duties of the second tabic ; for four of 
the commaudments are euded iu a word, because common 
honesty, philosophers, politic and civil laws took order for 
them, and they were usually censured by all tribunals ; con- 
ceruing the fifth commandment, because God saw an humour 
in men unwilling to be brought under subjection, he thought 
it necessary to fence it with a reason ; in the which com- 
mandment, God speaketh fully and particularly, because 
men are prone to think thought to be free. 

But in the first table each commandment hath its reason; 
and above all, this fourth commandment is most punctually 
expressed ; 

1, both negatively and affirmatively; 

2, it lays a charge on ourselves, our sous, daughters^ 
servants, strangers, cattle ; 

3, it Cometh in with a memento, lest norldliness should 
make us forget it ; 

4, here is a pattern set before us ; wc are to do only what 
God hath done before us ; 

Of tfte fourth commandment. 

, here are many several reasons given to bind us 
duty, and not one single reasou, as in the other three - 
commandments of this table. 

Chief porta of the commandment. 

The principal parts of this commandment are two, 

1, a precept, " remember that thou keep holy," &c. ; 

2, a reason of the precept, " for in sis days," &c. 

Of the precept. 

' Sabbath ;' this word bctokencth a day of rest, signifying 
a work to go before. 

' Sanctify,' or keep lioly ; this word is twice in this com- 
mandment; first, attributed to man; secondly, to God, in the 
end of the commandment. 

Now for such words as are attributed both to God and 
man, we have this rule; that they are attributed to God, siib 
modo deatinandi, ' in respect of God's so appointing them to 
be,' and to man, »ub modo applicandi, ' in the way of man's 
applying them to use.' So Christ took water, bread, and 
wine; and He took them to destinate them to a holy use: 
and we take water, bread, and wine, to apply them to that 
use whereunto they were deatiniited ; the water in baptism, 
and the bread and wine in the supper of the Lord. 

Days, and so likewise bread and wine, are not more holy 
of themselves, one than another, but because they be sepa- 
rated and set apart for holy uses ; so Lev. xx. 26, " and 
ye shall be holy unto me ; for I the Lord am holy, and have 
severed you from other people that ye should be Mine." 

In sanctifying any thing, 

1, there is a separation of it to a holy use, as of water for 
baptism, of bread and wine for the Lord's supper ; 

2, the blessing thereof, this is God's ordinance and pro- 
ceeds from Him ; 

Now because God is pure, all things are pure to Ilira ; and 
therefore He needs not to sanctify a day to Himself, where- 
fore He sauctificth it for us. 

(Jflhejourlh commandment. 

PART God sanctified the sabbath by resting from His works He 
— — -■- had made, and dcstinating it to be kept holy by us ; 

We must aanctiij- it tjy our rest, and keeping it holy ; by 
our obedience, 

1, in our judgment, by a reverend esteeming of it, not as 
a day appointed by man ; 

2, in our use; set down, Eaay Iviii. 13 ; not following our 
own will, nor doing our own works. 

The sabbath not a ceremony. 

so abrc 

Quest. But is not the sabbath a ceremony, 
gated by Christ ? 

Answ. Do as Christ did in the cause of divorce, look 
whether it were so from the beginning; now the beginning 
of the sabbath was in paradise, before there was any sin, 
and so before there needed any Saviour, and so before 
there was any ceremony or figure of a Saviour. 

Object. And if they say it prefigured the rest that we shall 
have from our sins in Christ ; 

Answ. We grant it, and therefore the day is changed, but 
yet no ' ceremony' proved. 

1. Prom the Law. 

a. By the distinction behveen the law and a ceremony, 
Deut. iv. 13, 14; the law came immediately from God, the 
ceremonies were instituted by Moses. 

/9. It were not wise to set a ceremony in the midst of 
moral precepts ; there be many amongst the prophets that 
cannot distinguish. 

y. This is a principle, that the decalogue is the law of 
nature revived, and the law of nature is the image of God ; 
now in God there can be no ceremony, but nil must be eter- 
nal ; and so in this image, which is the law of nature ; and 
BO in the decalogue ; whereas a ceremony is, ttTro t^" elt xai- 
piov fioiHiv, ' a matter only to endure for a time.' 

2. YroTa the gospel, Eph. ii. 14, "hath made both one, and 
hath broken down the middle wall of partition ;" all ceremo- 
nies were ended in Christ ; but so was not the sabbath, for, 
Matt. xxiv. 20, Christ biddeth them pray that their visitatitMi 


^ "^e not on the : 

Of the fourth commandment. 

•fce not on the sabbath day, so that there must needs be a PART 

sabbath after Cbrisf a death. : — 

3. Those which were ceremonies were abrogated, and not 
changed; but those which were not ceremonies were changed; 
ns the ministry, from the levites, to be chosen throughout 
the world; the seats changed; so here, the day changed 
from the day of the Jews to the Lord's day, R«t. i. 10. 

The commandment taketh order, I. for the work. 

There is in this command- f for the Work, and 

I ment a taking order \for the Persons. 

^^^L First, for the work, there is, 
^^^Kl. a double permission, 
^^^K a. six days thou slialt labour, 

^^^C fi. in them do all thy work ; 

^^^LS. a double opposition, 
^^^F a. the sabbath is the Lord's, 

^^H /3. in it do no work. 

^^^^ Out of these two permissions and oppositions we hare two 
under-reasona of this commandment ; 

1. Because we oiu-selves by the right of creation are the 
Lord's, we could not have beeu angry if He had given us but 
one day or no day for ourselves ; but seeing lie hath given 
us six days. He is as liberal to us as He was to Adam ; giving 
him all the trees in the garden but one, so to us all days in 
the week but one. And as the devil there said, May ye not 
eat of every tree ? so he saith to us, May ye not work upon 
every day ? But by this great liberality of God we Icam to 
make the devil a better answer than was there given him, 
and to say with Joseph, Gen. xjixix. 9, How should we de- 
ceive Him in this one, seeing all the rest are ours by His 
goodness ? 

2, " But the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord ;" 
this is the second under-reason. K God had permitted ub 
this day, we might also have wrought in it ; but seeing He 
hath not allowed it us, we cannot without stealth break into it. 

Rest, and sanctifying the day, are both commanded, but 
not equally. 

156 0/lhe fourth commandment. 

a. Sanctifying is the end, and is cliicflj aimed at. -d 
0. Rest is a subordinate end, and conduccth to our sancti- 
fying the Lord's day aright : for a thing is best done when it 
is alone attended; by doing divers things, men's miuds are 
distracted ; Adam could not both dress the garden and ob- 
serve the sabbath in one day, because of distraction; we 
have much more need of rest for a remedy. ^ 

Thus much of the work. ^ ^9 

2. For the peraont. | 

Now secondly for the persons. The master of the family, 
it is thy honour to be fii'st in God's aerrice ; of thee more 
is required, because to thee more is given. Thou must with 
Joshua say, "I and my house," Josh. xxiv. 15. And by 
Christ, exemplum dedi vobis, ' I have given you example ; go 
you and do likewise.' If thou obeyest not, how shall they of 
thy household observe this law? "Thou, thy children, thy 
servants, thy cattle, the stranger that is within thy gates;" 
i. e. within tliy jurisdiction or protection, ^m 

Of the reason of the precept. H 

The main reason of the commandment is, " for in six days 
the Lord made heaven and earth, and rested the seventh 
day." It is a rule, that ratio immvtabUis facit prceceptum 
immulabUe, 'a reason which is immutable raakcth the precept 
immutable ;' and this reason of the commandment can never 
be taken away, and therefore the commandment itself must 
still continue ; the day may give place, but sanctifi cation 

The reason is ab exemplo; a fit reason to move all, John 
xiii. 15, " I have given you au example;" and 1 Cor. xi. 1, 
" follow me as I follow Christ." God should be obeyed for 
the keeping the sabbath, even because He gave men His 
own practice for example, and because they need rest to free 
them from distraction, and to gain strength to their weary 
bodies; but much more seeing it would become far more 
profitable to them for their souls, because God had sanctified 
and blessed it by His ordinance to that end ; we must not 
resist llis ordijiance, Rom. xiii, 2, 

Augustine fiudeth no reason why God should be sis days 

Of Uw fourth commandment. 157 

in making the world, seeing He could have laade it with a 
word, but that we should be in a naiisc when we think of it, 
and should think on Ilia works in that order that He made 
them, aa David did, Ps. civ. 

Of the hohj rest of the sabbath. 

The sabbath is sanctum otinm, ' a holy rest,' a returning 
rest from the works of the week-day; but yet with this 
canon, ab en quod nee anlea fieri poterat nee poxtea paterit, 
non ila est avertendum, ' from that which could not be done 
before nor afterward, we are not to refrain.' 

We must so give rest both to our bodies and souls upon 
this day, that nothing trouble us ; remembering that which 
is Pa. xlvi. 10, vacate el videte, 'put off employments, and 
behold ;' of which all that ever wrote, say as the philosopher 
said, postu/amium seressiim ut me/iue intendamus, 'we must 
crave freedom from work, that we be more intentive to the 
present duty.' And therefore not only worldly cares, but even 
the works of our calling are forbidden at this day, that so 
our whole body may be at commandment to serve God; 
not that the works of our caUing are evil, but because they 
will not suffer us wholly to be occupied in God's service, 
and toto hoc die vacandum Domino, 'the whole day must be 
employed in God's work.' 

^Many precepts in scripture concerning it. 
Such is the pervcrseness of our nature, when God saith 
labour, we rest ; when lie saith rest, we labour ; yea, we will 
make it a policy to find labour upon that day which He hath 
denied us to labour in. 

And therefore for this rest we have six commandments; — 

1. E\od. xvi. 6, "cease from gathering manna for this 
day ;" it is mercalura anima, ' the market day for the soul,' 
wherein are better things than manna to be gathered, John 
vi. 58, the " bread which came down from heaven ; he that 
eateth of this bread shall live for ever ;" 1 Pet. ii. 2, 3, " desire 
the sincere milk of the word, that ye may grow thereby ; if 
so be ye have tasted that the Lord is gracious," 

2. Nch. xiii. 15, if it be brought us we must not buy it; 
here fairs and markets are forbidden on this day; 

Of the fourth commandment. 

3. Jer. xvii. 22, no burdens or carriage on this day, except 
— we will hare God to give tu such a burden as the Jews had, 

of the captivity ; 

4. no, not in harvest time, when it is most likely to be 
tolerable, Exod. ssiv. 21, "six days thou shalt work, but 
on the seventh day thou shalt rest; in earing time and in 
harvest thou shalt rest ;" 

5. no journeying on this day; a daily abuse amougst uaj 
Exod. xvi. 29, " tarry every man in his place ;" 

6. Exod. xxxi. 15, not bo much as to build God'a house, 
though there were great use, yea, and great haste of it that 
it should be builded. 

JVhether we must observe it as the Jews did. i 

And here arise certain questions ; 

Quest. 1. Whether wc must observe the sabbath na tljo 
Jews did, not to kindle any fire nor to dress any meat oa 
that day? 

Answ. We say, no; for this was but ceremonial and be- 
longed only to them, For it ia a rule, that every moral duty 
may be performed of all men ; but they under the north pole 
cannot be without fire one day, and they under the equinoc- 
tial cannot keep their meat for heat ; and therefore this can- 
not take place amongst them, and so not general to all, nor 
perpetual to be observed for ever. 

Whether we are absolutely bound to rest. 
Quest. 2. Whether all those resta are absolutely to be 
hoMen or not ? 

Answ. We answer, no j for, 

1, our rest must be a sane ti fie ation ; and, 

2, that rest may bo without sanctitication, is amongst as 
most manifest ; and 

3, that there ia sanctificatioa without reat, we prove thus ; — 
Sanctification is in the Means, or Practice; and where 

Rest is not joined with these two, we must leave it. Por 
aeeing rest ia deatinate to aauctification, it ia a rule in logic, 
that tanlttm desttnati svmendum est quantum ad fnem prodest, 
' we must take ao much of that which aerves for an end as ia 

Of Ihe fourth cominanilmeiil. 159 

belioyeful to attnin that eud ;' as in medicine ; aud tlierefore, r 
where rest leaveth these two, we must lea?e rest ; 

a. For the racana, that they may be witliout rest, our 
Saviour shewetli. Matt. xii. \2, against the Jews, which 
always urged the outward rest only, and teacheth them, 
that we must not so rest hut that we may do well upon the 
sabbath day; and the minister's greatest day of labour is 
the sabbath day, quando eat in opere cultds Dei, ' wheu he is 
employed in the work of God's worsliip ;' so wc read of a 
sabbath day's journey. Acts i. 12; so that for the means to 
sanctitication we may leave rest upon the sabbath day. 

^. For the practice, much more; for the means are less 
acceptable to God than the practice; Matt. xii. 7, the work 
of mercy is preferred before sacrifice, which is but the means 
of sanctifying the sabbath ; and so the means must give 
place to sanctilication. As if there should be a fire in the 
time of sermon, or such like, it is a deed of mercy to leave 
the means and help to quench the fire. For God will be 
glorified in the preservation of His creatures ; yea, the very 
least things may not be lost, John vi. 13, "gather up the 
fragments that remain, that nothing be lost ;" much less the 
life of any thing; as we see Matt. xii. 13, for man's life; 
Luke xiii. 15, for beasts' ; and Matt. xii. 11, for other peril. 

But this necessity must be present, not imminent ; for In 
prasenti necessitate quisque magislratus eft, et quisque per- 
sonam Dei habet, ut potius occidat quam occidatur, ' in urgent 
and present necessity every one is a magistrate, and every 
one representeth the person of God, that he may kill rather 
than be killed ;* but if the danger be not present but immi- 
nent ; as if one should tell him there is wait laid for him, he 
must then go to the magistrate. 

We must also mark here and take heed, because God seeth 
the heart, that we be sure that we could not do it before, nor 
can do it after ; for we must not draw necessity upon our- 

^^ An idle rest not enough. 

Quest. 3, But if we rest, is that enough, bene vestiri, et nil 
agere, ' that we put on our best apparel and do nothing' ? 

Of the fourth commandment. 

Anmw. Surely no ; for as bodily labour profitetli little, so 1 
bodily rest profiteth as little ; and to keep the sabbatb on. J 
tlint idle manner, is but sabbatum bourn el asinorum, ' the | 
Babbatli of oxen and asses.' 

Jlie sabbath not for revel or rial. 

Besides these idle sabbath keepers, there are two other 
sorts which are neither idle nor well occupied on the sabbath. 

1. Tliose that Augustine speaketh of, jucundi, qui vacant 
nugia, apectaculia, theairis, choreis, ' merry company, who 
spend their time in pastimes, allows, stage-plays, dancing;' 
and Horn, xxv., venatores, ' hunters ;' and Leo, Serm. iii. Dt 
quadrages, addetb, vacantes chartis, rationibus et comesaati- 
onibus, ' such as play at cards, look to their reckonings, or 
revel like good fellows / this Augustine calleth sabbatum 
aarei vitiili, ' the sabbath of the golden calf.' 

2. That are drunken and surfeit on the sabbath day ; for 
seeing the works of our calling are not lawful on that day, 
much less these or any the like sinful actions ; for this were 
a double offence, both against other commandments and 
this, and therefore may well be called sabbatum Salante, 
' Sata 

mat the right sabbath. 
The right sabbath is, Eaay Iviii, 3, delicitE Jehovte, ' the de- 
light of the Lord,' to leave our own wills, and to follow His 
and that both publicly and privately ; — 

a. pubhcly, for the whole cityj that God may be praised 
in the great congregation ; and that in the assembly all 
men might be known by one band of obedience, Joel 
ii. 15; and that the commonwealths might have oft^v- 
xlav, ' concurrence and accord of hearts and souls,' as 
the heathen had o/i^cnTiav, ' a concurrence and meeting 
together to eat and drink ;' 
y9. privately, for every particular man ; that it may be 
mercatura anitna, ' the merchandise of the soul to him/ 
to lighten his understanding, and to reform his will 

TRe sabbath how sanctified. 

But how is the sabbath sanctified? 


Of tht fourth commandment. 161 

1. God sanctified it. Gen. ii. 3, that is, He separated it from P 
others to be kept holy, Zach. vii. 3, making that applicate — 
unto us, which in God is destinate. 

2. We are sanctified by the Holy Ghost, Horn. xv. 16 ; this 
wiia prefigured by the holy oil, Lev. viii,, shewing to us the 
spiritual iiuction, 1 John ii. 27. The Holy Ghost was re- 
sembled by fire; we must prepare matter tit for it, that we 
quench not this fire ; this ia done by our being employed in 
the works of the Lord's day; — 

3. Our aanctification of the I , ... , 

I, ,, , , ., . J the use of the word, 
aabbatn standeth in ] .^, , 


1. By prayer. 
lyer is to be used, 
1, Before the sanctification of the sabbath; either 

privately, Ps. cxi. 1. "secretly among the faithful;" 
Mark vi, 46, " He departed into a mouutaia to pray ;" 
publicly, Acts xvi, 13, " by a river side, where prayer was 
wont to be made ;" 1 Cor. siv. 16, saying Amen, &c. 
3. Afler the saoctification of the sabbath. Numb. vi. 24, 
"the Lord bless thee," &c. ; for unless He continue His spirit 
which He hath given us, the euemy will prevail against us ; 
Luke viii. 12, "then cometh the devil, and taketh the word 
out of their heart, lest they should believe and be saved." 

^H 2. By the use of the word. 

^ The use of the word, Deut. iv. 10, wliich is, 

1. To read it or hear it read privately, before we come to 
the public assembly, that so we may the better apprehend it, 
and gather more frtiit by it, when we arc publicly taught ; 
as the Jews had their Trapaa-iKVTjv, their ' day of preparation.' 

2. To hear it publicly ; 
1, both the law. 

Acts vii. Stephen's discourse j 

xiii. 15, "after the readiug of the law aud the 
prophets," &c. 

162 Of the fourth commandment. 

27, "the prophets which are read every 

sabbath day," &c. 

XV. 21, "Moses of old time hath in every city 

them tliat preach Iiim, being read in 

the synagogues every sabbath day ;" 

/3. aud the gospel, 

1 Thess. V. 27, " I charge you by the Lord that this 
epistle be rend unto fill the holy brethren." 

3. After we have heard it, to search the scripturea, and to 
examiue that which hath been delivered. 

4. To ponder in our hearts that we have heard spoken; 
Luke ii. 19, "Mary kept all these things, and pon- 
dered them in her heart ;" 

Ps. cxis. 97, " it is my meditation aU the day." 

5. To confer of it between ourselves and with others also. 
And this conference may be, 

1. Between the teacher and the hearer; so was the use of 
the Jews, that the eighth day, which was the last of the 
Babbath, the doctors sat, and all the people came and were 
resolved of their doubts ; 

and thereupon it was that Christ did oppose them, not 
as a teacher (as some think} but as a learner ; Luke 
ii. 46, " they found Him in the temple, sitting in the 
midst of the doctors, both hearing them, and asking 
them questions ;" 

Luke iii. 10, the people to John the baptist, "what 
shall we do then?" 

Acts ii. 37, they " said unto Peter and to the rest of the 
apostles. Men aud brethren, what shall we do?" 

2. Between hearers ; and that, 
a. either between equals. 

Gal. ii. 2, Paul at Jerusalem ; 

2 Kings ii. 11, Elijah and EUsha; 

Luke xxiv. 17, the two disciples going to Emmaus; 
Mai. iii. 16, "they that feared the Lord spake oftea 
one to another," &c. j 
teaching one another, because that doth some muck 
good, which doth nothing move other some ; 

0/ the fourth commandmtiil . 

^. or else between superiors s 
and the senant. 

id inferioi 

la the master part 

3. By thanksgimng. 

The giving of thanks is also adnty of the sabbath. 

Pa. viii. Ij 2, there is a general use of them ; and there is 
also a particular use, Ps. is. 11. 

Ps. .\cii, is a psalm for the sabbath ; in this, the works of 
God's hands are meditated upon, ver. 4; His judgments on 
the wicked, ver. 7; His mercies, ver. 10, &c.; all these David 
mentions in his song to the instrument of ten strings, the 
viol and tlie harp, and hereby both stirreth up himself to bia 
duty, as also setteth forth the praise of his God. 

The want of plentiful thanksgiving is a greater blemish ia 
our church than many of those which are urged. Praise is 
due to God, because He heareth our prayers, Ps. Isv. 1, 2, 
" praise waiteth for Tlice, O God, in Sion ; and unto Thee 
shall the vow be performed ; O Thou that hearest prayer, 
unto Thee shall all flesh come." 

also by sacraments and discipline. 
Also besides these three, the sacraments and discipline are 
for the sabbath day, but not for every sabbath. 

^K and by works of mercy. 

™ And though rest be commanded on the sabbath, and 
working forbidden; yet, as before we shewed, those good 
works which tend to the practice of holiness are to be done 
on the sabbath day, and are also a part of our aanctificatioii 
of the sabbath; namely, works of mercy, outward and in- 

Of outward mercy. 
I. Outward, or in bodily things, Matt, xxv, 35 ; to feed 
the hungry, refresh the thirsty, receive strangers, clothe the 
naked, visit the sick and those that are in prison ; as lastly, 
to bury the dead, as Augustine* saith ; ne pateat miaeria, ' to 
cover our misery, and take it out of our sight.' 

• [virl. lib. De cur. pro mort,, »oL vL col. 615 iqq,] 
H 2 

Of the fourth commandmenl. 

Object. To them that say, they know not who iieedeth, 

Answ. We answer, ocatrrere est »uccurrere, ' to visit them 
and know their wants is the way to relieve them aright;* 
tind it is necessary they should give, for as Augustine aaith, 
pelii simm pauculum iemporarium, da, ei recipies magaum ster- 
num, ' the poor man begs a small temporary kindness, give it 
him, and thou shalt receive a large eternal beuelit.' 

Object. To them that say they have little, 

Ansto. We answer, God doth not reapicere quantum, ' re- 
spect how much,' but e^ quanta, ' out of how much.' But in 
our giving we must take heed that we do not take away on 
other days to give on this day, for that were to give moforent 
partem diabolo, ' the greater part to the devil,' 

0/ inward merct/. 

H. Inirard, or in spiritual things ; of which Augustine 
saith, principalior est interna carilas, t/uia parti prindpaHofi 
medetur, ' inward charity is of greater esteem than outward, 
because it curetli the more principal part of man.' 

And this iuward mercy is of seven sorts ; — 

1. to teach the ignorant, Ps. li. 13, "theu will I teach 
transgreaaora Thy ways;" Dan. xii. 3, to "turn many to 

2. to advertise the doubtful, Prov. xsvii. 9, " by hearty 

3. to Exhort the slack, 2 Cor. xiii. U, to "be perfect, be of 
good comfort;" 

4. to forgive, Matt. vi. 14, " if you forgive men their tr08> 
passes, your heavenly Father will also forgive you;" qui dot 
noH recipit ni»i remtttit, qui remittit, recipit, etiatnsi non dot, 
' he that giveth receives not a reward unless he forgive ; ha 
that forgiveth shall receive, though he gave not.' 

5. to forbear, 1 Thes. v. 14, " be patient toward all men ;" 
Gal. vi. 2, " bear ye one another's burdens, aud so fulfil tha 
law of Christ;" 

6. to pray one for another, James v. 16, "pray one &r 
another;" Luke xsiii. 34, "Father, forgive them, for thfqr 
know not what they do;" 

Of the fourth commandment. 1G5 

7. to reconcile otlicre. Matt, v, 9, " bleaaed arc the peace- F 
makers." _ 

Of the sabbath of fast. 

Now besides this sabbath, there is also included by the 
rule oi homogenea, 'things of like nature' to be alike, another 
sabbath, Lev. xii. 31, the day of fast. For as Augustine 
saitli, before the fall there needed but one glorifying of God, 
namely, by giviug of thanks ; but since the fall, by reason 
of our great backsliding, God must also be glorified aacrificio 
tribulati spirUds, 'with a sacrifice of a troubled spirit,' for the 
mortifying of our flesh. 

Neither is this a matter ceremonial ; for Christ saith, 
Luke V. 35, that we shall fast after His taking; and we see 
the same accordingly practised, 

I by the whole church. Acts xiii. 2, 3, " aa they minis- 
tered to the Lord, and fasted," — " and when they 
had fasted and prayed," &c. 
by Paul, 2 Cor. xi. 27, " in fastings often." 
This sabbath of fast is either public or private j 
public, to which the silver trump must be blown, 

Joel ii. 15, "blow the trumpet in Zion, sanctify a 
fast ;" 
phyate, that none know of it, 

M&tt. vi. 17, "but thou when thou fastest," &c. 

Ofpahlic fast. 

The reasons of public fast ; 

I. For turning away some evil, either culpa, or pcerup, ' of 
faidt, or punishment.' 

Both these are either ours, or others' j and first, poena ; 
1. Our own, when God's arrows are apon ns ; 
Josh. vH. 6, Joshua before Ai ; 
Judges xs. 26, the children of Israel defeated by 

Benjamin ; 
I Sam. vii. 6, the children of Israel at Mizpeb ; 
Joel ii. 14, "who knoweth if He will return and 
or when they hang over our heads, Esth. iv. 3. 

Of the fourth commandment. 

2. Othera', as Zech. vii. 5, the fast of the fifth and of the 
_ Beventh month. 

For malum culpw, 'the evil of sin,' seeing we have all of- 
fended God, we should all fear Hia judgments to come upon 
OS, as Ezra, for the people's affinity with strangers, Ezra iz.; 
X. 6. : 

II. For the procuring of some good. 

Acts xiii. 2, 3, "as they ministered to the Lord, and 
fasted, the Holy Ghost said, Separate Me Barnabas and Saul 
for the work whereimto I have called them. And when they 
had fasted and prayed, and laid their hands on them, they 
sent them away ;" 

jtiv. 23, "and when they had ordained them elders in 
every church, and had prayed with fasting, they commended 
them to the Lord on ^\'hom they believed." 

And for all these causes, public fast is necessary, and not 
to be neglected, as we regard God's judgments. 

Of private fast . 

Private fast likewise is, 

1 . Ob malum pcena, 

a. for ourselves, 

under His hand, 2 Sam. xii, 16, "David therelo 
besought God for the child; and David fasted, 
and went in, and lay all night upon the earth ;" 
near Hia hand, 1 Kings xxi. 37, " when Abab 
heard those words, he rent his clothes, and put 
sackcloth upon his flesh, and fasted," &c.; 
jS, for others, Ps. xxxv. 1.3, "wheu they were sick, I 
humbled my soul with fasting;" 

2. Ob malum culpa, i. e. propter lani/uorem bom, 'for the 
evil of sin,' that is, ' for the fainting of goodness,' 
without fasting some temptation cannot be avoided, Matt. 
xvii. 21. 

And as the public fast, so also the private fast is not only 
for turning away of evil, but for procuring some good, 
generally. Acts x. 30, Cornelius; 

Of the fourth commandment. 1 G7 

particularly, Matt, iv., Christ ; Acts xiv, 23, Paul and 
Bamabaa in ordaining elders. 

Each hath an outward and an inward part. 
Now as of the other sabbath, so also of this, there are two 
parts, outward abstinence, and inward sorrow ; 

1. In the outward fast is required, 
a. that it be wholly all the day. 

Lev. xxiii. 32, the day of atonement ; 

Ezra X. 6, Ezra fur the strange marriages; and 
j8. wakefulness is required, Joel i. 13, "lie all night in 

sackcloth, ye ministers of God ;" and 
y. to lay off our good apparel, and put on more \ile clothes, 

Exod. xsxiii. 4, Neh. is. 1 ; and lastly, 
£. that there be a separation from all labour that is used 

on other days thau the sabbath ; and, 
t. quod ventri subtrahiiur, illud pauperi detur, ' what thou 
sparest from thy belly, give to the poor.' 

2. Neitlier will outward abstinence serve the turn, without 

inward sorrow, Esay Iviii, 3 ; and herein is 
^^^L a. first, an indignation against ourselves, which is an affec- 
^^^K tion mixed with fear, that we have undergone the 
^^^H danger of so great a puuishnicnt, and 
^^^K jS. secoudly, sorrow, that we have offended so good a God ; 
^^^■^ and to these must be added, 

^^^Ky. n desire of amendment, and a promise to take a more 
^^^H strict order hereafter in our serving of God than we 
^^^H have done. 

^^^VFor indeed both these sabbaths are spiritual, as we may 
^^^H see by that, Esay Iviii. 3 ; we must cease from our own 
^^Km works, yea from our own thoughts, if we will rightly 
^^^ sanctify thera. 

' Means to sanctify the sabbath. 

1 . A place of sanctificatiou ; we must 'reverence His sane* 
tuary,' Lev. xis. 30, and xsvi. 2; Ps. cixxii. 3—5, "I will 
not come into the tabernacle of my house, nor go up into my 
bed; I will not give sleep to mine eyes, or slumber to mine 

168 Of the fourth commandment. 

' eyelids, until I find out a place for the Lord, an habitation 

- for the mighty God of Jacob." 

And fot this place of God's worship the apostles took order 
that it should not be too pompous, neither yet too homely, 
but that it be decent, with that euo^/ioiriiifij, ' haudsomeneBa 
and good order,' which though it be not the more weighty 
point of the law, yet is not to be neglected. ■ 

2. Persons fit for all actions excellent ; such as are able to^ 
do more than read and apeak, Lev. xxi, 6, "they shall not I 
profane the Name of their God ;" for Prov. xxix. 18, " where 
there is no vision, the people perish." 

So we sec in the scriptures, what alteration and destruc- 
tion had been for the rarity and want of prophecy, 
Judges xvii, 7, the stoiy of Micali ; 

1 Sam. iii. 4, tlie sons of Eli ; 

2 Chron. sv. 3, 5, 6, under Asa; "for a long season 
Israel hath been without the true God, and without 
a teaching priest and without law : and in those times 
there was no peace to him that went out, nor to him 
that came in, but great vexatious were upon all the 
inhabitants of the countries ; and nation was de- 
stroyed of nation, and city of city : for Gtod did Tei 
tliem with all adversity;" 

2 Kings xvii, 16, Israel under Hosea; 
so that Moses wished. Numb. xi. 29, that all might pro- 
phesy, and Paul, 1 Cor. xiv. 5 ; and we see by experience 
that our enemies would invade us in such places where the 
people are least taught in the word of God. 

3. Maintenance of the places of God's worship, and not 
only so, but of schools also ; so Moses was brought up in all 
mannerof learning. Acts vii. 22; aud to this end Josh.xv. 15, 
there was a city like our universities, kiriath sepher, ' a city 
of letters,' or 'a city of books ;' and Acts xix. 9, Paul disputed 
in the school of one Tyrannus. 

4. Maintenance of the person ; Neh, x. 37, " the tithes to 
the leiites;" 1 Cor, is. 14, "they that preach the gospel 
must live by the gospel." 

a. All that labour must have something for their labour, 

Of the fourth commandment. 169 

and much more tlien they that minister nnto us spiritual PA RT 

things must be made partakers of our temporal things ; "'• . 

/9. And that they must not have less than the tenth part, 
may be thus proved ; 

first, by the connecting of their ministry to the priesthood 
of Melchiaedek ; Lev. xxvii, 32, " the tenth part holy to 
the Lord ;" 
secondly, in regard that which Jacob promised was moral, 

namely, that he would give the tenth of all to God ; 
thirdly, the reason of it was not peenliar to the Jews, but 
continucth still to us, and therefore the reason i 
ing, the thing itself also still continueth. 
Thus much of the fourth commandment : 
And so of tlie first table. 


The sum of the first table was, "Love the Lord thy God part 
with all thy heart," &e. Matt. xxJi. 37; the sum of the — ^1^- 
second table, "Love thy neighbour as thyself." 

And they are well joined together, and this latter dependeth 
well upon the former, ut rivas justitue ducatur e fonte pielatis^ , 
' that the stream of justice may run along from the well-spring 
of piety.' For the first table trcateth of our duty and piety to 
God, and the second of our justice towards man ; and in this 
God giveth us a testimony of Ilis love to man, whom He 
nude like to Himself, and for whose good He hath made one 
table of the law, and that consisting of more precepts than 
the former table which concerned Himself. 

Neither doth it derogate any thing from the love of God, 
but rather increaseth it ; for, 

a. if vre love our friend, we will love his child, and so 
1 John iv. 21, "let him that loveth God, love his brother 
also;" "for if we love not him whom we see, how shall we 
love God AVliora we never see ?" and 

^. if we love man which oftentimes doth us hurt, how 
should we choose but love God who is always doing ua good ? 

» [S. Gwg. Monl., lib. xix. r«p. 23. ool. 624 tq.] 

Of the second table. 

PART Tliecommandmentsof the second table serve for the uniting I 
— — — of man tD man, as the commaadmenta of the first were for the 
uniting of man to God : God is to be ever a ready help at ' 
hand, our defender and uplioldcr ; and there is no man who J 
aeedcth not also the help of his neighbour, whence it foUow- 
eth that we ought to love one another. 

Matter of the second table. 
In this second table are generally three things, 
the thing commanded, "love;" 
the object of love, " our neighbour ;" 
the manner of it, " as ourselves," 

1. The thing commanded. 
Love ia either 

amor, ' a natural affection' which extendetb itself to all ( 
God's creatures, with a desire that they may remain i 
in that course that God hath set them ; or it is 

beneoolentia, ' good will,' which is in reasonable things only; 
but rash, and may be with error ; or else 

dilectio, 'rational choice' of one beloved, which is with 
consideration, and without error ; and this ia the love 
here commanded, for as Augustine' saith, verua 
amator debet esse verus (estimator, ' a true lover is o 
which cau truly value things to their worth.' 

If we love our brother we must, 

1. Rejoice at his welfare, Rom.xii. 15, "rejoice with them 
that do rejoice ;" not be envious to hinder others from the 
partaking of our good, which was the fault of the servant 
that hid his talent. Matt. xxv. 26; or if we have not the talent, 
we must not envy others that have it ; which was the devil's | 
&ult, and the cause of the first temptation. 

Here also is comprised the duty of having peace with all 
men, Rom. sii. IS, as far as is possible ; and if nt any time there 
be a breach of peace, that we should not be peremptory and 
unappeasable. The angels sang "Glory to God and peace 
ou earth;" and there is nothing more to be desired than 
concord in all good, nothing more to be shunned than discord 
i [De ducW. clirUt., lib. i. caji. il. vol. iii. coL 13.] 


Of the second table. 1 71 

in good. Which sometimes falla out by human frailty, which 
Christ dgnified by saying, He came not to send peace on - 
earth, but the sword ; yet peace is His gift, and " blessed are 
the peace-makers" in good; and on the contrary, cursed are 
the peace-makers in evil. 

2. Do no man hurt, by inflicting evil upon him, or by detain- 
ing good from Iiimj Lev. xix. 3. 

3. If any man do us hurt, recompense him with good; 
" bless them that persecute you," Rom. xii. 14, " that curse 
you," Matt, v, 44. 

4. Succour the hungry and needy, Prov. xxii. 9, Matt. v. 
44, if we have this world's goods; which are defined to be, 
those which we may depart withal salvo statu nostra, ' without 
prejudice to our estate.' 

5. We must pray for him, Rom. sii. 14, Matt. v. 44, for 
to pray for our neighbours is radius caritatis, 'a beam of 

6. We must perform the duties of our calling toward our 
neighbour, aa if one be a lawyer, be must give good counsel ; 
and 80 of the rest, Luke vi, 27 — 29. 

Thus much of the thing commanded, love. 

H 2. The object of love. 

The object of our lore must be our neighbour. 

The pharisees took this word straitly for their friends only. 
Matt. T. 43, " thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine 
enemy :" but Christ, Luke x. 37, sheweth that misericordia, 
mm loci differentia, facit proximum, ' mercy, and not difference 
of country, makes one our neighbour;' and if he be a neigh- 
bour that sheweth mercy, and proximus is proximo proximus^, 
then he must be also a neighbour that standeth in need of 
mercy, though he be our enemy. And the law confirmeth 
the same, Deut. xxii. 1, "if thy brother's ox go astray, thou 
shalt bring him again to thy brother ;" aud £xod. xxiii. 4, 
"if thou meet thine enemy's ox going astray, thou shalt bring 
it to him again ;" the self same law for brother and enemy. 

The object of our love is said to be our ' neighbour,' or our 
- biother ;' we may use both words ; 

Of the second table. 

1. if he be our brother, there is identitaa oriffinis, ' one and 
— the same original" unto us ; we arc al! of one blood; and we 

see even in beasts identity causcth love, as those of a kind 
will love one another ; and so children like their own faces ia 
a glass ; 

2. if he be proxinau, why then in regard of use love him; 
for one neighbour shall have use of another, and stand in need 
of him, and society should be amaris magnes, ' the lodestone 
of love.' 

Cautions hereupon. 
Now in thb love to our neighbour, we must consider two 
things ; 

1. Take heed we take not the sin of our neighbour for onr 
neighbour; for' omnis peccator, quatenugesl peccaior, est odio 
hahendus ; omnis homo, gualenus est homo, est diligendus : sic 
homities diligamus, ut non diligamus errores ; ob id quod facli 
sunt, non ob id qttod fecentnt, ' every sinner, as he is a sinner, 
is to be hated ; every man, as he is a man, is to be loved : 
let us love men so that we love not their sins, and love them 
for that which God made them, not that which by sin they 
made themselves.* 

2, For degrees, whether alius alio propinquior, ' one man 
is nearer than another.' 

It is certain there are degrees ; for to omit our duties to 
our parents is worse than to omit the same duties to a 

Now where there is a greater duty, there must be a greater 
affection, and so greater love ; and the order of our love must 
be thus, 

a. To God, for He is that bonum, ' good,' by the participar 
tion whereof all other are bona, ' good ;' and to which 
all other give place, as in policy to bonum publicum, 
' the pubhc good.' 
/3, Our own souls, for we ate unilas, 'an unity,' or one, 
entire in and with ourselves, and cannot be but united" 
with our brethren. 
y. The souls of our brethren before our own bodies ; for 

Of the second table. 173 

any man's soul may directly be partaker of the uni- i 
versal good which is in God, but so can no man's - 
body but by participation with the soul, find therefore 
the soul is to be preferred. 
S. Our own bodies before other men's. 
c The bodies of our neighbours ; and among them, 
first to them that have need ; and of those, 
first to the household of faith. Gal. vi. 10; and of them, 
first to our countrymen, Ps. cxxii. 8, " brethren and 

companions ;" and of these, 
first them which are noatri, ' our friends and acquaint- 
ance ■' and of them, 
first to our own, and namely, them of our household, 

1 Tim. V. 8, and our kindred ; and 
first the wife. Gen. ii. 24, " they shall be one flesh ;" 
" am not I better to thee than ten sons "i" 
1 Sam. i. 8, 
Thus much of the object, our neighbour. 

3. The manner of our love. 

The manner of our love, * as ourselves ;' nan quantum, sed 
sicut, ' not so much as thyself, but after the same manner.' 
Whereiu are four things ; 

1. The end, propter quod amas teipmm, 'for which thou 
lovest thyself,' that must be, quia Deum amas, ideotpie omnia 
qna sunt Dei ; ob hanc causarn dilige fratrem, quia Deum amat, 
quia Dei est, 'because thou lovest God, and therefore all 
things which are God's; for this cause love thy brother, 
because he loveth God, because he is God's.' 

2. The means to this end, atl quod teipsum amas, ' to which 
end thou lovest thyself:' thy love to thyself should be chiefly 
in respect of thy soul, so chiefly love the soul of thy neigh- 
bour. And therefore as Augustine saith, out ama me quia 
sum Dei, aut ut gum Dei, ' either love me, because I am God's 
servant, or as I am God's servant ;' and so we must not con- 
sentire ejus volunlati in malo, ' consent to his will in any evil.' 

3. Not for the use of him, or because we hope to have a 
good turn of him, but ffratuilo, ' freely.' 

4. After the order and in the degree before spoken of; 

Of the fifth commandment. 

PART namely, after God, and after thine own soul; and first liig 
*^' soul, and then thine owu body, and then hia body. 

And thus onr love must be e/r fonte pietatia, ' flowing from 
the spring of piety ,' juslus, vents, ordinalug; 'just, true, and 
directed to the right end.' So that our love must be toward 
our neighbour, not as alwajs it is towards ourselves, but as it 
ought to be; nor as an evil man loveth himself, but as a 
man's heart well regulated affecteth hia own self. 


Of higher and lower place. 

God hath not made all men alike, but hath made some 
partakers of Hia excellency, and set them in superior place ; 
others of a meaner degree, and set them in a lower place ; 
that mutual society might be maintained. For this He hath 
provided in this commandment; here He establisheth the cloth 
and chair of estate, having given such excellency to some that i 
He styled them gods, Ps. Ixxxii. 6; to these, others of inferior 
rank must submit and shew their observance. 
The commandment hath two parts, 

the precept, " honour thy father," &c, ; 

the reason, " that thy days," &c. 

first part of the commandment, viz. the precept. 
The precept contain- f inferiors, to honour; 

eth the duties of (. superiors, to be father and mother. 

Of the words of the commandment. 

God dealing seriously with man, dclightcth to knit up Hia 
speech in a short compass, and therefore in one word expresa- 
eth His command. Hence in the negative coramaudmenta 
He maketh choice of the ugliest and loathsomcst word of 
that kind, to terrify us from those words which signify sins 
not so gross; so in this commandment He maketh choice 
of the 'father' and 'mother' to beautify the commaudment^ 
and sweeten the dutv withal. 

Of the fifth commandment. 175 

Now as Clirysostom saith, tliey muat first be fathers, PART 
before they be honoured as fathers, — '- — 

" Thy father :" the hebrew word is naK, abba, which is, 
' he that hath a care or desire to do good :' so that he is a 
father by whom others are in any better estate; for aa ' 

natural fathers are causa ejHtilendi, ' cause of our being,' so 
others are causa bene ewistendi, ' cause of our well being,' 

" Houour ;" the word 123, kabad, signifieth aygravare, 
' to increase and aggravate and add/ so that we must add an 
excellency unto them ; we must addere prelium, ' add estima- 
tion,* and addere pondus, ' add weight,' and by translation 
honorem, 'honour;' make it a matter of weight to honour 
them ; and seeing they bear the person of God, they must 
not be set hght by. 

it'hy rulers are appointed. 

We see 1 Tim. ii, 2—4, the apostle goeth thus to work; 
God would have all men saved ; tliat they miglit be saved, 
lie would have them live in godliness and honesty ; that they 
might so do. He would have them taught the knowledge of 
God; and that they might intend this, He would have them 
lead a peaceable and a quiet life ; peaceable in regard of out- 
ward invasions, and quiet in regard of inward tumults and 
troubles. Now if the natural father and natural mother could 
have performed this, they needed no other; but Gen, x. 8, there 
comes one Nimrod, with a company of hounds at his tail, 
{that metaphor it pleaseth the Holy Ghost to use,) and he 
takes upon him to be a hunter, that is, a chaser of men, to 
disturb and trouble them ; and after that God first allowed, 
and after instituted, that there should be 

a. governors, to dehver ua from unreasonable and evil 

men, 1 Tim. ii. 2; and 
fi. government, both for resisting of outward foes, and for 
quieting of inward strifes ; and to comfort and cherish 
good men, that love to live quietly, to come to know- 
ledge of God, and of a religious demeanour of them- 
The magistrate is the minister of God to take vengeance 
on them who do evil, but a cherisher and comforter of such 

Of tht fifth commandment. 

ART ae do well, Rora. xiii. 4. The benefit received from his vigil- 
ancy is well set forth, Dan. iv. 10, uuder the representatiou 
of a great tree, and Eaay sxxii. 2, by comparing him to ariver 
m dry places, aud the shadow of a great rock in a dry laud. 
Our Bttidj must be to give him all due submission and hoDour, 
for iu his peace we shall have peace, Jer. xxix. 7. 

Of the duties 

to superiors and inferiors. 

" Honour thy father aud thy motlier." 
First of the duties in general. 
The duty standcth as well in the action as iu the manner 
of the action, and neither are to be omitted. 

There are some duties which are offida reciproca, ' mutual 
duties between the inferior and superior,' due by either of 
them to the other of them ; 

1, love, but iu a higher degree than that which is due to 
every one; the name of it is aropyi), which is a natural affec- 
tion, either ascending or descending, and that either properly, 
or by analogy, Phil. ii. 32, aa a son to the father. 

2, to wish well to him whom we love ; and because chris- 
tianum votum est oratio, ' prayer is a Christian's well wishing,* 
therefore to this wishing well we may add prayer for them. 

Duties of the inferior generally : first, honour ; 

The first is honour, and that, inward, or outward. 

Honour, in exact speech, belongeth to God alone ; yet He 
hath pleased to impart some beams thereof to men j He hath, 
made some vessels of honour; He calls them to it, and fits 
them with gifts ; they have imepo^v, ' escellcncy ;' i^ovalav, 
'power;' and ap;^^l/, 'a place of authority' to exercise their 

1 . Inward honour is that honesta opinio, that ' good opinion' 
and reputation that one man hath of another, wherein we 
witness a certain excellency to be in him whom we do thus 
honour. — The contrary hereof was in Corah and his com- 
pany, Numb. xvi. 3 ; this was his thesis. The Lord is among 
us all, we are all alike holy to the Lord ; and therefore Moaei, 

Ofthi-Jiflh coininandmi-nl. 


excellent than the reat of the PART 

find Aaron should be n 

people. - 

2. Outward honour what it is and after what sort it is to 
be eshibited, is better known and determined by the manner 
of the country, than otherwise; because all are not alike^ 
erery country hath not the same, fashion : for ourselyes, we 
may reduce it to these heads ; 

a. To rise up, when that person of excellency is in pre- 
sence, which either by nature, or by analogy and proportion, 
is our father; Job xxix. 8, "the young men saw me, and hid 
themselves ; and the aged arose, and stood up ;" and 1 Kio^a 
ii, 19, Solomon to Bathsheba, "the king rose up to meet her;" 

^. To uncover the head, in token of our reverence of him ; 
1 Cor. si. 4, "every man praying or prophesying baling 
his head covered, dishonoureth his head ;" 

7. To bow the knee ; Gen. sli. -13, to Joseph, " they cried 
before him. Bow the knee : and he made him ruler over all 
the land of Egypt ;" 

h. To stand ; as Exod. xviii. 1 3, Moses sat because he 
was judge, and all the day long the people stood ; and 
3 Kings V, 25 : Gchazi stood before Eliseus, as our servants 
stand before us. 

e. To be silent wheu our betters speak, and to give ear 
unto them ; Job xxix. 9, 10, " the princes refrained talking, 
and laid their hand on their mouth ; the nobles held their 
peace, and their tongue cleaved to the roof of their mouth." 

f. When we are by necessary occasion to speak, to use 
words of submission ; as Sarah called her husband 'lord' or 
•sir,' Gen. xviii. 12; and Joseph's brethren, not knowing it 
was their brother, " thy servant our father is in good health," 
Gen. xliii, 28; and Rachel to Laban her father. Gen. xxxi. 
35, " let not my lord be grieved that I caunot rise." 

J). Tlie last duty of outward honour is in the scriptures 
comprehended under the name of 'service,' Luke xvii, 8, or 
' waiting upon ;' it comprehcudeth all such duties as are used 
by servants to their masters. 

secondly, fear ; 
Y After honour foUoweth fear ; which doth properly belong 

Oftkejiflh comiiiaitfimetit. 

\RT to the superior, in regard of his power; and it is aa awe 
— ^ — or reverent fear, or a standing iu awe of them ; 

Lev. xix. 3, " ye shall fear every man hia father and his 

mother;" and 
Eph. vi. 5 ; we must " with fear and trembling serve 
our masters according to the flesh," and much more kings, 
Prov. xvi. 14, their " auger is as the messengers of death." 

thirdly, obedience. 

The next thing due unto them in regard of their govern- 
ment is obedience, expressed 1 Tim, vi. 1, by being " under 
the yoke;" that is, when they will us to do this or that, we 
must put our necks under the yoke of their commandment ; 
Prov, KsiiL 22, " obey thy father," and so Eph. vi. \ ; as 

Isaac obeyed Abram hia father, Gen. xxii. 9 ; 

Jacob obeyed Laban his master, Gen. xxxi. 6 ; 

the people promise to obey Joshua, Joah. i. 16. 

Wicked therefore was the doctrine of the pharisees, 
Mark vii. 11, 12, that a man should give to the treasury, 
and HO be freed from honom-ing his father. 

For this cause it is that we pay tribute and custom, to 
shew that we are not only ready ourselves, but our goods 
also are at commandment. 

Now the mauuer of our obedience ia this, 

1, it must be in simplicity and singleness of heart, with a 
good conscience, Col. iii. 22 ; 

2, it must be alacriter, ' with cheerfulness ;' 

3, we must do it continually, at all times, and in all 
cases lawful, not contrary to God's commandments. 

Reasotisfor obedience. 

And because we are not given to this by nature, therefore 
six reasons are given to move and induce us to perform this 
obedience ; 

1. the very placing of the commaudment may move ua 
much, in that God hath put it before onr goods, yea before 

Of the fifth commamhnnt. 


our life, to shew thnt obedience to government ought to be 1 
dearer to us than our goods, yea than our lives; — 

2. the names of father and mother which God hath given 
to governors, wliich are names of nature, full of love, aud 
the more apt to move obedience ; 

3. the promise of long life, a thing no less amiable ; for 
death is a thing repugnant to nature ; 

4. it is a good thing, 1 Tim. ii. 3, it is to God accepta- 
ble; yea, it is that which God is specially delighted with, 
ewipeoTOJ', Col. iii. 20, and they that are thus obedient, 
they are koXoX, diroBfieroi, eudpearoi, ' good, acceptable, well- 
pleasing ;' 

5. it is not only good, but SUawv, Eph. vi. 1, 'it ia 
right;' we cannot forbear it without injury; and therefore 
Christ saith. Matt. x.\ii. 21, "give unto Caisar that which 
ia Caesar's;" it is his own, and therefore if you keep it back, 
you do him wrong and injustice; 

6. it litandeth us in hand so to do ; and the reason is, 
Heb. xiii, 17, they watch over our souls; so that where 
honour is detracted, there care of preservation ia dimi- 
nished ; and by reason hereof the power, wickedness, and 
impudency of naughty men is increased, and we the more 

Duties of the superior generally, 

k Now the duties of superiors in general. 

WL Tlie nearness of the two significations of the word 133, 
mbad, wliich signifieth both ' heaviness' and ' honour ;' and 
in the greek ti^j), ' honour,' and a loss or ' mulct ;' in latiu, 
onero, ' to burden,' aud honoro, ' to honour ;' aheweth that 
this honour goeth not without a charge aud a burden, and 
that it is required of them that they should be that which 
they would be honoured for. 

1. They must know that their office is S«i rov Kvpiav, ' in 
and for God,' and that they be God's ministers, 1 Pet. ii. 13, 
Rom. xiii. 4; they are God's vicegerents; their judgment 
is His, and not their own, 2 Chron. xix. 6, " ye judge not for 
man, but for the Lord." 

2. To make their places yet more weighty, 2 Cor. xii. 1-1, 
the children are not for the fathers, but the fathers for the 

OJ Ihe fifth cotntnaiidrntml. 

ART children. Ps. Uxviii, 71, David was taken from the eheep- 
— ^ — - fold to be a king ; but why ? mi pancendum Israel, ' to feed 
Israel :' and after the snnie manner it is hetween those that 
are fathers and children by natiu'c; God iu the beginning 
saw the want and defect that was in children, and therefore 
ordained a dnty to be shewed unto them before they are able 
to give honour ; and then afterwards for a recompence the 
children are to give honour to their parents, that have helped 
them when they could not help themselves. And as God 
ordained the children to be thus holpen, and their wants to 
be supplied by their parents ; so must those that are in 
authority nourish and cherish those that arc under them, 
as their own flesh; as MoseSj Numb. xi. 12, carried the 
people in hia bosom, as a nurse. 

3. Seeing God hath made them fathers and mothers, and 
those that are under them children, and consequently hath 
made a difference of high and low, they must take heed that 
they do not pervert this difference and make them equal, 
or set those before whom God hath set behind. Vie see the 
order that the prophet Nathan used to king David, 1 Kings 
i. 26, " me thy servant, and Zadok the priest, and fienaiah the 
son of Jehoiada, and thy servant Solomon ;" he cometh last, 
though he were the king's son, and the prophet Nathaa 
knew well enough in what order to place him. The con- 
trary to this was the fault of Eli, 1 Sam. ii. 29; whereas 
Eli's sons should have honoured him, he honoureth them, 
and intreateth them, as an inferior should do his superior, 
" I hear evil of you, I pray do thus no more ;" and it is said 
there that God would make their seed abjects, because they 
gave away the honour from themselvea. 

4. As this order is thus established by God, and must by 
men he retained, so it must also be practised, and not be a 
hare and naked resemblance, or dumb idol, but put to u 
for, 1 Tlies. iv. 11, the superior must see that such as are 
under him fall to work ; and if any break order, then Bom. 
xiii. 4, he hath not authority in vain, \>uX propter vindictam 
malorum, ' to be avenged of evil men ;' but for those that do 
well, he must encourage them, " well done, good servant aad 
faithful," Matt, xxiv, 23. 

Of the fifth rommandtnent. 

Of the manner of their ffoveitiment. 
Now for the maoocr of their governmeut. ~ 

1. For himself, David, Pa. ci. 2, speaking how he will 
govern, beginneth with this. He will "walk uprightly" him- 
self, and so he an example before his people. Gregory" 
maketh the right use of power to be, ut homo sit potens in 
geipso, adversvs seipsum, pro seipso ; that ia, he should be of 
power in himself against the rebellious affections of his own 
nature, that so he may do himself good, and bring himself to 

2. Toward others that are under him, Lev. xxv. 43, he must 
not deal cruelly, but use moderation; not in proud manner 
to use contumelious words and tyrannous deeds, but, as all 
christians, Eph. iv. 31, so especially those in high place 
must be far from auger, bitterness, crying out, and raihng, 
and such like ; he must not be tanquam ho in vi *ud, ' as a 
lion in his i-iolencc and in his rage;' for so Zeph. iil. 3, a 
naughty governor is described to be like a roaring lion. 

Their duty is further set down at large, Ps. Lxxsii. from 
the second verse to the end of the psalm. In this psalm is 
set down, 

a. how " God standeth in the congregation of princes," 
and secth how they use their honour ; 

/3. He observeth whether they oppress or relieve the poor, 
verses 3 and 4 ; 

7- He sheweth that if they abuse their power, the founda- 
tions shall be shaken, and all will go to wrack ; 

8, that though He calls them gods, yet they be but men ; 
they have rule committed to them, but Clirist hath power to 
dispossess and punish them ; 

e. that they shall die like men, verse 7 ; non siccd morle, 
' of violent deaths,' as did many of the Israelitish kings after- 

f. that God was the great Judge, and would arise and 
judge the earth, ver. 8; because men executed not God's 
judgments aright, but became evil shepherds, as those spoken 
of, Ezek. xxsiv. 2, 3. 

" [Tlic pas8»ge It Ui St. AuguilUie, De Trin., lib, liii. c«p, 13. vol. viii. 

Of the fifth commandment. 

~ IVhether wicked superiors should be honoured. 

Quest. 1. Whether inferiors owe any lionour to superiors 
that are evil and wicked ? 

Ansiv. Yes, they do ; for the wickedness of a man cannot 
take away the force of God's commandment, nor make void 
God's ordinance ; no more than man's unbelief can frustrate 
God's promisCj as we read, Bom. iii. 3. 

1. Thoughtheybefroward,wemust submit ourselves, 1 Pet. 
ii. 18; as when Sarah dealt roughly with llagar, yet the 
angel willeth her to return back to her mistress and to sub- 
mit herself unto her : and as in the family, so in the com- 
monwealth; wc know Saul dealt very roughly with David, 
and yet still he acknowledged subjection unto him, so that he 
would do him no violence when opportunity was offered him 
in the cave. 

2. And not only being firoward, but though they be wicked, 
yet obedience and honour is to be done unto them ; for, 

a. It is God that set them up, though it were iu His wrath, 
Hos. itiii. 1 1 ; and Jer. sxvii. 7, the Lord saith, that He had 
given Nebuchadnezzar the government that he had, and all 
nation! should serve him; and Esay x. 5, the rod of His wrath, 
the king of Ashur, was by Him purposely set up. 

;S. Paul commands to " pray for kings," though they were 
heathen and wicked, 1 Tim. ii, 2; and Peter bids "honour 
the king," 1 Pet. ii. 17, when as then Nero ruled. Paul 
useth tlie benefit of this wicked prince's power, and appealeth 
from the deputy to Nero, Acts ssv. 11. 

7. Even the hearts of ungodly rulers are iu the hands of 
God; He tnrneth them as the rivers of waters, which way 
He will, Prov. xxi. 1. — Only this distinction may be added; 
look what honour we give them, we do it not to man, but to 
God himself, in reverence to His ordinance ; not t^ irpotram^, 
' to the person,' but t(3 Trpotranreta, ' to the vizard' that God 
hath put upon him ; as the heathen emblem was, Svo^ ayav 
fiv(rrt'jpta, ' an asa laden with the image of the goddess Isia ;' 
and the people fall dowu and worship, but the inscription 
is, noil lihi, sed relir/ioni, 'not to thee but to religion.' 

Of the fifth commandment. 183 

h. And ftgaiu, this we may further sny, that be a government pa 
never so bad, yet it is better tlian none at all ; an oligarchy — !- 
when the rule is under a few, is better than an anarchy when 
there is no ruler at all ; and therefore, IIos, xiii. 11, though 
God gave thein a king in His anger, yet He took him away 
in His wrath and in the fury of Hia anger ; for then their 
plague was greater, to be without a prince, than to have a 

Wicked rulers not to be absolutely obeyed. 

Quest. 2. But to go a degree farther, ittntm mala in malo, or 
ad malum, obedteiidum, ' whether we must obey an evU man 
in an evil thing ; or whether we owe {as we call it) absolute 
obedience to evil magistrates i" 

Answ. No, we do not ; for absolute obedience is due to 
God only, and kings are to be obej'ed so far as their com- 
mandments are not repugnant to God's commandments ; for 
if God command one thing and they another, Deo potita 
quam hominibva, 'better obey God than man,' Acts iv. 19. 

No man can sene two masters. Matt. vi. 24; when God 
and they command all one thing, they are but unum agens, 
and so but one master; and there are not two masters, till 
man break order, and become a master himself against order. 

Our Saviour's rule is, Luke xiv. 26, " he that cometh to 
Me must hate father and motlier and all ;" which He ex- 
poundeth. Matt. s. 37, " he that loveth father or mother 
more than Me, is not worthy of Me ;" for bonum quod impedit 
majus bonum, in eo minus diligendum, ' that good which bin- 
dereth a greater good, is less to be loved.' 

H Examples of this. 

P God the Superior of all, the great Superior, took order they 
should not fall down nor bow to any image ; Nebuchadnezzar 
a prince, a lesser superior, he commands the contrary ; he was 
disobeyed, and the disobedience was no disobedience, for 
disobedience is not but en Tofet, 'in due place and order,' 
and be had gone out of order first, Dan. iii. 18. 

Darius went out of order, Dan, vi. 9, when be forbad prayer 
> God, which God had first commanded ; Daniel contrary 

184 Of the fifth commandment. 

' to the king's decree prnyeth ; Daniel kept bis order; tie 
— king was out of order, the fault wns the king's. 

In this e Oram and men t God comraandeth to honour father 
and mother j and yet we see, 2 Chron. xv. 16, Asa had given 
charge that no idol should be erected ; and because liis mo- . 
ther Maaeha did erect an idol, he deposed her, though she j 
were his mother ; and yet no breach of this commandment. 

So that as we said, it is no disobedience in the iuferiorj if 
the superior go out of the line aud the inferior keepeth it. 

We see 2 Sam, xi. 16, Joab for obeying the king's letter, 
and putting Uriah but to chance-medley, yet he is condemned 
for it; and so are the soldiers of llcrod, for killing the 
children and executing his will, Matt. ii. 16. 

When our Saviour, being forgotten by hia father and 
mother, was found disputing in the temple, his mother repre- 
hendeth him for putting them in fear; " why hast thou done 
thus," saith she? and our Saviour, though He were obedient 
to His father and mother, yet He makcth her this answer, 
" wot you not tliat I must go about My Father's business ?" | 
as if He should say, I have a father indeed, Joseph ; but^Il 
have a superior Father in heaven, and I was to go on Hi» I 
business, and so could not wait upon you, Luke ii. 49. 

To conclude this point ; 1 Pet. ii. 13, this honour must b«i 
propter Deum, 'for God's sake;' and that is, Eph. vi, 1, % 
Deo, ' in the Lord ;' that is. Tit. iii. 1, in every good work.l 
And as Hierome saith, honorandus generator sed pnepoii^ndut M 
Creator, ' our father must be loved, but our Father and! 
Creator must be preferred before him.' 

And yet notwithstanding all this, it shall be good and ex-' ■ 
pedient non fiucpoXoyeiadai., 'not to carp at every Uttle thing,' 
but rather obey, if it be in our power, 

a. in a thing doubtful, as 2 Sam. xxiv. 4 ; Joab though he 
could see no reason to number the people, yet because th» J 
king recommended, he obeyed, and yielded unto it ; M 

^. though it be an unjust commandment, yet if it be not j 
directly contrary to God's will, there may be just obedience 
unto it ; Matt. xvii. 27, it was more than Ciesar could require 
of Christ to pay tribute, because He was a stranger ; yet rather 
than He would break quietness, He gave it. 

€f ike fifth eommamdmemi. 185 

Pariiemlar dmties between smperior and imferior. 
Now the paitkrabLr duties between superiors and inferiors. 

- HmMbamd amd wife. 

First to b^in with the husband and the wife ; 
and first their mutual duties each to other ; 
and then their several duties. 

iheir muimal dmiies. 

Their mutual duties mar be gathered out of the three 
words that signify marriage ; 

1. Conjmgiwm^ the 'fellowship of a Toke/ which is better 
borne br two than by one alone ; so one must help another 
to bear all burdens : therefore ungual matches^ which are 
hindrances to religion, not bearing all one yoke, are con- 
demned, 1 Cor. vii. 39, not being in Domino. 

2. Mairimonium, ui mulier fiat mater, ' matrimony, that 
the woman mar become a mother / Gen. i. 28, for propaga- 
tion ; and Mai. ii. 15, for increase of God's church, the holy 
seed. By God's institution was to be observed the marriage 
of one man with one woman ; " it was so firom the b^^in- 
ning," when God would have men multiply on the earth and 
fill it with a holy progeny. 

3. NuptuB, ' marriage, or covering,' of nubo, ' to cover / as 
it were coverings after sin, to cover each other's shame. 

their several duties. 

The several and particular duties of husband and wife. 

1. The husbands must live with their wives as men of 
knowledge, 1 Pet. iii. 7 ; for she must ask of him at home, 
and therefore he must be able to answer her asking, and to 
instruct her. 

And here the wife^s duty is submission; not to stand upon 
her own will, but to be subject to her husband ; which sub- 
jection must be with acknowledgment that the man is the 
woman's head, 1 Cor. xi. 3 ; and therefore because the senses 
of seeing and hearing are in the head, she must see and hear 


Of the fifth commandment. 

PART by him. Yet ate must not be too much kept under; for as 
— ~ — she was not made of liia head, so not of his feet, but of hia 
side, that she might be his equal. 

2. The huahftnd must also love his wife, and not only with 
the general duty of love, whereof we spake before, but with 
an especial love and respect peculiar to her, so as he must 
forsake father and mother and eleave unto her ; aud his love 
must not be fleshy or in outward respects only, but in the 
spirit, Eph, V. 29; and especially to have this care, that he 
may present his wife to God as Christ did His church, with- 
out spot or wrinkle, 

And the wife's duty iu this case must be the very same, 
answerable to her husband's ; she must love him with the 
same love that he is to love her withal. 'Tis also the woman's 
duty to fear God, so shall she be truly praisewortliy, Prov. 
ixxi. 29, 30; such a one as Lydia, Acts xvi. 1-1. Beauty 
her without graciousness, is but as a gold ring in a swine's 
Buout, Prov. jti. 22; her chief ornaments are modesty, humi-. 
lity, and inward virtues, 1 Tim. ii. 9. 

3. The husband must be tlie provider for his wife, and so 
for his children and family, 1 Tim, v. 8. 

And the wife most also have a care to look to that which 
her husband hath provided, 1 Tim. v. 14, that notb 
lost, John vi. 12 ; and therefore they must keep at home and 
be good house-wives. 

4. There must be iu both husband and wife officia resul- 
tantia, honour and love of their friends mutually; as we see 
in Moses toward his father-in-law, Exod. xviii, 7, 12, Numb. 
X. 29; and for the woman, very excellently in Ruth toward 
her mother-in-law, Ruth i. 16. 

Father and son. 

The duties between father and son. 

1. The first duty of the parents is in the beginning of 
their children; wherein non tarn genaatio gpectanda est quam 
regeneratio, ' not so ranch generation and birth, as regene- 
ration and the new birth is to be regarded ;' so that this 

Of the fifth commandment. 



' dnty must not be performed with a brutish appetite, but by P 
sanctifying tbemselves to the propagation of God'a churcb. — 

This duty the child cannot answer ; and therefore bia duty 
herein is, to honour bis parents, though they be never so 
mean and base ; yea to do them service ; Luke xv. 29, " bj, 
these many years do I serve thee." 

2. The second duty, Eph. vi. 1, is to nourish them when 
they have begotten them; and not against nature to give 
them a stone when they ask for bread, Matt. vii. 9, Neither 
must they only nourish them, but bring them up, laying up 
for thera, and diinding the inberitanee ; and if there be no 
inberilance, then to provide them some art, such as every one 
is most fit for ; and the choicest of all, to God's service, as 
Hannah did, 1 Sam. i. 11. 

And to answer this, the son must not falsely purloin or 
embezzle from his parents, as wicked children do, but main- 
tain thera rather, if the parents want, and he be able. 

3. They must not only bring up their children, but bring 
them up in the Lord, that thej' may be christians, and sons 
of God, as well as tbey are their sons; Gen. xviii. 19, " I 
know him, that he will command his children and his house- 
hold after him, and they shall keep the way of the Lord, to 
do justice and judgment;" Deut. iv. 9, "teach these thy 

IS and thy sons' sons." 

4. To all these tbey must add their own example, and 
where need is, correction, Prov, xxix, 15 ; for he that correct- 
eth not his son, hateth him, Prov. siii. 24. There is a bundle 
of foolishness in the heart of a child, and the rod of correction 
will drive it out, Prov. xxii. 15; this must be done while 
there is hope, without regarding of the child's murmuring, 
Prov. xis. 18 ; for protracting of time is dangerous. It is re- 
corded of Da\-id as a blemish to him, that he was never dis- 
pleased with Adonijah, 1 Kings i. 6, 

5. The last duty is a particular kind of prayer and blessing, 
which sanctifieth all the rest, or else all other means are 
nothing worth. Gen. xlix. 28. 

The son's duty answerable hereunto is, to be willing to 
receive instruction, and not to mock at good counsel, but to 

Of the fifth commandment, 

' be wise, that so lie may make his father glad, Prov. x. 1 ; to 
- imitate hia father's good example ; and to be subject to cor- 
rection, Heb. sii. 9. — Here are condemned marriages without 
consent of parents ; for the woman's vow to God, Num. xxx. 4, 
cannot stand without his consent, much less the vow of mar- 
riage ; and 1 Cor. vii. 30, the father must give his daughter 
in marriage. 

Master and servant. 

The duty of the master and servant. 

Mastership and service are lawful ; Jacob served twice seven 
years. Gen, sjtix. A man in poverty may serve to get means 
thereby, Deiit. xv. 12 ; so may an ignorant man to get know- 
ledge and skill thereby, for these two are proportionable : 
servitude came first into the world for a punishment, when 
the servant gaineth maintenance and knowledge thereby. 

1. The first dut^' of the masteris ars imperandi, 'knowledge 
how to enjoin them their works ;' and here must be obsen-ed 
four things ; 

1, that his commandment be lawful, for else in performing 
it, he shall displease xvpiov icara irvtiifia, " the Master ac- 
cording to the spirit;" and though we have a master accord- 
ing to the flesh, yet the Master according to the spirit is to 
be preferred ; as Joseph preferred God before hia mistress. 
Gen. xxxix. 9 ; 

2, the commandment must not only be lawful but possible; 
for a thing may be lawful, and yet not possible ; and there- 
fore Abram's servant putteth the doubt, Gen. xxiv. 6, " what 
if she will not come ':" and is in that ease set free ; 

3, it must be profitable to some good purpose, for nothing 
must be done in vain ; 

4, it must be proportionable to time, place, and person. 

The duty of the servant answerable to this is, Matt. sxiv. 
45, faithfulness and discretion. 

1. For faithfulness, the heathen could say that serviis totut 
aUenus, 'a servant is wholly another man's to be commanded.' 
And therefore, Matt, vi. 24, he can serve but one master, 
because his duty is infinite ; he cannot set down any time 

Of the fifth comtmamdmeid. 189 

when he shall have done^ but must work aU day, Luke xvii. PART 
7 ; at night too^ until the master set him firee ; vea, he must — -- — 
apare firom his own meat to do his master's business. 

Opposite to this faithfulness is, 

a. when thej wiU do something beside their master's busi- 
ness^ or let something stick on their fingers ; Tit. ii. 10, 
filehers ; Luke xri. 1, wasters ; 

fi. Ivingy 2 Sam. xri. 3, Ziba; 2 Kings t. 22^ it was the 
fault of Crehazi ; 

y. slothfulness^ when he wiU not give his master all his 
strength ; non accwrati agere, ' not do his duty exactly/ 
as the poet saith^ but be servus glis, ' a servant of a 
dormouse nature ;' not like Jacob, Gen. xxxi. 40, who 
could not sleep for his master's business ; 

S. Eph. vi. 7, they that do their work imwillingly; or with 
murmuring. Tit. ii. 9 ; not like the centurion's servant, 
that heard but * go,' and he went ; 

ۥ eye-service, deceitful diligence, only at their own 
pleasure and before their master's face, Eph. vi. 6, 
Col. iii. 22 ; whereas they should do it with singleness 
of heart, lest the chief Master be displeased. 

2. For discretion in servants; they must do for their 
master as the steward did for himself, Luke xvi., cast for 
their master in due time and upon all fit occasions to do 
him good. 

II. The second duty of the master is, not to be asper, 
'sharp and bitter,' Lev. xxv. 43; but Col. iv. 1, "do 
unto them that which is just and equal," for they are con- 
servi, ' fellow servants' also to the chief Master ; and infiiiuro, 
' in the time to come,' the masters may be sen-ants to men ; 
and therefore quod tibi fieri vis, hoc fac alteri, ' do as thou 
wouldst be done unto.' 

III. The third duty is, Prov. xxvii. 27, xxxi. 19 — 27, to 
provide them meat, drink, and clothes, or wages agreed 

Teacher and hearer. 
The duties of the teacher and hearer. 

190 Of the fifth commandment. 

Qualificatiofis of a teacher. 
In teachers there should be, 

1, j(apta-fia, God's ' gift' of gracious aiid natural parts ; 

2, education to it, at home and in the schools; 
2 Tim. iii. 15, " from a child thou hast known the holy 
scriptures ;" 

3, exercise and study, 2 Tim. iii. 14, "continue thou in 
the things which thou hast learned and hast been as- 
sured of;" and 

4, they must be called to it by imposition of hands, 

lu choosing men for this work it is to be observed that 
they be, 

1, tolertea, ' of an active intelligence ;' 

2, docilea, ' apt to conceive ;' 

3, instanler operantei, 'diligent in their calling,' na was Paul. 

But he. who shall be a teacher must especially know that 
the dinue light of sacred doctrine is from above, and thereforo 
that he must 

1, use prayer, Ps. cxix. 66, "0 learn me true understand- 
ing and knowledge ;" and 

2, have a special regard to God's commandments; 
Ps. xis. 8, "the commandment of the Lord is pure, and giveth 
light unto the eyes ;" and 

3, that he must awake and stand up from sin ; Eph. v. 14, 
"awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ 
shall give thee light." 

In the manner of his teaching he must, 

first, clear parables and dark speeches ; 

secondly, proceed in method and order ; Luke xxiv, 27, 
"beginning at Moses and all the prophets. He ex- 
pounded nnto them in all the scriptures," &c. and 

thirdly, teach as his hearers are able to learn ; 
John xvi. 12, " I have yet many tliiuga to say unto you, 
but ye cannot bear them now," 

IFut duties : first, to set forth the tnith ; 
In particular, the Jirst duty of the teacher is, Prov. ixii. 



qfU^fiftMamttwmimrnU 191 

19^ 20^ to nuibe knovm to tlie people the woidt of trotli; part 

which is done, 11: 

1^ bjr preoepi ; P&. rm. 12^ '^ teadi ine Ilnr statutes ;" 

2, br example; Pror. xxit. 32 ; Joki xiiL 15, ''I bsre giren 
you an example, that ve dioold do as I hare doeoe to ron ;^ 

3, by expexienoe ; 

4, by oorrection, that TraAj/iora, ' cscsrecdons,' may be 
/MiftyASTv, ' instnictioii&.' 

Henoe it was that Christ qnestioned with His disciples, 
and practised them in baptizing, and casting out of imA^m i 
spirits, and coring of bodDy diseases by thczr tondi or other- 
wise, and the eriT»% of nien's minds by their doctrines. First 
Christ set the twelve oo work to preadi, then the seventy 
afterward; some laid the foundation, as Paul, others buih 
thereupcm, 1 C<x, m. 10; some were the prime labourers, 
others came upon their labours ; some planted, some watered. 
And when the disciples had fulfilled their duties, they render 
a reason thereof to Christ ; and Christ enoonraged and com- 
mended them in some things, in others He reproied and 
chedLcd them. — I shew eroy thing in the example of Christ, 
because His example is most perfect ; and because He was 
the chief Teacher, and made choice of the name of aTeacher ; 
and because others were to learn by His example. 

The hearer's doty answerable to this is, 
1^ to be ^iXj^coo?, ' studious <^ hearing,' that the word may 
come M awrem, ' into the ear/ and so ad cor, ' into the 

2, to be fypyfrum, 'ready to ask questions;' 

Exod. xiii. 14, Deut. ri. 20, " when thy son asketh thee 

in time to come," — 
John xri« 17, ''then said some of His disciples among 

themselves, what is this that He saith unto us V 
Matt. xiiL 10, ** the disciples came and said unto Him, 
Why speakest Thou unto them in parables ?" 

$eeondly, to be careful of hit domgt; 

The second duty of the teacher is, vitim momm magiM 
quam verborum vitare; potior emm est heme rtrfmfi qmam 
opiime dicendi facuUat, ' to shun vices in his carriage more 

"3 of corn. 
i. 14. laM 

0/lheJi/th commandment. 

PART carefully than errors in his words, for the art of living well ' 

■ '— is rather to be desired than the art of speaking well.' 

The scholar's duty answerable is, Lara. iii. 27, to ' bear the 
yoke in his youth ;' and to be at direction, and to he humble 


thirdbj, to protect his scholars. 

The third duty of the teachers is, they must be tutorea, they 

muat tueri, ' defend and protect' their scholars ; as Christ did 

His disciples, Matt. ix. 14, xii. 2, for plucking the ears of corn. 

The hearer's duty answerable is, 

to bring every one his offering; Numb. tI. 

the Nazarite j 
1 Sam. i. 21, Elkanah; 
1 Sam. ix. 7, Saul to Samuel ; 
Luke V. 29, Levi to Christ ; 
Matt. V. 24, " then come and offer thy gift.' 
Also to minister unto them, 

as Samuel did to Eli, 1 Sam. ii. 11; 

and Elisha to Elijah, 1 Kings xix. 21, and 2 Kings 

iii. 11 ; 
and John's disciples, Matt. xi. 2 ; 
and Christ's, Matt. xxvi. 17. 
And lastly, there must be reaultana officium, ' a duty re- 
ciprocal towards their teacher ;' as our Sadour charged His 
disciples with His mother, John xix. 27 ; and after Hia deatl^ 
His disciples buried Him. 

More particularly the minister's duty. 

The apostle, Heb. v. 1, sheweth that the minister is taken 
from men, and ordained for men, in things appertaiuing to 
God, to deal with God for the church. 

Now this being an honour, no man must take it unto him 
unless he be called. Now God's calling is known by hit 
talents. Matt. xxv. 14, and therefore unless God have givea 
him gifts he is not called by God ; but, 

a. having this calling, and 

^. having in the university where this was taught, his 
bringing up, and 

Of the fifth commandmefit. 193 

7. havings 1 Tim. iv. 14, the laying on of hands of the PART 
company of eldership ; — — — 

we come now to his duties ; we shall find them, John x. 
11, &c. ITim. iii. Tit. i. 

Three evil kinds of minister. 

There are four sorts mentioned, John x. ; 

a thief, 
three bad. 

/a tmet, 
< a hireling, 
la wolf. 

one good, namely, . . the good shepherd. 

mv I.J..- -tj-i-fa lawful calling, 

They may be distmguished mto < , « 1 1,. 

'' '' ° ^ an unlawful callmg. 

1. If he have not a lawful calling, if he come not in by the 
door, that is, according to Christ's institution, if he have not 
his talent, he is an usurper and a thief; as Jer. xxiii. 21, 
Grod saith, " they ran and I never sent them, they prophesy 
and I bade them not, I never spake to them." 

And this cometh by wresting the law ; which is done two 
ways, Deut. xvi. 19 ; 

1, per ffratiam, 'by favour' at the suit of some great man 

or some friend, by having respect of persons ; 

2, per munus, * by taking rewards.' 

And so the law being perverted per gratiam and per 
munus, the ordinance of God is laid aside ; and then cometh 
cUa impositio, ^ a too sudden laying hands on him ;' because 
he hath not the gift of the heart to commend him withal, 
for the gift of his hand the bishop letteth him go unex- 
amined, and so (contrary to Paul's rule to Timothy, 
1 Tim. V. 22.) " layeth hands suddenly^' upon him. 

And how can God bless the proceedings of those that come 
not in by the door? QiuBCunque malo inchoantur principio, 
diffictdter bono perficiuntur exitu, 'whatsoever hath an ill 
beginning, can hardly be effected with a prosperous issue.' 

2. The other sort, hirelings, John x^ 13, are they that 


Of the Jifth comiiiandiiu-itt. 

care of feeding, but tlieir end is to clothe themselves, 
- Ezek. xxxiv. 3, Zech, xi. 15 ; and as the fathers say, they 
have not instrumenla boni pastoria, ' the inaplements of a good 
shepherd,' but oj\\y forcipea and mulctram, 'a pair of shears' 
for the fleece, and 'a pail' for the milk. And if the flock be 
in danger, for the dauger of the soul they care not, hut if 
there be the least dauger of the wool or the milk, they 
bestir themselves. 

3. And if a wolf come, that is, a persecutor or a false 
teacher, either they fly, John x. 12, or else they become wolves 
themselves, aud do as great harm to the flock as the 
wolf dotfa. 

One good kind of minister. 

4. Now the good shepherd, he it is only that performeth 
his duty ; and the duty of the good shepherd may be re- 
duced to these four heads ; — 

His duties .* first, to be an example in his life ; 

To go before his sheep, John s. 3, 4, as the manner of the 
east countries was, not to drive his sheep but to go before 
them ; so the good shepherd must go before his flock by 
his good example, 1 Tim. iv. 12 ; he must be nlTro?, that is, 
such a thing as maketh the stamp upon the coin ; and it ia 
also used. Tit. ii, 7, and 1 Pet. v. 3. And Moses rcquireth 
he should have Ihitmmim, ' integrity of life,' as well as urim, 
'light' of learning, Dent, xxsiii, 8. And it is said of our 
Saviour Christ, our tijpus. Acts i. 1, ciepit facers el docere. 
He ' began to do and teach ;' so the minister must do first 
and teach after; he must be an example unrcproveable, 
1 Tim. iii. 2, and uublameable, Tit. i. 6. 

And this must be in him, and his ; 

1. In himself, 1 Tim. iii. 2, "without spot;" as Lev. xti, 
21, not misshapen, or haviug blemish, that is to say, any no- 
torious sin or crime that is outward, to he laid to his charge ; 
and the reason is, 2 Cor. vi. 3, that there may be no offence 

r - - - ^- " " - T 

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I t r « r ^ ' ( 

Of the fifth commandmeiU. 

PAIiT eminent degree ;' and what coni]>etent knowledge U, we may 

'■ — see Tit. i. 9, in these three points ; he muBt be able to 

a. bold fast the faithful word according to knowledge; 
/9. exhort and comfort, and that with wholesome doctrine ; 
7, improve and confute them that say against it. 

thirdly, to have a care of the manner of ha doctrine; 

As he must be an example in Jiis hfc, and teach them 
by his learning, bo he mnst have a care of the manner of his 
doctrine, in what sort he doth teach. 

We read of three faults that fell into the church in the 
apostle's time ; 

1, tf>i\afivdla, 2 Tim. iv. 4, 'a deaire to hear fables;' when 
a man is soon full, and cannot abide to hear of a tiling often, 
but will have new ; as 2 Cor, xi. 4, they must have alium 
Jesvm, 'another Jesus' or Saviour; 

2, Tit. iii. 9, they did Kevotpayvetv, they must ' have questions 
to no profit,' and decidings of high and nice points ; 

3, they had prurilum aurium, ' itching ears,' 3 Tim, iv. 3 ; 
a desire to hear an elotjucnt declamation out of a pulpit ; to 
have a period fall roundly, pleasing the ear, and doing the 
soul no good. 

Against these the apostle settetb down a form for the 
preacher to follow ; 

1, that which he teachetb must be wholesome and uncor- 
rupt doctrine. Tit. ii. 1, 7; 

2, he must not meddle with things of no profit, but he 
must intend the people's good by his preaching ; 

3, for the delivery it must be with learning; as 2 Cor. 
xi. 6, " though rude in speech, yet not In knowledge;" and he 
must not only have Vetera, 'old matters,' but ?ioi'a, 'new;' 
not new doctrine, but new ways of expressing, and new ar- 
guments ; 

4, and he must also use a plain and perspicuous order, and 
an orderly delivering of it, which is called 6p$07Ofj.ia, ' a di- 
viding of the word aright ;' 

5, and according to that, Ileb. iv. 12, "the word is a two- 
edged sword," it is a special point in preat-bing that their 

Of the fifth commandment. 197 

words must have two edges, for else the back commonly doth PART 

as much hurt as the edge doth good. And that is when they — '■ — 

do not meet with both extremes; as when they speak of 
obedience, they deal as if they would take away all disobe- 
dience, and would have a man never to disobey -, and when 
they speak of peace, they do it so as if we should have peace 
with all men and be at variance with none ; whereas with the 
wicked we must have no peace ; 

6, and lastly, the minister must deliver the word. Tit. ii. 
7, €v oBia^Oopioy with authority, gravity, and majesty; as 
knowing that it is not his own word, but the everlasting 
truth of God. 

fourthly, to reprove and confute. 

As he must be of good life, and sufficient learning to teach, 
and must teach them after a right and good order ; so with 
his teaching them that which is good, he must 

reprove the offenders, and 

improve and confute them that are contrary minded. 

1. For the manner of his reproving, he must 

1.) first arffuere, and then redarguere, first * prove' the fault, 
and then ^ reprove' it ; and, 

2.) in regard of the person offending, 

a. if they be only led by a disposition to a fault, then iv 

wpaoTTfTL, ' in humility,' 2 Tim. ii. 25 ; 
)8. if it be done in contempt, then p^era TrdoTj^ hrLrarfy;, 

' with all authority,' Tit. ii. 15 ; 
y. if the parties be froward of nature, then diroTOfjuD^, 

'roundly and sharply,' Tit. i. 13; 
S. if it be a public fault, then 1 Tim. v. 20, evdrmov iravToyv, 

reprove him ' openly,' that others may fear. 

2. For improving or confuting the adversary, 
eu if it may be, to stop his mouth. Tit. i. 11 ; 

fi. if that cannot be, yet Tit. ii. 8, that he may be con- 
founded ; 

7. if not that, yet Tit. iii. 11, that inwardly he may be 

convinced in his conscience, "condemned of himself ;" 
& if that will not be, yet 2 Tim. iii. 9, that his madness 

Of the fifth commandment. 
may be made manifest, and the hea 


lay see his 

The people's duty in respect of all this pains of the minis- 
ter is, to yield him 'double honour,' as it is, 1 Tim. v. 17; 

1, the honour of reverence, Phil. ii. 29, both in judgment 

and in affection ; 

2, the honour of maintenance, to make them partakers of 

all our goods. 

Of magistral es. 

After the fatherhood of the church, order requireth that we 
speak of patres patrite, ' the fathers of the country,' magis- 
trates, who are nursing fathers and mothers in God's church 
and in the commonwealth. 

How there c 


1 magistrates. 

It appeareth by three actions of God, 
by the judging the angel, 
the man, woman, and serpent ; and 
the punishment of Cain, 

that authority first and principally pertainetli to God, 
which afterwards came to man by God's approbation and 

The power ecclesiastical would have been sufficient to hare 
governed tlie world, but that Cain building a city, Gen. iv. 17, 
made the godly first take order for their defence ; and so city 
against city was the occasion of civil government, because 
some men, like the horse and mule, Ps. xxxii. 9, would atill 
be offering violence and injury if there were not a power to 
bridle them. 

Now seeing they must have government, the main reason 
why they would be under one man, aud give polestatem vita 
et necis, ' power of life and death," to one particular, was, 
prtBStat timere unum guam multos, "tis better to fear one than 
many ;' better one wolf tlian a great many, and so a man's 
life to be continually in hazard of every man. 

After the flood God gave the sword into man's hand. Gen. 
ix. 6, to shed the blood of him that should shed another man's 

Of the fifth commandmeni. 1 99 

blood ; and then Sem. called Melehizedek kins of Salem, TART 

took upon him to defend God's people from Nimrod and his '- — 


Office of a magistrate generally. 

The magistrate is called also a shepherd, and he must feed, 
the people as well as the minister. Gen. xlix. 24, Joseph ; 
Ps. Ixxriii. 71, David; Numb. xxviL 17, Joshua; and he 
must look, Ezek. xxxiv. 18, 21, that the fat sheep do not 
trample and spoil the grass with their feet, so that the lean 
can eat nothing; nor trouble the water that they cannot 
drink ; neither strike at them with their horns, but that they 
may feed quietly without disturbance. 

And as thev must have a care of them that are in the in- 
side of the fold, to feed the flock within ; so to keep away the 
wolf without ; that is to say, to keep and preserve them from 
foreign invasions; and so to be right nursing fathers and 
mothers unto them. We have a good example in an evil 
king, 1 Sam. xi. 5 ; Saul hearing the people that they were 
sorrowful and wept, " what aileth this people that they 
weep?'' saith he; a good pattern for all kings, videre ne quid 
sit populo quodfleaty "to have a care that his people be not 
disquieted, that they may not weep.' 

Magistrates are either \ \^*, ' , jE* , 

Kffy^iJLovei, 'under-oflttcers.' 

The reason of the under-officers is, Exod. xviii. 13, because 
Moses, or one man, cannot hear all ; approved by God him- 
self. Numb. xi. 16. * 

Qualifications of a magistrate. 

Now what manner of men should magistrates be ? surely 
such as are called by God; according to that rule. Dent, 
xvii. 15, quern Deus eiegerit, ' whom the Lord thy God shall 
choose ;' and he whom God calleth must be thus qualified ; 

1, he must not be affected to Egypt, which is the nursery 
of idolatry ; not affected to false religion. Dent. xvii. 16 ; 

2, he must not be uxorious, voluptuously given to plea- 
sure, Prov. xxxi. 3, 4; wine and women are not for kings 
and princes ; 

3, he must not gather gold and silver, that is, he must 

Of the fifth communiiment. 

PAliT not be covetous, Deut. xvii. 17; it 
— - ■ • ■ 1 Kings xii. 4. 

's fault. 

Duties of a kinij. 
And being thus qualified, and so meet for a kingdom, and 
set in his seat, his duties are, 

first, to acknowledge Ma power to be from God; 

To acknowledge himself to be there not by himself, but 
by God; per me reges regnant, 'by Me kings reigu,' saith 
God. And so their style runneth, Cresar Detgrattd, 'Cseaar, 
or chief governor, by the grace of God ;' and that therefore 
their power is not arbitraria, ' arbitrarj-,' or at their own 
pleasure, but delegala, ' delegate' and put upon him by God ; 
and therefore he must say with the centurion. Matt. viii. 9, 
" I myself also am under authority ;" they are under God, 
and therefore must so rule as God himself would rule j and 
how is that ? even as His word prescribeth and no otlierwiae. 

The duty of the subject answerable is, to acknowledge him 
to be God's deputy, — 1 Sam. x. 26, "there went with him a 
band of men whose hearts God had touched" — and to reve- 
rence him accordingly, 

secoTidly, not to break into Gad's right ; 

The second duty of the prince is, — Seeing God hath been 
so liberal to Cjeaar as to make him king and His deputy, he 
must not requite Him, by breaking into that which is God'a 
peculiar; for we sec our Sanour maketh a division, gtue 
Casaris, ijiue Dei, 'some things to Cfesar, some to God;' as 
namely the court of conscience ; the Lord only kecpeth Hia 
court there ; and therefore the king must not dominari can- 
sdenti^, he must command nothing to any man against his 
conscience; yet those whose consciences are not well in- 
structed, they must labour to rectify tbem, and if they be 
obstinate, and will not yield to religion, they must compel 
them, Luke xiv. 23; and if there be not inttis voluntas, '&. 
will witliin,' there must be foris necessitas, ' a necessity laid 
on them by others ;' and therefore let papists come and hear^ 
that they may be caught. 

And genenllr, he must pa$cert popmJmm^ * feed tho |>coplo/ r A H T 
that is, proride for them, ^^ - . 

1^ for their sonls^ that preachers be sent iuto all pla<v» : 

2 Chron. xriL 9, Jehoshaphat ; 
2, for their bodies, he must . 

lay up com against a dearth, and sec tlicrc bo plenty. 

Gen. xli. 49, Joseph ; 
send ships abroad, for outward and foreign com- 
modities^ 2 Chron. ix. 21, Solomon ; 
and for inward right to all men at home, provide 

judges, as Jehoshaphat, 2 Chron. xix. 6 ; 
and to avoid wrongs from abroad, provide soldiers, 
2 Chron. xvii. 2. 

The people's duty answerable to these is, 

1. That they break not into God's right, neither take tho 
sword out of the king's hand ; nor be seditious, or disobedient 
unto him ; Prov. xxiv. 21, " fear God and the king, and bo 
not seditious." 

2. In regard of their care over us, we must not dare, 'give,' 
but reddere CtBsari qucB nui sunt, ' render to Cscsar that which 
is his due / that is, because they keep our tillage safe, they 
must have tribute out of our lands, and because they keep 
the sea safe, they have vectigal, ' custom,' and censum, * sul)- 
sidy,' out of our goods ; and in time of necessity, indiction 
or tax^ as Solomon, 1 Kings xi. 28. 

thirdly, to dojuntice; 

The third duty of the king is, in cases of appeal t/> do 
justice himself; for that is it that mnst establish his throne, 
Prov. xvi. 12 ; and without it mof/nn rf.gna, * ^tf^ni kingdoms/ 
are nothing else but magna latronnia, * jfreat rr>b>;eries.' 

And in his justice he must lry>k, 

1, that the righteous may flourish, and that l^miM tmnrn 
1^, 'they which do well may havft well/ Vthv. xi. 10 ; 

2, to the wicked his looks miwt b^, fy^rriblo in 'yM\%mi^x&, 
Prov. XX. 8, that so he may An^f^, avrj^y ^il, Tx^nt. %\\\, « , 
for cental crimes, iMffk fiormt illU r^^y/„jf hnm^ < l^f not fhiri<- 
eye spare them.' 

The people's duty herein w, in rnisty^/*!! of his ptsti^/* fo fr^^ 

Of the fifth commandment. 

bira, Prov. xvi. li, "the wrath of a king is as messengers of 
- death, but a wise man will pacify it ;" Prov, xx. 

fear of a king is na the roaring of a Hon; whoso provoketh 
him to anger sinneth against his own soul." 

fourthly, to be humble and meek in ruling. 

The fourth duty of the king is humihty and meekness in 
ruling; to use his power meekly and mildly; not as PUate, 
John six. 10, "I have power to crucify thee, and I have 
power to loose thee ;" but every magistrate should do well to 
say with Paul, 2 Cor. x, 8, " I have no power to hurt, hut 
to do good ; to edification, and uot to destruction." 

It is the difference that a heathen man makcth between a 
good king, and a tyrant ; a tyrant saith, efeo-ri /j.oi, " I may 
do it, and I will do it :" the good king saith, xaO^itei /ioi, " I 
must do it, it is my duty, I pray you pardon me." 

To conclude, pauciora liceni illi, quam ulli, cni Ucent omnia, 
' he who may do all things, may indeed do less than any 
man.' And if he will not be mild, but of an austere, cruel 
behaviour to his people, they may well fear him, but sure 
they will not love liim, and then ipa^o^, ' fear,' may well breed 
KoXoKetav, ' flattery,' hut not euvoiav, true ' good will.' 

The people's duty to such a mild king is, 

1. [not to fear liim, but) to be afraid of him, that is to 
Bay, in their love to him to be afraid lest any hurt should 
come unto him, as the people were afraid of David, 3 Sam. 
xviii. 3; 

2. and another duty of the people is, to bear with the in- 
firmities of this mild king, and to be as meek toward him in 
covering his uncomeliness if any be, Exod, xxii. 8 ; unless it 
be some enormous sin, or that he be a troubler of Israel, 
1 Kings xviii. 18, 

Thus much of the king's duty. 

The under- officers' duty is, to be in all things serviceable, 
aiding and assisting to the king in the execution of his several 
duties afore-mentioned, according to their authorities in their 
several places. 

And the people's duty answerable is, to reverence, obeyj 
fear, and love them as deputies of the king himself. 

Ofthejifttt comnianJmenl. 

Other kinds of excellency. 
Prom magistrates, we come to those that have in tliem an 
excellency above others, though it be separated from the estate 
of government, yet it maketh thera worthy of lionour. 

And this excellency is iu respect of one of these three goods; 
of the mind, which they call excelleHtiam doni, 'the 

escellency of some inward gift ;' 
of the body, as old age; 
of the outward estate, as nobility, wealth, &c, 

Excellency/ of mind. 

First, for the gifts of the mind. 

Those that have the gift of' inventing crafts and sciences, 
as Jubal did music. Gen. iv. 21, are therefore called fathers. 
These gifts of the mind are they which the schoolmen call 
gratia gratis data, j^apia-fiara, ' free gifts of God ;' and where- 
soever they fall into any man, he is to be honoured for them ; 
because, though these he not the very fear of God, neither 
make a man any thing more holy, yet in respect they are for 
the profit of the whole body, they are to be honoured, and he 
for them ; and much more then is he to be honoured in whom 
is gratia gralumfaciens, as they call it, the true fear of God 
and grace indeed. 

What honour we owe to men of great gifts ; 
Now let us see what is the duty and reverence that we owe 
unto such men that have those gifts ? 

first, to acknowledge their gifts ,- 
Acknowledgment of their gifts, and to commend them, 
and to praise God for bestowing them, and not to think, that 
gui ttugct alienam famam delrahil sua, ' he who advanceth 
another man's fame detracts from his own.' K the prophet 
Ezekiel had been of that mind, he would not have commended 
Daniel living in his own time, for fear of impairing his own 
credit, Ezek. xxviii. 3. So John baptist of Christ, " I am not 
worthy to unloose His shoe latchet; He must increase, I 
must decrease," as the morning star doth when the sun is up. 
Contrary to this, we, like Saul, cannot abide that any 
man's thousands should be more than ours, 1 Sam. xviiL 8; 

Of the fifth commandmenl. 


PA liT and therefore if we can, we will deny that he hath any such 

'- — gift in hira, or at least not in such measure as is supposed ; or 

elae we make light of the gift itself, that it is but a mean and 
base gift ; or if the gift be such as all men see to be a rare 
and an excellent gift, then we begin to carp at him for some 
other defect, or else to chaige him with the abuse of bis gift, 
or at least, some imperfection in his life, one thing or other 
is still awry. 

Now the duty of him that hath the gift is, 1 Cor. xt. 10, 
to know Who it is that hath separated him, and that he hath 
nothing by nature, but that he hath it was given him by 
God, and therefore he must be humble, Ezek. xxyiii, 17 ; 
and he may humble liimself, either with the defect of other 
gifts, or at least with the body of sin which he carrieth about 
him, Rom. vii, 24 ; that ao the grace of God may not be ia 
Tain in him ; aud it may be in vain three ways, 
in respect of doing good in the church ; 
in respect of doing himself good thereby; 
in respect of his own salvatiou, 1 Cor. ix. 27 ; if he bs 
not humble, he may preach to others, and himself 
be reprobate. 

secondly, to prefer those that have the greatest gifts ; 

The second duty that we owe to men of gifts is, to pre- 
fer those that have the greatest gifts, and to give the greatest 
gifts the greatest pre-eminence ; for as in philosophy bonuM 
est eligendum, malum fugiendum, ' good is to be chosen, evil to 
be shunned,' so ^ bonis optimum, h malis minimum, ' of good 
things we must choose the best, of evils the least.' 

This was the reason of founding of colleges, because men 
thought if they left their lands to their kindred, they should 
have fueredes promiscnos, ' they knew not whether they should 
be good or bad,' but iu colleges they should have hieredes ex 
oplimis, ' heirs of the best choice' 

For this point of choosing the best, see 2 Kings x, 3, of 
Jehoram's children, eligite optimum et aptissimmn, ' choose the 
beat and the fittest;' Gen. xli. 39, Pharaoh to Joseph, "be- 
cause God hath endued thee with the greatest wisdom." 

To give some reasons in this case ; 


Of the fifth commandment. 205 

1. Wbom God choosetli not, He will not bless; and He PART 
chooseth none bnt the best : — ^-* - 

2. It is worse to make an Hopbni, than not to correct an 
Hophni : Eli was blamed for not oorrecting ; mnch greater 
had his sin been if he had put in an Hophni, whose mind is 
on the pot ; 

3u Set an nnmeet workman about anj thing, and the work 
win be in danger of marring; so bj this means ther do 
pomere sub perieuio, ' endanger/ the sonls of them that are 
committed to their charge. 

Now the dntr of the superior that is thns qualified with 
gift" is, 

1. 1 Sam. ix. 21^ to think meanest of himself of all others, 
and to sar^ 1 Sam. xriii. 18, ^what am I, and what is mj 
&ther's house?"* 

2. And if he be preferred according to his gifts, he must 
not think that he is fallen into the pot, that is, into a place 
of ease and rest, but that his place being higher, he must now 
do more good there than he could do in a lower place. 

thirdly, to make use of their ffifts. 

The third duty that we owe to men of gifts is, to make 
use of their gifts, eo se comferre ubi Deus est, ' to go to one to 
enquire with whom God is ;' £xod. xriii. 15, the people asked 
of God when ther asked of Moses ; and so 1 Sam. ix. 9, they 
went to the prophet to ask of God. 

And the duty of him that hath the gifts is, ulemdum png^ 
here, 'to be ready to have his talents and gifts used and em- 
ployed ;' and to make account, &a ToOro (^ ' I lire to this 
end, and to this purpose, to be used of others :' so saith Wis- 
dom, Prov. ix. 4, 5, " come hither to Me ;" and our Sariour, 
John i. 39, " come and see." 

Thus much for the goods of the mind. 

Excellency of body. 

Now for the goods of the body, which is old age. 

Our duties are, 
1. To hold our peace, and give them leave to speak, Job 
zxxiL 6, 7; and the reason. Job xii. 12, because with the 

Of thejifth commandment. 

PART ancient ia wisdom. The contrary was Rehoboam's fault, 
1 Kings xii. 6. 

The duty of the aged answerable to this is, that they be 
not, Esay btv. 20, pueri centum annorum, ' children of a hun- 
dred years old ;' they must have canum intellectum, ' a hoaiy 
and aged understanding,' as thc^y have canum caput, ' a hoary 
and aged head.' 

But if they be not such, yet for their age we must houour 
them; though for their wisdom they be not worthy hoc pati, 
' to have the honour done unto them,' yet in respect of their 
age it is meet for us hoc, ' to do them this honour.' 

2. To rise up before them. Lev. xix. 33; because, ProT. 
xs. 29, old age is a glory, yea; Prov. xvi, 31, a crown of glory. 

The duty of old men answerable is, that which followeth in 
that place, Prov. xvi, 31, that his age be found in the way of 
righteousness j and Tit. ii. 2, they must be sober, honest, dis- 
creet ; sound in the faith, in love, and in patience. 

Thus much of the goods of the body. 

Excellency of estate. 

Now for the outward estate of nobility, wealth, fee. 
"We see David, 1 Sam. xxv. 8, called Nabal, though wicked, 
yet because he was wealthy, ' father ;' " send I pray thee to* 
thy servant and to tliy son David," saith he. 
And our duty is, 
1. To place them with the elders in the gate, to prefer 
them that arc wealthy ; and the reason, because nerviu 
reipublicte argentum, ' money is the sinew of the common- 
wealth ;' there may come much benefit to the common- 
wealth by them, as Nehemiah had a hundred and fifty Jewa 
at his table, Neh. v. 17. 

The duty of rich men answerable is, 

a. 1 Tira. vi. 18, to be wilhng to part with their goods} 
and if either he be a nobleman himself, or allied, <sr. 
of acquaintance, let him help forward good causes ; and 
especially provide for the prophets, as the woman of' 
Shunem did, 2 Kings iv. 9, 10, a chamber, a bed, and ft 
table, a stool, and a candlestick. 
&. Again, rich men must learn not to be high minded, J 

Of the fifth commandment. 207 

nor to put their trust in their riches, 1 Tim. vi. 17, nor PART 

to count them their strong city, Prov. xviii. 1 1 ; nor to 
be churlish, as Nabal was to David's servants, 1 Sam. 
XXV. 10, nor to despise the poor. 
2. The second duty of the meaner sort towards these noble 
or wealthy men is, to account them their fathers, and them- 
selves their sons, as David did Nabal; and to give them 
honour and reverence accordingly. 

Of benefactors. 

There is yet one case more wherein honour and reve- 
rence is due, and that is when a man bestoweth a benefit 
upon us. 

And in this, as in the former, consider the duties of 
benefactors, and of those to whom the benefit or good turn 
is done. 

Duties of a benefactor. 

The benefactor's duty is thus ; 

1. No man, though he be rich, is bound to every one in 
particular, not in beneficio, ' in bounty -/ in officio, every man 
is bound to do some duty or other to every one, but for 
benefits they may make their choice. But to some they 
must give; and in their giving they must have this care, 
to do it freely; contrary to the course of giving benefits, 
or benefices, now a days, wherein the givers look not ubi 
qptimi, ' where best,' but ubi qtusstuosissim^, ' where most 
gainfully ;' as if a man should bestow so much bread on his 
horse because he is to ride upon him, so they bestow upon 
such a man because they will make use of him. 

2. He must give not only freely, but speedily: bis dat 
qui cito dat; apage homines quorum lenta sunt beneficia, 
prtBcipites injuruB, * he doth a double kindness who doth one 
quickly and readily ; away with those men whose kindnesses 
are slow paced, and injuries ride in post haste ;' as now the 
manner of men is, profundere odium, et instillare beneficium, 
'to pour out hatred, to drop in favours, not all at once, but 
by little and little.' 


OJ the fifth commandment. 

3. 'When you have done a man n good turnj forget it, 
- or at least wise upbraid him not with it. 

Duties of the receiver of a benefit. 

The duty of him that receiveth a beuefit is, 

1. To acknowledge that man to be the instrumeot of 
God iu that blessing, and to let his estimation or valuation 
of the thing be as great after he hath it as it was before he 
received it. 

2. The effusion of this affection upon all fit occasions. If 
he remember itj I need not, for exprobratio est satisfactio pro 
benejicio, ' an exprobration is a satisfaction for a kindness ;' 
but- if be forget it, I must not, but I must speak of it, and 
that, not extenuating it, but I must be benignus inlerjires, 
' a favourable interpreter ;' first, that it was a great benefit, 
or at least a great one to me; or if not, yet he did it 
with so good an affection that I cannot but think highly 
well of it. 

3. If he ever stand in need we must do him the like good 
turn, if we be able; not to injure Iiira, and then to make 

Jinem injuria benejicium, 'to think we do him a benefit by 
making an end of an injury ;' nor as they do in policy now 
a days, mergere ut extrahalur, ' first drown them, that they 
may pull them out again,' and so make them beholden by 
plucking them out. 

The contrary to these is the sin of unthankful ness, which 
indeed is a great vice, and abhorred even of the heathen. 

But we must beware we take not that for tinthankfulness 
which is not ; for 

1. Ingratiludo eat in rebus gratia, ' ingratitude is seen in 
matters of favour,' and not in rebus officii, 'in matters of 
duty :' and therefore if he do me n matter of duty or of office, 
or justice, he cannot for this exact any thankfulness at ray 
hands ; but let him come to me in re gratia; ; in beneficio, 
{juod licet dare aut non dare, facere aul nan facere, ' in a 
matter of kindness ; and in bounty, where he may give or 
not give, do a kindness or not do it;' and 1 will be thankful. 

Cf the fifth commandtnent. 209 

2. Again, he hath done me a good turn, he would have part 

me now to follow his appetite to do some unjust thing ; I will '■ — 

not, but refuse to consent unto him ; is this unthankfulness ? 
no, for the rule is, that the love to myself must be the rule 
of the love to my neighbour, and so it is not required that I 
should do any more for my neighbour than I would do for 
myself; now then, if my own appetite would lead me to any 
unjust thing, should I consent unto it ? no, for so I should 
hurt myself by consenting to sin against my own soul. And 
so, for the pleasure he hath done me, he would have me do 
him a displeasure by consenting to sin by his instigation, 
and so hurt both his soul and mine own, and do evil for 
good; and in this case it is no unthankfulness though I 
deny him; it may be species infurue, and species in^ati- 
iutUniSy qua stepe incidit in virum bonum, ' a kind of injury, 
a kind of ingratitude, which often may be found in a good 
man/ But a good man through the midst of all the infamy 
and reproach of his ingratitude, will tendere ad officium, ' be 
ready to do a good turn/ 

Means by which a governor shall rule aright. 

1, by carrying himself as he that mindeth to give ac 
count ; Ps. ci. 2, " O when wilt Thou come unto me ?'' 
Jer. xiiL 20, ''where is the flock that was given thee, thy 
beautiful flock ?'' 

2, by first having an eye to the well governing of his own 
house; so Joshua saith, ''I and my house will serve the 

3, his eyes must be to the faithful of the land, and his 
bent to choose men of wisdom and uprightness to be in 
authority with him ; Ps. ci. 6, " mine eyes shall be upon the 
faithful of the land, that they may dwell with me /' 

4, to esteem of all under him as citizens of the city of 
God, and coheirs with him of an heavenly kingdom. 

Second part of the commandment, viz. the reason. 

We are now come to the reason of the commandment, 
*' that thy days may be prolonged in the land which the 
Lord thy God giveth thee.'* 

Of the fifth commandment. 

PART This \s the first particular commaiidment that hath a 

• '■ — particular promise, Eph, vi. 2; and the reasons why God 

addeth a reason to this comniaudment may be these, 

1, because adorant plurea orienlem aolem quam occidetttem, 
'more men adore the sun-rising, than the sun-setting:' and 
old age when they have one foot in the grave are for the 
most part despised ; 

2, because as we have in our birth received the benefit of 
our life from our parents, aa the instruments, so by our 
parents' hlessiug it might be also preserved and prolonged. 

Whether dutiful children are always long lived. 

Object. But our experience sheweth us that obedient and 
dutiful children often die betimes, and disobedient, atubbom, 
and eoutumelious children prosper and live long. 

Anaw. We answer with Solomon, Eccles. is. 2, 3, "all 
things in this world are alike to all men ;" and these out- 
ward things, aa glory, riches, preferment, and long life, they 
are but the gift of God's left hand, and are common both to 
good and bad, as well aa poverty and adversity; and the 
reaaon ia, 

1. Prosperity and riches are given to the wicked, ne botti , 
nimis cupid^ proseguerentur, 'lest good men should too eag'eriy 
seek after them,' and poverty and adversity is also common 
to the godly aa well as to the wicked, ne ilia lurpiier effa- 
giantur, 'lest in base manner we should fly from them.' 

2. And again, adversity is common to both, why ? because 
if God should seud adversity to all the wicked and to none 
of the godly, men would think all the punishment were in 
this world, and that there were no judgment to come j and 
if lie should send adversity only to His children, men would 
think there were no profit in sen-ing the Almighty, and that 
He did not respect Hia children, neither had any care of 
them, but did quite forget them, Ps. x. 11 : and therefore 
that He may shew He hath a providence, He will give to 
some of His children these good things; and that He may 
shew He hath a judgment to come, He giveth them 
to some of the wicked ; and 

Of the fifth commandment, 211 

a. not all to the wicked^ because they should not sacrifice PART 

to their net and their yam, that is, they should not '■ — 

make the outward means their god, Hab. i. 16 ; 

/9. neither all to the godly, because the devil and his 
instruments should not say that the godly do not 
serve God for nought, or that they serve Him because 
of His blessings. 

IVhy long life is promised to dutiful children. 


Quest, But how is it then that long life is promised to 
those that honour their parents ? 

Answ. 1. We have a good exposition of this place, Deut. 
V. 16, where it is said, " that thy days may be prolonged, and 
that it may go well with thee ;' so the meaning is, that so 
long as it may go well with them, and be a benefit unto 
them, so as they may live prosperously, their days shall be 
prolonged ; but if their life come to be a displeasure to them, 
then to have their days lengthened will do them no pleasure, 
nor be any blessing to them ; and life may be a displeasure, 
a, in regard of the enl days, 2 Rings xxiL 20 ; Josias a 
good king taken away, because he should not see the 
evil days that were to come upon the land ; 
/9. in regard of himself, for fear lest he be corrupted ; and 
therefore, raptus est a facie maliti€B Enoch, ' Enoch was 
taken up to Crod from the wicked and unworthy world/ 

2. When Herod promised the daughter of Herodias the 
half of his kingdom, Mark \\. 23, if he had given his whole 
kingdom, certainly it had been no breach of promise ; so, if 
God promise Htam prolongatam, * a long life,' and give vitam 
perpetuatam, 'everlasting life' for it, here is more than half 
in half; as he that promiseth ten pieces of silver and giveth 
ten pieces of gold, breaketh not his promise, so here no breach 
of promise in God, but performance with advantage. 

3. The best and most sufficient answer is this ; there is no 
temporal thing of this life that doth cadere in promissum Dei, 
' come within the compass of God's promise,' but only so far 
forth, as it shall help and further the next life, the life to 


Of the fifth commandmpnt . 

come. This life is but via ad in/am, ' the way to life/ and 
~ whatsoever He promisctli iia in the way, it is hut to help va 
to the end of our journey. Ajid therefore, as all earthly fe- 
licity ia no felicity unless it dispose us to that fehcity that is 
heavenly, so long life is no life unless it help us in the attain- 
ing of life eternal ; neither is it any blessing, unless Ua dis- 
ponatur de mininto, quemadmodum convettit summo, ' the least 
thing be so disposed of, as that it coiiduccth to the greatest,' 
or at least so as that periculum non fiat de maximo, ' hazard 
of the greatest matter be not incurred.' 

Why long life is given to the wicked. 

Object. But why doth God give long life to the wicked 
seeing it is here promised to the godly ? 
Answ. For divers reasons ; 

1. To prove if at any time they will be brought to re- 
pentance, 2 Tim. ii. 25. 

2. God reapccteth their progeny; as cutting off wicked 
Amou, good Josiah succeeded him, 2 Kings xxi. 24] and 
cutting off Ahaz, good Hczekiah succeeded him, 2 Kings xvi. 
20 ; now that these good kings might corac of them, He first 
suffered those wicked kings to live long before they were 
cut off. 

3. Because He must hare rods of His wrath to punish His 
disobedient children, and for trial of His church ; Esay x. 5, 
" O Assyrian, the rod of Mine anger, and the staff in their 
hand is Mine indignation." 

4. Every one of us may learn an universal document from 
hence, Rom. ix, 22 ; if God, to make His wrath aud power 
known, suffer with long patience the vessels of wrath prepared 
to destruction, we must learn much more to be patient and 
long-suffering in those injuries that are done to us. 

5. To conclude this point, and so to make an end of this 
commandment ; if God do give long life unto the wicked, He 
will be even with them for it another way; as we may see, 
Esay Ixvi. 24, 

a. the godly shall come forth and look upon their con- 
demned carcasses ; 

Of the sixth commandment, 213 

/3. their worm shall never die ; that is, the worm of their part 

conscience shall evermore trouble them ; though their — 

life be longa, Mong/ it shall not be lata, 'joyful/ 

7. their fire shall never be quenched ; 

their name shall be an abhorring to all flesh ; 

yea their remembrance shall be cut off, Ps. xxxiv. 16 ; 

and their name shall rot, Prov. x. 7. 

And thus much of the fifth commandment. 


Place of this commandment. 

All the duties between man and man in particular per- 
tained unto the fifth commandment ; and now follow officia 
promiscua, ' duties general to all,' in the next four conmiand- 

the sixth, concerning the life of man and the preserva- 
tion thereof, 
the seventh, concerning chastity or the preservation of 

the eighth, concerning his goods, 
the ninth, concerning his good name. 

First, of the sixth, " thou shalt do no murder.'* 
This commandment is put before the others which follow, 
because life is dearer to us than those things which pertain 
thereunto, and which are spoken of in the rest of the com- 
mandments. — ^Each man hath a good esteem of his own per- 
son; from this desire of excellency in himself, Cain killed 
Abel, because Abel was better than he. So Joseph's 
brethren hated him, because he was more made of than 
they, and should in time rule over them ; his eminency 
would have seemed to darken their appearance, and clouded 
their splendour. 

Words of the commandment, 

God hath made choice of one word 'murder* to signify 
a whole catalogue of sins, for the helping of man's weak 


Of the Bixth commandmenl. 

T memory, and to shew that the under affections compre- I 

heiided under the name of murder are no lesa odious to 

God than is murder itself; which if they had not beea 
expressed iu this word, would have seemed light. 
Lev. xis. 17, 18, "Thou ahalt not hate thy brother iaj 
thine heart; thou shidt in any wise rebuke thy ueighboui 
and uot suffer sin upon him. Thou shalt not avenge nog 
bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thol 
shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the Lordj* 
Matt. V. 22—20. 

Of anger in general. 

St. John had an eye to this commandmeat through 1 
whole epistle, but especially and plainly, 1 John i 
saying, "he that hateth his brother is a murderer." And 
hereby he sheweth that God givcth Ilis law to the heart 
(the fountain of the affections) aiid to the affections, as well 
as to the actions, for which man taketh order. 

And here we may consider that the affection of anger is 
the gate of the devil, whereby, James iii. 16, there is a way 
made to strife, &c. 

Anger, the first motion to murder, is when our desire and 
appetite is hindered, and then there is naturally ebullitio 
sanguinis, 'a disturbed rising of the blood,' and after that 
ofTfi], a 'desire' of removing that impediment. 

Anger is not as some other affections, namely, envy, 
which doth of itself sonare malum, ' is of an evil sound ;' as 
soon aa a man hears it, he hates it ; but anger is none of 
these; for it faileth not in the object as they do; but it 
faileth in one of these, 

in the cause of our anger ; 

in the quantity and measure of it. 

The apostle, Eph. iv, 26, hath a distinction betwee 
anger and sin, " be angry but sin not ;" for indeed angi 
is no sin of itself, but either when we are angry 

a. for no cause, 

0. for a light cause, or 

y. if the cause be just, our anger is extreme, we keep t 
s in it. 

To be moved with indi 

.gnity I 

\ good thing, and a virtm 

Of the sixth commandment. 215 

called v€fjb€<Ti^, when a man seeth a thing done that ought PART 

not to be done, either against God's glory, or the good ' — 

estate of the church or commonwealth ; and this is ira per 
zelum, ira spiritHs sancti, 'a zealous anger, and the anger 
of the Holy Spirit/ It was our Saviour's anger, John ii. 14, 
against the profaners of the temple. 

Of sinful anger. 

And the other is called ira per vitium, and ira carrds, ' a 
vicious anger,' or ' carnal anger,' when it is either 
a. eUfj, ' without a cause,' Matt. v. 22, or 
/3. not kept intra modum, ' within due bounds and 
measure,' Rom. xii. 19. 

When this affection is not ancilla rationis, ' at the com- 
mand of reason,' it becomes radix amaHtudinis, ^ a root of 
bitterness,' Heb. xii. 15 ; or if you so please to call it, 
venenum serpeniis, ' the poison of the serpent.' 

And this sinful wrath is either 
a. at the first rising in us, or it is 

fi, suppuratio vitii, ' an impostume or inward rankling of 
it ;' and then, if it be 

against a superior, it is called a grudge ; 

against an equal, rancour ; 

against an inferior, disdain. 

The grudge, if it continue a little longer, will grow 
to an impostume of envy ; 
and the rancour to hatred ; 
and the disdain to contempt. 

And these impostumes t tongue, 
commonly break out< countenance, 
into issues in the v action, 
a. That which breaketh out at the tongue, they call 
spumam vitii, ' the foam or froth of it :' which 

against our superiors, is susurrus, 'whispering and 

detractions ;' 
against our equals, ipiOela, ' contentious speech,' railing 

and brawling ; 
against our inferiors, scoffs, taunts, and reproaches. 

OJ the sixth commandment. 

P A K T /3. That wliicli breaketh out in the countenance, is called 

'.y' . ■ icterus vitii, ' the jaundice of it ;' we shall know it, 

if it be to a superior, per obliquos ocalos, 'by a wry look;' 
to an equal, it will be over all the face, pale eyes, 

sweating and foaming at the mouth ; 
to an inferior, by a high look. 
7. That which cometh into action or execution, ia called 
lepra peccaii, ' the leprosy of the sin ;' for it breaketh out 
iuto fighting, wars, and such like ; and all these are murder's 

How far this commandment reaches. 

Now in this commandment ia not only forbidden murder 
and his kindred, but there is also commanded in general 
that we should preserve the life of our neighbour. The 
Hebrews say, we should be to our neighbour lignum vitte, 
' a tree of life;' what that is, Prov. xi. 30, " the fruit of the 
righteous is a tree of life ;" to deal justly, and offer no 
wrong, and so to have cw sanum, ' a sound heart ;' which ia 
the true lignum vttdi, the life of the body, Prov. siv. 30, and 
without it our life ia but a djing life, a^Stoi (9i'o?. 

Neither is murder of the body only, but of the soul also ; 
and the murder of the soul is referred to two lives, this life 
present, and the life to come. 

Now as it ia accounted murder of the body if the good 
estate of the body be indamaged, which good estate of the 
body ia called ijicoiumilas corporis, 'the good plight and 
habit of the body,' and is indamaged three ways, 

in integritate corporis, ' in the perfectness of each mem- 
ber of the body,' when we are maimed and lose a leg 
or arm or other member ; 
in incolumitate, ' in the safety of the body,' when we are 

hurt or wounded, though not so maimed j 
in libertate motHs, ' in freedom of going whither we will,' 
when we are bound or shut up in prison, and cannot 
use our body ; — 
So again, if the incolumity of the aoul be indamaged, it is 
murder of the soul ; now the incolumity or good estate of 
the soul is, 

Of the sixth commandment. 217 

diiectio, ' love ;' against this cometh odium, ^ hatred/ PART 
and all his crew or retinue ; ^^' 

gaudium, 'joy/ against this cometh that, when a man 
is so dealt withal that he falleth in d/crjSlav, ' into a 
slothfulness or sluggishness/ that he is unfit for any 
thing ; 

pax, peace and quietness ; either, 
within himself, 

against which is scandalum, 'scandal or offence;' or 
between him and other, 

against which is discord and contention. 
Generally therefore, whatsoever is against the life itself, 
or against the good estate of our life, God hath intended to 
comprehend in this commandment. 

Of destroying life : first of beast ; 

Particularly to the point of killing. 

A man may offend in the killing of man or beast. 

The Manichees held that we might not cut down a tree, 
nor slip a branch of it, because there is life in it ; and much 
less kill a beast. But this is a very fond opinion ; for God 
before the flood gave both herbs and trees to man. Gen. i. 29; 
and G«n. ix. 3, whatsoever liveth and moveth is meat for 
man, not only herbs, but beasts also and living things; 
very plainly, 1 Cor. x. 25, " whatsoever is sold in the sham- 
bles, eat it." 

And that the killing of beasts cannot be contained in this 
law, to be here forbidden, it is plain by these two reasons ; 

1. Where there is not jvs societatis, 'the law of society,' 
there is not societas Juris, ' an agreement in one joint law 
or right;' now beasts can have no right of society with us, 
because they want reason ; 

2. It cannot be sin to use things to the end for which 
they were ordained ; now the less perfect are for the more 
perfect, as herbs for beasts, and herbs and beasts both for 

Yet is not the killing of beasts absolutely in our power 
and liberty : but in these two cases we are forbidden to kill 

Of the sixth commandment. 

1. When it tumeth to tlie detriment of our neighbour; 
the killing of the beast of itself is not the sin, but in reapect 
of the hurt and damage that we do therein to our neigh- 

2. We must not kill him in the impatiency of our wrath, 
exacting that power or understanding from him which is not 
in him ; as Augustine saith, men must not be foolishly bent, 
but they must have facilitalem mollis, ' a more temperate 
motion in their anger.' If the poor pen do through their 
negligence or pervcrseness not write as they would have it, 
capiunl el coUidunt, ' they take it and dash it ;' so in be^ts, 
if they do not as we would have tbemj we in our impatiency 
strike or kill them, which we ought not to do. 

To come to man -killing, which is the murder here 

(himself, or 

0/Aillhiff one's self. 

The heathen, as Lucretia, Seneca, Cato, though they conJd 
never have been brought to kill others, yet they durst laj 
hands on themselves, and arc therefore highly accounted of 
among the heathen ; but christian religion telleth us it must 
not be 80, and that no man hath power over his own life. 

1. We must remember, that the general rule of this law 
of the second table is, sicut teipaum, 'as thyself;' therefore 
we must needs understand it thus, non occides alium, ncut 
non occides teipmim, 'thou oughtest not to kill another, hs 
thou killest not thyself,' And the proportion ia, between the 
law of nature and charity : as iu nature we love ourselves, 
so in charity we must love our neighbours; and so here, as 
in charity we must not kill others, so in nature we must not 
kill ourselves; for nature first maketh alimentum individtti, 
'sustenance to the individual,' before she give propaginem 
rpeciei, ' seed for propagating the kind.' 

Of ihe sixth commandmeni. 219 

2. No man is his own, but is a part of the society or part 
commonwealth wherein he liveth, and so cannot injure or — — — 
kill himself but he brings detriment and damage to the 
whole company. 

3. Our life is the gift of God, who " killeth and maketh 
alive " 1 Sam. ii. 6, and therefore we must not dispose of 
God's gift without the mind of the Giver : and the rather 
because, 1 Cor. vii. 23, we " are bought with a price,'' and 
then are we His servants that bought us ; and then as, Rom. 
^Y, 4^ " who art thou that judgest another man's servant J" 
so who art thou that killest another man's servant ? 

It is worse than beastly to kill or drown or make away 
with ourselves ; for Matt. viii. 32, the very swine would not 
have run into the sea but that they were carried by the devil. 

To conclude this point with Augustine, 

No man may kill himself, 

a. either that he may fugere molestias temporales, 'fly 
temporal evils,' for by this means incidii in (eternas, 'he falls 
into eternal evils ;' 

fi. neither!*/ evitet peccatum alienum, 'to prevent another's 
sin,' for incidit inproprium, 'he falls into his own sin ;' 

7. nor pro suo peccato, ' for his own sin,' for there is a 
time of repentance ; 

S. neither ut non peccet, ' that he may not sin at all,' for 
incidit in peccatum certum ut evitet incertum, ' he faUs into an 
undoubted sin in striving to avoid an uncertain sin.' 

Thus much against the killing of a man's self. 

Of kiUing another man ; 

Come to the next, manslaughter in alium, ' the killing of 
another man.' 

The reasons against it are divers, 

1. The general reason, quod tibi fieri non vis alteri non 
feceris, ' do as thou woiddest be done unto.' 

2. Thou must not deface the image of Grod which thy 
neighbour beareth. 

3. He is thine own flesh, Esay Iviii. 7, and therefore thou 
must not hate him, much less kill him. 

Of the sixth command hivhI. 

PART -1. By this mcana thou slialt come to be jiliiis d'laboli, ' the 
'■ — child of the devil,' who was the first murderer, John viii. 44. 

5. Murder ia a crying sin. Gen. iv. 10, and will not cease 
till God take revenge. 

6. It is a cursed sinj Geu. iv. 11, mdledictits Cain, 'cursed 
was Cmn;' and Cain's own confession was, "behold Thou 
hast cast me out from Thy facej" so it ia excommunication, 
and the depriving of the grace of God. 

7. God will require the blood of a man even of a beast 
that sheddeth it, and nuicli more at man's hand will lie 
require it, Geu. ix. 5. 

which ia aggravated by circumstances. 

The killing of another man is augmented by circumstances, 
of the person against whom it is j as namely, 

1. If it be against a public person, it is a worse and more 
grievous sin, because it is peccatum irt pJures, ' a ain against 
a great many;' and he doth what he can to put out the light 
of Israel, 2 Sam. xsi. 17. 

2, If it be against a private man, and no magistrate, then 
consider, whether he be 

a. near unto us in blood, or kindred, or alliance ; and it is 
worse to shed their blood than the blood of a stranger, because 
superadditur respectus, ' there is a double respect,' both as a 
man, and so homicidium; and a father, and so parricidium ; 
or a brother, and so Jratricidium,- and such like; 

/3. a stranger, that is not so near unto us, but removed 
from us : and they are either of strength to defend them- 
selves ; or weak ones, as the fatherless, the widow, and the 
stranger ; it is worse to kill one of these, because they are 
destitute of power to help themselves, Exod. xxii. 21, 22. 

Of those that are able to resist, it is worse to lay hands on 
a good man and an innocent man, than upon a wicked man : 
for in killing a good man, we sin, not only against charity, 
but against justice also, for he ia indignus, 'unworthy of 
death,' and against the commonwealth too ; for a good man 
is Kotvov arfoBov, ' a common good,' and the commonwealth 

Of the ni.rlfi commanilmevf . ^ 221 

hath need of such; yea, wc injure God himself, for Zech. ii,8, pah 
they arc as it were the apple of God's cje. 

Of I be restraint of this commandment. 

A magistrate may take the life of his su^ecls ; 

Qjiesi. Sut may not the magistrate ptit a man to death, 
notwithstanding it is said, " tliou shalt not kill" ? 

Ansrv. Certainly, the nature of man is so perverse and 
crooked, that without occides, ' thou shalt kill,' non occides, 
'thou shalt not kill,' would uot he kept; and therefore a deep 
wound must have a new wouud made, fiat incisio, ut vitelur 
occisio, ' the body must be lanced a little that it may not die 
of a deeper wound.' So God hath given power to magistrates, 
ut sanguis fundatur, ne sanguis funderetur, ' to shed blood, 
that blood may not be shed.' And as in the natural body, 
so in the civil body or the commonwealth, if any one part be 
so corrupt that it endangereth the whole, it is no cruelty to 
cut it off, for melius est ut pereat unus guam unitas, ' better 
one bad man than all the land pcviali.' And as in common 
fires as long as there is hope to quench it, men bring water, 
but when the fire is so masterful that there is no hope to ex- 
tinguish it, the whole house is pulled down, and incendium 
extiaguilur ruind, ' the fire is put out by the ruin of the whole 
house ;' so in the civil body, less sins have less punishments, 
but God wills that he who killeth should die, that evil might 
be taken from Israel. For if blood be not satisfied with 
blood, two evils will follow, 

1, God's wrath ; 

2, impunity will encourage others to do the like ; 
therefore God addeth the reason, for preventing this incon- 
venience; namely, the murderer must he punished by death, 
that other may hear and be afiaid to commit the like sin. 

Now that this may be lawfully done ; it is manifest. 
Gen, is, 6, that blood may be shed; and Matt. \\v\. 52, 
"he that takcth the sword, shall perish by the sword;" but 
yet every man may not use the sword at his pleasure against 
him that sheddeth blood, hut Rom. xiii, 4, the sword is given 

222 Of the sixth commandment. 

LT to one, namely, the magistrate, wbo is there called God's 
— minister ; and he is not to bear it in vain, but to take venge- 
ance upon e\il doers. Now quod orgaiion est utentt, id minister 
estjubenii, 'that which an instrument or weapon is to him 
who naeth it, the same is an officer to him who is the com- 
mander;' and therefore it is not the sword, nor the minister, 
that is, the magistrate, but God who is jubena, ' the com- 
mander,' that doth shed the blood of the wicked. 

And therefore for the magistrate's use of the sword; as the 
prince's ofRcers, the sherifl' and other, must do nothing but 
ex pTCBScripto, ' as is prescribed them,' so the prince himself 
and all magistrates must have their prescript from God : now 
God's prescript is only against the wicked ; as for the inno- 
cent man, his blood must not be shed, Exod. xxiii. 7 ; if it be, 
then as in Ahab's case for stoning of Naboth, rex homidda, 
"the king is a murderer," 2 Kings vi. 32; so of Joash for 
killing Zechariah an innocent prophet : but as for the mur- 
derer on the other side, non miseraberis, non parcet oculus tutu, 
' thou shalt not pity him, thine eye shall not spare him,' 
Dcut. six. 13 ; there is an irrevocable writ gone ont that 
every murderer must die. 

though under what restriction ; 

Quest. Then the qnestion is, whether any man that ia 
murderer may be any way executed? 

Answ. And for answer, three points are necessarily to 
considered in this matter ; 

1. It must not he judicio privato, ' by a private judgment ;' 
everj' private man may not take it upon him, but he must be 
a magistrate ; 

2. Not Judicio vsurpato, 'by an usurped judgment;' the 
magistrate must be kept within his limits ; Kom. xiv. 4, guis 
tu gui judicas alienum aenmm, ' who art thou who judgeat 
another man's servant,' other subjects that pertain not nnt 
him. If further than jus gentium, 'against the law of arms^' 
any be put to death, it is usurped. 

3. Not judicio temerario, ' by rash judgment,' without 
lawful trial ; the matter must be first enquired after and tried 
out, that he may be sons damnatus, ' a guilty man, and justly 
punishable ;' 


sat ^^ 

Of the sixth commandment. 

come be- PART 

Acta xxiii. 35, Felix would have Paul' 
fore he heard him ; and 

John xviii. 29, wicked Pilate could say, " what accusation 
bring you against this man ?" and 

Acts XXV. 16, Festus aaith, "it is not the manner of the 
Romans to cotuiemn any man before his accusers come 
face to face before him ;" 

and in this pleading or accuaation, God will not have blood 
to be shed at the witness of one mau, but either three, or 
two at the least. 

In regard hereof Christ, who in respect of the godhead 
knew what Judas would do, yet did not exclude iiim from 
His company, because he was not yet convicted, nor his 
fault manifested according to God's law, so that he appeared 

It is evident in the story of the Bible, that judges rash and 
precipitate one way will also be faulty the other way : Saul, 
who spared guilty Agag, put to death the faultless Gibeonites, 
and would have killed Jonathan upon a slight occasion ; so 
Abab, who would not kill the man worthy to die, 1 Kings 
XX. 42, yet would have Naboth, a guiltless man, murdered. 

OT of the subjects of another. 

Object. But may the prince in no case shed the blood of 
those that are not under his dominion, but are servi alieni, 
' subjects to another prince* ? 

Answ. Surely, yes ; the magistrate hath not only a sword 
to see rule kept at home, hut gladium exteriorem, ' a sword to 
strike some abroad ;' against the wolf and enemy abroad he 
hath the sword of war. The whole order whereof is set down 
at large, Deut. xx. from the beginning to the end of the 
chapter; and John baptist, Luke iii. 14, doth not say to the 
soldiers, abjicile arma, deserite mUitiam, ' cast away your 
weapons, leave off your warfare,' but teacheth them their 
duty in war, and doth not quite take away war; therefore 
war is lawful. 

But in war three things are required, 
1. It must be ex jusld auclorilale, 'commanded by just 
authority ;' Judg. i, 1, the Israelites would not go out to war 


Of the aia:lh commandment. 

IT till they had authority from God aud a lawful guide; bo 
: — David would uot fight with Goliah till Saul were first ac- 
quainted with his enterprise, 1 Sam. xrii, 37. 

2. It must be in a just cause, either to defend ourselTCs, 
or to rescue others, as Abram did Lot, Gen. xiv. 15, when he 
had been taken prisoner, and received injury ; and in this 
case, of injury and wrong offered by one nation to another, 
according to jus gentium, 'the law of nations,' one nation 
may war against another. — But here take heed it be not for 
every light and small injury, but to revenge some notorious 
wrong; as in case of rehgion, as they took it, Josh. ixii. 
11, 12, or in weighty matters of the commonwealth 
Judg. XX. 23. 

3. It must be done with a right end and purpose ; not 
spoil and prey upon them, as Saul on the Araalekitea, 1 Si 
XV. 9 ; hut we must fight as they that fight the battles of the 
Lord, aud let no eril be found amongst us, as Darid, 
1 Sam. XXV, 28. ^If herein we err, blood ivill stick to our 
girdle aud to our shoes, as to Joab's, 1 Kings ii. 5; the 
thing which chiefly we are to look unto ia, that we be valii 
for our people and the city of our God, 2 Sam. x. 12. 


Whether a private man may lake away Hfe. 

Quest. But may a private man in no case shed the h 
another private man ? 

Aiisw. 1. Necessity hath no law, necessitas est exlex; i 
more, necessitas dicit legem legi, ' necessity giveth law to h 
and therefore in a case of necessity, which we must take/ 
impendente necessitate, ' for a present imminent danger,' a 
not imminent only, biit pro termino indivisibili, the pinch a 
necessity admits no evasion ; in that case every man is I 
magistrate, and that by authority from God ; Exod. xxii. ! 
if a thief by night break into my house, I may kill hii 
much more then to save my life. And for this reason I 
Peter had a sword ; and as St. Austin saith, by law a ms 
permitted to wear a sword, that thereby he may terrify t 
who would ofi^er him violence, aud to keep himself from evi 
and harm if he be necessitated thereunto. 

But if the terminus be divisibilis, admitting a way to avoi^ 

Of the gixth commandment. 225 

the danger, that the necessity hath a latitude, and the danger part 

Dot present, but as it was with Paul, they swore his death ; 

we muat then do as Paul did. Acts xxiii. 17, not presently 
run iipon them, but reveal it to Ljsiaa the chief captain ; 
reveal it to the magistrate. 

But the danger being present, I may in my ovn defence 
shed his blood that would shed mine; for I raxKt p!u9 favere 
vita mete qwam atiena, ' tender more my own life than another 
man's ;' and it is inculpata tiilela, ' a defence of myself with- 
ont blame,' when I cannot otherwise save myself. 

2, Again, for this private shedding of blood, he that is 
slain is either slain of purpose, or without purpose ; now as 
in things natural, there is per se, ' a thing effected with in- 
tention,' and per accidens, ' a thing falling out by accident ; 
and we do not attribute to nature things that are done per 
accidens, ' by accident ;' so in moral things, there is e.r inten- 
lione, ' things done of set purpose,' and prmter intenltonem, 
'beside our intent and purpose;' and it maketh neither b 
good nor evil action that is done prater intenltonem, ' beside 
our intent.' Yea God himself, Deut. xix. 1, Exod. xxi. 13, 
appointeth sanctuaries of refuge for those that kill other men 
prater intenlionem, ' beside their intent ;' now God will allow 
no sanctuary for vices, and therefore if it be done without 
intent to hurt, God accounteth it for no sin. 

But yet with these two caveats; 

1. That when we do thus kill another man, we be in opere 
rei Hcita, 'in a lawful action;' for Exod- xxi. 22, if two men 
strive and hurt a woman with child, and death follow either 
of her or her child, they shall pay life for life, though it were 
not their intention to kill her, yet because they were about 
an unlawful thing, as fighting was. 

2. There must not lack debita gollicitudo, ' a good taking 
heed ;' there must be due care and diligence to avoid the 
hurting of our neighbour ; for otherwise, Exod. xxi, 33, if a 
man dig a pit or a well, and cover it not, and another man's 
ox or ass fall into it, he shall make it good, because he might 
have taken heed before and covered the well. 

Thus much of the restraint of the commandment, in what 
cases it is lawful to kill aikd to shed blood. 

226 Of the sLvtk commandment. 

Of the extension of the commandment 
Now the exteusioa of the commandment. 

in respect of others ; 

1. Of those that willingly and of purpose commit i 
a, some do directly; Numb. xxxv. 16, they that with 

iron, wood, or stone, or any instrument, kill another ; 
^, some indirectly ; by poison, witchcraft, sorcery, kill- 
ing of children in the womb, taking strong and 
strange purgations to the end abigere partum, 'to 
hinder childbearing ; ' 
also to be cooperator, accessary to kilting, is to kill, iffl 
Matt. sx. 49, Judas to the killing of Christ; | 

and 2 Sam. iii. 27, Joab to Abner ; and ch. sx. 9, to Amnsa ; 
also by bringing one into danger, as Saul made Daiid 
captain to the intent to have him killed, 1 Sam. xviii. 
17 ; so David dealt with Urias, 2 Sam. si. 15 ; 
ao to bear false witness touching life, 1 Kings sxi. 13; 
BO for magistrates to permit it when they may hinder il 

Matt, xxvii. 24, Pilate ; 
and all these ways we may commit this sin, and kill i 
other man. 

and in respect of ourselves. 

2. Now we may also be accessaries to our own death, 
a. If we put ourselves in danger and need not ; qui a 

pericafum, peribit in periculo, ' he that loveth danger, or need- 1 
lessly runs into danger,' shall perish in the s 

^, Or if we do not use all lawful meaua to escape danger, 
as Christ did. Matt, iv, 6 ; and Paul, Acts ssvii. 31 ; and for 
this cause he adviseth Timothy to drink a little wiue for his 
stomach's sake, 1 Tim, v. 23 ; 

7. In this kind a man may sin in too much care about 
apparel, 1 Tim. vi. 8, Rom. xiii. 14. Undue exercise, 
Col. ii. 23 J eating the bread of carefulness, Ps. cxxvii. 2 ; 
and worldly sorrow, 2 Cor. vii. 10 ; and a heavy heart will 
dry the bones, Prov. xvii. 22, and hasten death. 

8. So also we sin when we kill ourselves by surfeiting or 

Of ike tvrth commandment. 227 

drunkenness^ or the undue use of any of those things which PART 

the philosophers call non naturalia, ' not agreeable to our ~ 


Moreover we are conunanded not only to preserve the life 
of the body^ but incolumitatem corporis, ' the soundness of 
the body/ so that no. one part must be hurt ; for if the least 
part be hurt^ the whole accounteth itself hurt, and saith, 
quare me, ' why dost thou hurt me ?' so that if any part be 
hurt, it is a breach of this commandment. Lev. xxiv. 19; 
and so is every wound and every stripe, of which we read, 
Exod. xxi. 25. 

It touches soul as well as body. 

Neither is the murder and hurt of the body only for- 
bidden, but of the soul also; and this murder of the soul 
is much more grievous than the other of the body. 

And as there are two lives of the soul, so in respect of 
both those lives the soul may be murdered, both in respect 
of this life, and of the life to come. 

1. There may be a murder of the soul concemiug the life 
thereof in this life : for when a man cometh to loathe the 
benefit of his life, it may be weU said that his soul is killed, 
Eccl. vi. 3, Col. iii. 21, and he that doth any thing to a man 
that maketh him thus to loathe his life, that man is a 
murderer of the other man's soul. 

2. Concerning the life of the soul in the life to come the 
soul may also be murdered, namely, if the soul be set in 
worse estate concerning the life to come, 

a. by him that hath charge of souls. 

Rev. ii. 14, "Balaam, who taught Balac to cast a 

stumbling-block before the children of Israel ^' 
Mai. ii. 8, " you have made many to faU -" 
so also if they lay a stumbling-block before the people, 
or if they be negligent in their places, Ezek. xxxiii. 6, 
"if the watchman see the sword come, and blow not 
the trumpet,'' &c., the people's blood shall be required 
at their bands ; also 
/9. one private man may murder the soul of another 


228 Of the sixth commandment. 

r either by giving counsel, dicto or facto, ' by word' t 

_ ' deed,' as Peter, (Matt. xvi. 22, " Master, pity t 

self,") aa mucli as in him lay, to hinder t 
Christ in His work of niediatorship, and to hurt 1 
aoul and all ours ; or by example. Gal. ii. 13, Petet^ 
at Antioch ; 
or any other way giving offence to their weak brotherij 
" one of these little ones," Matt, xt-iii. 6. 

The phariaees thought it was no murder nnless blood were 
shed. But we must know that the commandnjent is spiritual, 
and our Saviour telleth them, Matt. v. 22, that what the 
hand or arm committeth, it conieth by virtue of the motion 
from the heart ; and therefore. Matt. xv. 19, out of the 
heart proceed murders; and fur this cause the killing of a 
man is not accounted capital, Deut. xix. 6, 11, unless it pro- 
ceed from hatred, which is an affection settled in the heart. 

Means to avoid this Hn. 
For the avoiding of this sin of murder, which proceedeth 
of anger, consider these two points, and put them well in 
practice ; 

1, if it be our anger conceived against others, resist it; 
Eph. iv. 27, "give not place to the devil;" 

2, if it he otiiers' anger against us, give place unto it ; 
Bom. sii. 19, "give place unto wrath;" as Abigail the wife 
of Nabal would not tell him his fault in the midst of the 
feast, but deferred it till the next day, 1 Sam. xxv, 37. 

Now that these two may be the better put in practio^'i 
consider that anger is compoujided of two things, 

grief for an indignity offered, 

desire to revenge and requite it, 
Now if our anger stay at the grief it ia well, but we must 
take heed of revenge; we must not say, Prov. xxiv. 29, 
" I will do to him as he hath done to me," but we must 
commit it to God to revenge, Deut. xxxii. 35 ; and we must 
be so far from revenging or desiring revenge, that if our 
enemy fall, we must not rejoice at it, lest God seeing it 
turn His wrath from him upon us ; 


0/ the sixth commandment. 

Job xxxi, 29, " if I rejoiced at the destmetion of him that PART 
hated mc, or lifted up myself when evil found Mm ;' 
and more plainly, 

ProT. xxiv. 17, 18, " rejoice not when thiue enemy falleth, 
and let not thine heart be glad when he stumbleth, lest 
the Lord see it, and it displease Him, and He turn 
away His wrath from him." 

Of answering hard language. 

Quest. But may wc not answer hard and injurioUB words, 
and defend ourselves ? 

Ansiir. Surely of a fool's word magnum remedium negli- 
gentia, ' 'tis a great remedy to neglect them ;' and Solomon, 
Prov. xxvi. i, would have us at some times not to j 
him, leat he become, e slullo insanus, ' of a fool a mad man ;' 
when he is among such as Iiimself, answer him, lest lie seem 
wise ; if he be among wise men, answer him not, and they 
will regard rather quid lu taceas qvhm quid ille dicat, ' what 
thou art silent of than what he uttereth forth.' 

iVhether actions at law are allowable. 

Quest. What shall we think of actions at law? must we 

be so far from requiting and revenging that we must not 

bring men to justice that have done us wrong? 
I Answ. In some eases we may go to law ; 
I 1. We must not be, as the pope said of England, " a good 

ass to bear all," for if it be a case of God's or the truth's, 

" strive for the truth to death ;" 

2, But if it be a case of meum et tuum, ' mine and thine,' 
remember what Ahram did to Lot, for quietness he would 
yield from hia own right ; 

3. But because by departing from our right we pluck upon 
us a grievouser burden than we are able to bear, and make 
them offer it the oftener, therefore we are allowed to have 
recourse to the magistrates for relief and succour; but with 
these rules ; — 

a. Not for every trifle, not quod opus est, but quod necesse 
est, not every thing that will bear an action, but such as if it 
be not remedied will breed a further inconvenience, and such 
M nothing but the law can remedy. 

Of the seventh commandiMtit . 

/3. Before you bring the matter into forum civile, ' the 
- public court of justice,' first put it to neighbours and friends 
among whom ye live, to end if they can, 1 Cor, xi. 4, 5. 

y. Our Sariour when He was required to deal in dividing 
the inheritance, Luke xii. 14, "who made Me a judge?" 
saith lie, and presently addeth, " take heed of covet ousness," 
verse 15 ; so take heed you go not to law with a covetous 

S. Still keep a charitable mind to thine adversary, though 
the law proceed. 

e. Be advised before you go to law, as Prov. xxv. 8, " go not 
forth haatily to strive, lest thou know not what to do in the 
end when thy neighbour hath put thee to shame." 

Thus much of the sixth commandment. 


This commandment is expounded, Lev. xs. 10; and by 
Christ, Matt. v. 27 ; and hy the apostle, 1 Cor. vi. 16, and 
chap. vii. wholly. 

Place of this commandment. 

The dependence of this commandment with the former is, 
God therefore especially did forbid murder because man was 
made in the image of God ; now here further we may see the 
image of God to be in chastity and pureness; (this is so evi- 
dent, that the heathen poet could say, iiyyo« vovv 6e6v eori, 
deus purus animva est ,) the pureneas of this image Adam and 
Eve lost, and therefore got fig-leaves to cover their shame, 
and thereby shewed that the flesh is an enemy to chastity. 

Subject of the oommandment. 

As the other commandment dealt with dv/iix;, ' anger,' so 
this with rni6vf/.la, ' concupiscence.' 

Not that every concupiscence is evil ; Col. iii. 5, it is said, 
hriOvfiia Kaid), ' au evil concupiscence,' as if there were a 
concupiscence or desire that is not evil ; for it is lawful for 
every man to desire, first to preserve himself, and then hit 
species, his ' kind,' but when our appetite is not kept intra 

Of the seventh commandment. 231 

modum, 'witliiu due compass,' then it is evil : concupiscence, PART 

as Plato Gaith, hath the lowest place, and is alligatum ventri, — 

' tied to the paunch or belly,' as one would tie a horse 
or an asa to a manger ; now being in a lower place, when 
the lower is most vehement, then the higher is most hin- 
dered; and bs Chrysostom saith, dedit Dewt corpus animee 
ut illud in caluin eveheret, non dedit animam corpori ut 
i/lam in terram deprimeret, ' God hath given the body to the 
soul that it might raise it up to heaven, and not the soul to 
the body that it sliould press it down to the earth ;' so when 
onr concupiscence is used but only for lawful propagation, to 
which it was ordained, that is a lawful and good and pure 
concupiscence ; when there is tiihU atieni admixium, ' nothing 
else mixed with it.' 

How it is lo be here treated of. 

1. Now as we see, Gal. v, 19, and by our Saviour Christ's 
interpretation, Mark vii. 21, that adulteries and all unclean 
thoughts come from the heart ; so first let us consider them 
as they are in the heart ; and that, ■■ 

either ipsum venenum, ' the very poison of our nature,' 

^l John ii. 16, "the lust of the flesh;" 
or else guppuratio, ' an inward festering' of this desire, 
an inward boihng of the pot with the scum in it. 
After these, when it begins to break out, the first thing is, 

2. Subactum solum, when we make ourselves ' meet and apt 
ground' to receive this vice; the physicians call it Kaj(i^ia, 
when a man is disposed to an evil humour, and will still have 
a desire to have his body fed with that humour : now thia 
evil humour of wicked lust and concupiscence is fed by two 

a. by gida, ' gluttony,' a Burchargiug of the stomach, called 
crapula when it is with meat, and vinoleniia, with 

j8. by idleness, which is either by excess of sleeping, or 
defect in labour and exercise. 

After this subactum solum, ' apt ground,' there is, 

3. Irngatio concupiscent ia, ' a watering of the seed by the 
sin,' lascivia, aut immodesHa, ' wantonness, or immodesty,' 

Of the seventh commandment. 

PART and may be called illecebra concupiacentUe, Prov. vii. 23, ' the 
- snare of lust ;' and it is either in the body, or from without ;. 
a. In the body ia, 

•jrKoKT}, ' plaiting of the hair,' and fucus, ' the colour- 
ing of the face;' 
or in the apparel, evBva-is ifiariav; 
or in the gesture, either aoiue common gait iised gene- 
rally, or a certain kind of gait or gesture in the 
gait which they learn peculiarly to this purpose, as 
dancing and such bke; 
(8. And from without our lust is watered, 
either by corrupt company ; 
or by reading lascivious books wantonly; 
or by beholding wanton pictures, or plays and spec- 
tacles of love, 
or by hearkening to wanton tales, or histories or 
songs that nourish that humour of lust. 

4. For the signs, we will use no other but those before ; 
a. the jaundice of it is in the eyes too, as the former was, 
/3. and it hath his foam in aermone obscceno, ' in unclean 

talk,' and suspicious and filthy actions, 

5. The act itself, whether it be 

instincttc propria, ' of a man's own inclination,' or\ it is all 
consensu alietio, ' with another person's consent,' ( one. 
It is practised either with one or more ; with more, if there 

be a pretext of marriage, it is polygamy, without any such 
pretext scorlatio ; with one alone, called ' whoredom ;' and it 
is cither in wedlock, called /error, ' excess of lust,' (for there 
ia a fault even in matrimony,) or it is out of matrimony; 
either with a party allied, or a stranger ; if allied, called in- 
cest ; not allied, either married to another, or free ; if mar- 
ried or betrothed, it ia all one, and called adultery ; and is 
when both are married, and that is worst; or the woman 
only, and the man single ; or the man only, and the woman 
single ; and the second ia the less evil than the third, because 
in the third there is corruptio pro/is, ' a corrupting of pos- 
terity.' If she be free and not married, either we retain one 
peculiar to ourselves, and then she ia uot a common strumpet, 
but a concubine ; or else there is uot this continual keeping. 

Of the »evenlh commanthKiU. 


and then if she be not common, it is stuprwn, whether she be part 
virgin or widow, especially virgin ; if she be common, it is — ■ " — 
fornication properly. 

Besides these, the act is either once committed ; or often 
iterated, and then for distinction's sake, we may call it tuxuria, 
and the party a whoremonger, when he sets himself after it ; 

Or that which is beyond this, clamor aduUerii, ' the cry of 
adultery,' when they dare impudently defend it. 
And last of all is permission ; and that is either 

private, of a particular person for his daughter, or wife, 

or any of his kindred, called prostitution ; or 
public, of a ma^trate, in Buffering and tolerating stews, 
as Rome doth. 

Reasons against the tin of adultery. 
Before we proceed, let us see some reasons against this sin 
of adultery, to make it odious to man, aa it is to God. 

1. It is of all sins most brutish, and maketh us come 
nearest the condition of beasts ; and therefore by the pro- 
phet Jeremy adulterers are compared to neighing horses, 
Jer. V, 8, and Prov. vii. 22, to an ox going to the slaughter; 
and Deut. xsiii. 18, God himself saith, they shall not 'bring 
the hire of a whore, nor the price of a dog, into the house of 
God ;' putting a whore and a dog together ; and according to 
the mind of the learned, who compare a harlot to a bitch 
that many dogs follow after. 

2. It taketh away the heart, Hos. iv. 11; it quite estin- 
guisheth the light of reason, and from wantonness they grow 
to all uncleanness, and that with greediness, Eph. iv. 19; 
and brings into all manner of sin, as it did Solomon to 
idolatry, and David to murder. 

3. It is of all sins most inexcusable ; other sins may have 
some vizard or colour, but God having ordained a remedy 
for this, which is marriage, 1 Cor. vii. 3, he that will not use 
the remedy is without excuse, 

4. It is against the church ; for whereas God made mar- 
riage an holy institution, and a resemblance of Christ and 
His church, it is a contempt of the ordinance of God, by 


Of the seventh commandment. 

' making it unholy &nd unclean: and Mai. ii. 15, God made 

- them one, because He sought a godly seed ; and therefore 

they that seek any more but one, do as much as they can to 

hinder God's purpose, that He shall have no godly seed, no 


5. It is against the commonwealth j Lev. xviii. 28, " shall 
not the land spew you out if you defile it?" so the transla- 
tion of the commonwealth coraeth by pollution of the land. 

6. It is against the whole state of mankind ; for whereas 
marriage is for increase of mankind, they that commit adul- 
tery shall not increase, Hos. iv. 10; and so as much as in 
them lieth, they destroy all mankind, and are delinguentes 
in genus ftumanum, 'trespassers against the whole estate of 

7. (because every man respecteth his own particular) 

a. It is against a man's body ; first, by defiling it, yea, the 
very garments are spotted, Jude v. 23 ; and secondly, 
by weakening and decaying it, as the physicians say ; 

/9. and it is also against his soul, Frov. vi, 32; he that 
doth it deatroyeth his own soul. 

8. It is not only against himself, but against others also ; 
for in other sins he may perire solus, 'perish alone;' but in 
this he must have one to perish with him for company. 

9. It is injurious to Christ, and that two ways ; 

a. Christ ha*'iug paid a price for him, he dealeth injuri- 
ously to alienate that which ia not his own ; 

jS. being a christian, and Christ his Head aiid he a member 
of Christ, he uniting himself to a harlot doth what he 
can to bring Chriat into the body of a harlot. 

10. If all these will not move us, then consider the ptmuli' 
ment of it ; 

a. first, it is a punishment itself for those whom God 
hatcth, Prov. xxii. 14 ; he with whom the Lord is angry shall 
fall therein, as a punishment to his name and fame, ProT. 
\-i. 33, his reproach shall never be put away ; 

0. it wasteth his substance, Prov. xxis. 3 ; yea it shall be 
a fire to pursue him and all his increase to destructioDf 
Job ixxi. 12: 

OJ the seventh commandment. 

y. and lastly, that which is beyond all these, Rom, i. 24, it PA RT 

is one of the punishments of idolatry, and therefore a greater — - 

sin than idolatry is, (for every puniahment must exceed that 
whereof it is a punishmeut, or else the punishment would be 
a greater allurement to the sin;) and 1 Cor. vii. 12, if any 
will dwell with an idolater she may, but not with an adul- 
terer ; and v. 1 )■, the children of an idolater may be holy and 
have place in the congregation, but as for adulterer's chil- 
dren, Deut, xxiii, 2, a bastard shall not enter into the con- 
gregation of the Lord, even to hia tenth generation he shall 
not enter. 

Particulars of the sin. 
And now to return to the particulars of the sin, 

1. The festering. 

To begin with the festering of itj which the apostle 
1 Cor. vii. 9, calleth 'burning;' and Hob. vii. 4, 'as an oven 
heated by the baker, so is an adulterer.' 

2. The prepared ground. 

When it begins to break out, the first thing we do is 
to make ourselves subaclum solum, to make the ' soil fit' by 
feeding the evil humour that lay festering before ; which we 
shewed to be by gluttony, and idleness. 

Namely, 1) bg gluttony .■ vihether in Meat; 

Gluttony we shewed to be in meat or drink. 

In meat, crapula, 'feeding too much.' Gula veslibulvm 
luxuritB, 'the throat' or gluttony is the gallery that lechery 
goes through, and that by reason the faculties stand so, that 
nutriiiva est offidna generalivte, ' the nutritive faculty ia the 
shop of the generative;' aud that being looked to, there is 
hope the other may be the better dealt withaL It was one 
of the sins of Sodom, Ezek. svi. 49, "fulness of bread;" 
and venter bene pastas cito disponit ad libidinem, 'the belly 
full fed quickly disposcth a man to lust/ saitb Jerome upon 
that place. 

Of the I- 

•nth commandment. 

against it ; 

It is injurious to God in destroying His creatures ; 

a. Luke sv. 13, the prodigal son's fault; itwillbringamanto 
poverty, Prov. xxiii. 21 ; it decayeth the health and hasteneth 
death, and nothing sooner than gluttony and surfeiting ; 
read, Numb, xi, 34, of " graves of lust ;" surfeiting is a grave 
of lust. 

fi. In the soul, it maketh sermons and all exercises of god- 
KnesH unfruitful, Luke viii. 14 ; for Luke ssi. 34, it oppress- 
eth the heart, and maketh it heavy by the fuming up of the 
meat and drink : yea, it hardenetb the heart ; Amos 
they had no sorrow for the affliction of Joseph, though they 
themselves drunk wine in bowls: yea, Dcut. xxxii. 15, when 
"my fathng was well fed," saith Moses, recalcilravit, 'i 
spurned with the heeij' and "forsook God that made him." 

koio it it to be avoided. 
To avoid these mischiefs, take Paul's example, 1 Cor, ix. 27j 
beat down your own body ; and one manner of beating it 
down is, per damnum, 'by hindering it' of some commodi^ 
that it would have. The servant who is delicately fed will be 
checkmate with hia master, Prov. xxix. 21 ; a pampered 
horse will be hard to rule, Ecclus. xxx. 8 : so the flesh being 
too much cherished will kick against the soul ; we must do 
with it as we do with beasts that we will keep under, take 
away the provender; so in effect it is temperance. It ia 
^vij Ttj^ aapKot, 'the voice of the flesh,' /j-rj ■n-eiv^v, fit} 
Bi-^av, ftrj ■^v^errBcu, ' let me not be hungry, let me not be 
atliirst, let me not be cold:' when we grow wanton and 
will not have it in this dish, or we will not eat unless it he 
thus drest, then venter est molesius cliens, 'the belly is an 
earnest and impatient suitor ;' but if having food and raiment 
we can be therewithal contented, this is the right temperance. 
Meat is for the belly ; and we be debtors to the flesh, but 
yet we must not live after the flesh : she must not be ac- 
customed to have what she will call for, and never be broken 
of lier desire and appetite, for thereby we shall never be 
quiet, because after a little while the bridle of temperanM 
will hardly curb her. 

Rules of temperance, both general ; 

Now temperance coiiaisteth in modo, ' measure ;' and that 
modus, in medio, ' iu the meau or middle ;' and that is 
known per reyulam, ' by rule ;' aud the rule therefore of 
temperance ia tlireefold ; 

1, necessitas vitte, ' the necessity of our life ;' our life 
necessarily requires but conTenient food and raiment, 
1 Tim. vi. 8 : 

2, necessitas offidi, ' the necessity of our calling ;' he that 
is athleta, that provetli masteries, must be abstinent and keep 
a strait diet, 1 Cor. is. 25; and so a student, and he that 
will be contemplative; a husbandman must have more, 
and so our direction must be for our diet, as our employ- 
ment is ; 

3, voluptus quee neutrum horum trnpedit, 'pleasure which 
hindereth none of these ;' but if it be more than is con- 
venient for the maintenance of our life, or for our necessary 
duties and employments in our several places, it is sin. 

According to these rules we must temper our desire, and 
give temperance the bridle, that she may constrtngere et 
relaxare, ' hold in or let loose' the reins ; as Augustine 
saith, temperanlia franos gutturis constringit et relaxat, 
' temperance pulls iu or lets go the bridle of our appetite.' 

and particular ; 

And that we may govern and temper ourselves the better 
in our diet, consider these five points ; 

1. The substance; not every day Xa/iirpw? with the rich 
glutton, 'delicately,' Luke xvi. 19. The Israelites were 
weary of manna, and must needs have quails, Nnmb. xi. 6; 
but Daniel and his companions, pulse served their turn, and 
yet they looked never the worse, Dan. i. 12; and Elijah's 
proWsion was but a cake aud a pot of water, 1 Kings xix. 6; 
and Elisha provided but a great pot of pottage for the chil- 
dren of the prophets, 2 Kings iv. 38. 

2. The quantity ; they that have taken the measure of our 
throat and other instrumeuts, say that it ia less than iu other 

238 0/' ike sevenlh commandmenl. 

T creatures of answerable proportion, to teach 
— and to beware of superfluity, either 

a. by surcharging our nature, Hos. vii. 5, i 
(8. by exceeding our estate ; it was Nabal' 

XXV. 36, he was a note too high in his feast, he mi 
a feast like a prince. 

3. The quality; beware of exquisiteness, Luke x. 
Martha's fault ; we mast not make our belly our 
Phil. Ui. 19. 

4. Eat not too greedily; for this is oa porci habere, 'to' 
have tlie snout of an hog ;' and this made the devil make 
choice of the herd of swine to enter into, because of their 
greediness; they were like cormorants given to devouring^, 
as he himself is, and so like unto him. It was Esau's faull 
saith Augustine, ardenter comedere, ' to eat ravenously ;' fo 
needs must he fall to his meat roundly, who longed after 

so greedily that he would part with his birthright to pi 
chase it. 

5. Eat not too often ; and for that, we must have recoi 
to the former rules vita et officii, 'of our life and oar.' 
calling ;' not so often as to binder our health, not so often' 
as to hinder our calling; not too early, Eccl. x. 16, not too 
late, Esay v, 11, "woe to them that rise up early to follow 
drunkenness, and continue until night till the wine do 
inOame them." 

-I Drink. 

The same fault is in excess of drink, as before was 
excess of meats ; vinolentia, ' drunkenness/ as ill as crapula,] 
'gluttony,' Eph. v. 18. 

And it is the high way to this sin, of adultery, Prov. xxiii. 
31, 33 ; first he saith, *' look not upon the wine when it is 
red, and sheweth his colour in the cup, or goeth down plea- 
santly;" and what foUoweth? "thine eyes shall look upon 
strange women, and thine heart shall speak lewd things." 

And therefore St, Peter doth not only forbid drunkenness, 
1 Pet. iv. 3, but drinkings; whether they be such as iuflnme 
us, Esay v. 11, or whether by using it we get such a habit 
that we are strong to do it ; for though we be so strong that 
we can keep ourselves from being drunk, yet thure is a w( 


Of the seventh cormnandment. 

pronounced against tliis strength, Esay v. %\ 
that are strong to pour in strong drink," 
The inconveniences following thereupon are, 

1, these drinkers shall never be wise, Prov. xx. 1 ; 

2, and never rich ; 

3, they are disposed to sin, sometimes against their will, 
sometime with it, Gen. sis. 33, Prov. xxiii. 32, 33 ; and wine 
makes them as men sleeping in the midst of the sea, and on 
the top of a mast, in danger and not sensible of it. 

For we are not altogether tied from the use of wine ; but 
that we may lawfully drink wine ; 

1. For the help of a weak stomach and for often infir- 
mities, 1 Tim, V. 23, we may use wine ; but it must be " a 
little wine," take heed of escess. — Here they are to be blamed 
who lay hold on tliat th.e apostle saith, " drink wine, 
neglect the rest, " a little wine," and regard not the cause, 
" for infirmities' sake." 

2. To case the heaviness of the mind ; Prov. xxxi, 
" give wine to them that have grief of heart." 

3. In a public benefit, for a public gratulation, we may 
the fat and drink the sweet. Neb. viii. 10. 

And to this purpose we may also apply and make use ol 
the five rules of temperance. 
Thus much of gluttony. 

2) by idleness. 

The second feeder of lust is idleness, Ezek. xvi. 43. It 
was one of the sins of Sodom ; a sin highly displeasing to 
God, as well in regard of tlie breach of the next command- 
ment, as also in respect of the loss of time, and that, either 
by too much sleeping, or by not being exercised in our 
callings j as appeared in David, 2 Sam. xi. 2 ; hence Amos 
vi. 4, they are blamed who stretched themselves upon their 

1. For the first point, too much sleeping; Rom. xiii. 13, 
"walk honestly, as in the day; not in gluttony and drunken- 
ness, neither in chambering and wantonness ;" when he hath 
been in itaifioK, ' gluttony,' and in fj-iBcut, 'drunkenness,' then 

he comes to koItui';, which we translate 'chambering,' but it is 

240 Of the seventh commandment. 

T properly ' lying in bed/ long lying ; and there is joined v 
— it arreXryeia, 'wantonness,' the beginning of concupiscend 
Amos vi. 4, " they stretch themselves upon their bed 
And it is the way also to poverty, to love sleep, Prov, xx. '. 
For the quantity of our sleep, it must not be too longjl 
Prov. vi. 9, " how long wilt thou sleep, O sluggard ?" Itfl 
must not be the sluggard's sleep. 
For the manner, it must not be dead sleep, as Jonas' i 
was in time of danger, Jou. i. 5 ; not sejJiillura suffoci 
' the burial of one suffocated,' but reguies lassi, ' the r 
of a wearied man,' as Jerome saith. 

2. For the second point of idleness, not being exercised ii 
our callings, but giving ourselves to ease, it is the way 

a. to bring us to "hands hanging down," and to "w( 
knees," Heb. xii. 12; and 

y8. to corrupt the body ; as water standing still will putrify 
and breed toads and venomous things, so ease will breed 
diseases; and therefore, 2 Thess. iii. 11, they are con- 
demned that work not, and are exhorted to work and 
eat their own bread, aa if their bread were not their owa 
if they live idly and work not. 

3. The watering of conetipitcence i 

Thus much of tubactum sohim, ' the ground fitted 
followeth irrigalio concupiacentiiB, ' the watering of concupii 

For as we must keep ourselves from being a meet mould, 
or fit ground, for the devil to cast in this seed of lust or evil 
concupiscence ; so we must also beware of those objects and 
allurements that do irrigare concuptscenliam, 'water concu- 

as they are in ourselves and our own bodies, o 
as they are in others and without us. 

by allurements in ourselves ; 
The allurements in ourselves and about our o 



Of the seventh commandment, 241 

1. Adhibere fucum, 'use painting/ it was Jezebel's vice, PART 
2 Kings ix. 30, "she painted her face, and tired her head/' — ^— ■ 
so Jer. iv. 30, " they painted their faces and eye-brows/' 

2. To disguise ourselves in apparel, 1 Tim. ii. 9, and 1 Pet. 
iii. 3 ; condemned even in women, which are rather to be 
allowed in it than men, because it is mundus muiiebris, ' wo- 
manish adorning/ but St. Peter hath two reasons against it; 

a. " let the hid man of the heart be incorrupt,'' as if he 
should say, as Cato said, magna corporis cura magna 
mentis incuria, 'great care of our bodies causeth a 
great carelessness of the soul ;' 

fi, " the saints in old time" did not thus apparel themselves; 
follow their example, ver. v. 

3. The gesture must be looked unto ; Micah ii. 3, a plague 
is threatened against those that have a proud gait : and the 
prophet Esay, iii. 16, goes to particulars; they are haughty, 
they go on tiptoes ; they have stretched out necks ; rolling 
eyes ; a mincing and a tinkling gait. — Gestum natura dat, 
' the inward temper of the mind is described by the gesture ;' 
there is a generation whose eyes, saith Agur, are haughty : 
yet grace can mend the defects of nature, therefore none 
may be excused who neglect the means of grace. 

or by allurements without us. 

The allurements without us, or the watering of our lust 
by those provocations that are without and beside the body, 
do now follow. 

1. David, Ps. 1. 18, reckoneth one, that is to say, being 
partakers, keeping compRuy, with adulterers; for Prov. vii. 22, 
the young man entering into company and communication 
with an harlot, followed after, like an ox to the slaughter, 
and a fool to the stocks. And indeed company is very dan- 
gerous in this sin, as we see, 1 Cor. v. 6, " a little leaven 
leaveneth the whole lump;" it may be applied to any vice, 
but St. Paul there applieth it particularly to this sin, shewing 
that this vice hath a special virtue to infect and leaven others. 
And therefore beware of evil company, and not only evil but 
suspicious company, and at suspicious times ; refrain not only 



PART the evil, but that wliich liatb tpedem malt, ' any show of evil,' 
_iXL_ IThes. V. 21, 22. 

2. After company may come evil books, tbat speak broadly 
of filthy matters. These are of the same nature witli ill com- 
pany: the heathen man called his books his comiles, 'com- 
panions ;' he waa aalux, ' alone,' and yet he had his comites, 
a book or two; and so having their company, he iras nunquam 
niinitu solus qvam dim eoltu, ' never less alone than when he 
waa aJone.' 

Evil books contain many evil words, and 1 Cor. xv. 33, 
" evil words corrupt good manners :" evil words we call these, 
" stolen waters are sweet," " hidden bread is pleasant ; " and 
Prov. vii, 18, "let us take our pleasure in dalliance;" and 
such like. 

3. To company and evil books, may be added such things 
aa by the eye and ear work the same impressions in the soul, 
as namely, 

a. pictures ; imagines obscanis, ' wanton pictures,' such u 
Baal Peor, Num. xxv. 18, to stir up wicked and lustftd 
thoughts ; and by analogy thereunto, 

^. all wanton dancings, Mark vi. 22, or stage-plays, or 
things appertaining to them : because, out eyes therein do 
behold vanity, Ps. exix. 37 j a man cannot take fire in his 
bosom but his clothes will be burnt, Prov. vi. 27, nor a man 
cannot touch pitch but he ahall be defiled, nor see wanton 
actions but his affections will be moved. 

4. The siffiis of concupiscence. 

We come now to the signs. 

The signs of this sin are -J . , ^ ' 

L in the speech. 

1. For the eye, Matt, v, 28, looking upon a woman to lust 
after her is adultery before God ; and 2 Peter ii. 14, some 
men have "eyes full of adultery;" Gen, xxxiv. 1, the Egyp- 
tians looked upon Abrara's wife, and fell into this sin, Gen. 
xii. 14; and therefore, Prov. vi. 25, "let her not take thee 
with her eye lids." 

2. For the speech, which is the froth or foam of this sin. 

Of the fteventh commandment, 2 13 

it is forbidden, Eph. iv. 29, by the name of aairpo^ \oyo<;, PART 
'rotten or corrupt communication;' and if idle words shall — ^^- — ■ 
be accounted for, Matt. xii. 36, much more wanton and broad 
speeches of filthy matters ; or to speak too plain even of law- 
ful duties of marriage. We see the Holy Ghost useth very 
modest words that way, and seeketh out choice terms, as 
Gen. iv. 1, "Adam knew Eve his wife;" and Gen. xviii. 11, 
it ceased to be with Sarah after the manner of women ; and 
1 Cor. vii. 3, it is called ' due benevolence' from each of them 
to the other. 

5. The act of incontinency . 

The sin of incontinency is committed, either with more 
than one, or with one alone. 

1. With more, either without law, or with colour of law. 

a. Without all colour of law, is scortatio, ' whoring -/ Deut. 
xxiii. 17, forbidden, and in the ver. 18, the whore compared 
to a bitch, and the whore-keepers to a number of dogs. For 
the punishment of it, Gen. xxxviii. 24, the law of nature did 
award it death, to be burned ; and God himself, Heb. xiii. 4, 
will punish it, " whoremongers and adulterers God will 
judge;" and if the civil punishment of the law take not 
so severe hold of it, God himself will judge it, both in the 
world to come. Rev. xxi. 8, and in this life with strange and 
extraordinary judgments, as lues gallica, ' the french pox,' an 
abominable and filthy disease not heard of in former ages. 

)8. Under colour of law, or with pretext of marriage, is 
polygamy; wherewith sundry of the patriarchs were en- 
tangled, yielding to the corrupt customs of the country 
about, not enquiring God's will. 

1) The creation is plain. Gen. i. 27 ; and plainer, Matt, 
xix. 5, for there the number is set down expressly, 
"they twain shall be one flesh;" and Mark x. 11, 
" if a man put away his wife and marry another, he 
committeth adultery against her." 
Object. And whereas they object and allege that it was 
lawful at the first, for increase of children and pro* 
pagation of the world ; 


244 Of the seventh comma luhnent, 

Answ, We say for answer, that iudeed if ever it lind been 
to be allowed, it was id the begiuniog, but tbe pro- 
phet Malnehi, ii. 15, calletli men to that, nonfuit He 
ad initio, ' it was not so from the beginning ;' and 
saitli, that God having plenty of spirit, yet He made 
but one ; and wherefore one ? because He sought a 
godly seed ; and therefore polygamy unlawful for 
any age that should come after. 

2) The first that the Holy Ghost notcth to have two wives, 

was wicked Laniech, of Cain's race, Gen. iv. 19 ; and 
though Jacob had so also, he learned it in Padaa 
Aram, among the idolaters. 

3) The prophets have spoken against it; and Christ him- 

self against it ; and the apostle, 1 Cor, vii. 2, let 
every woman have \hiov nvBpA, ' her own husband,' 
and every husband have rijp eavrov ■yvvcuKa, 'bis 
own wife ;' and therefore whatsoever cavils have been 
devised to defend it, it is unlawful, 

2. With one alone this sin of incontinency is committed; 
and that, 

a) First in wedlock, and causes matrimonial i for we are 
not left to ourselves in matrimony, to use ourselves or them 
as we list. — But because here we fall into infinite questions, 
and not very pertinent to this place, we will therefore here 
content ourselves only with these few considerations touch- 
ing marriage ; 

a. we must have Abram's care, Gen. xxiv. 3, not to match 

with the Canaanites, with the wicked ; but as Paul 

saith, 1 Cor. vii. 39, tti Domino, ' in the fear of God,' 

and His true religion ; 

/S. consent of parents must be had, 2 Sam. siii, 13 j 

•f. as God brought Eve to Adam, Gen. ii. 22, so desire she 

may come by the band of^God ; 
S. {which more neariy coucerneth this place) in marriage 
we mnst so behave ourselves, as 1 Cor. vii. 29, having 
a wife as if we had her not, and, in the fifth verse, 
being content to maater our lusts so that for duties 
of Christianity we may separate ourselves ; and at no 
time in her disease, in me^sibus, to approach unto her; 

Of the seventh commandment. 245 

€. not departing ifrom her or divorcing ourselves, but only in PART 
case of adultery, as our Sanour's rule is. Matt. v. 32 ; — '--- 

f. after we are delivered by the death of one party, 
1 Cor. vii. 40, so to abide if we can ; or at least not 
quickly to wax wanton and marry again, 1 Tim. v. 1 1, 
but stay ourselves for a time, till the body be resolved 
to earth from whence it came. 

P) Out of matrimony we commit this sin, either with one 
allied to us, or with a stranger. 

1. If she be allied, it is called 'incest,' forbidden, Imsv. 
xviii. 6; punished with death. Lev. xx. 17. — And it is set 
down as a principle, ''thou shalt not discrjver ihtt shame of 
thy mother, because she is thy mother; nor of thy sisti^r^ 
because she is thy sister ;" as though by the light r/f miiuri? 
the very naming of mother or sister were enough. And yi^ 
this sin for a time was winked at ; but Lev. %%* 2^, the Und 
spewed out the Canaanites and the Perizzites for this alK/rni- 
nation; and Beuben before the law, for this very sin n{ 
incest, forfeited both the right of the kingdom, for it went to 
Judah, and the right of the priesthood, which went to Levi* 
And not onlv in the direct line is this incest, but in the 
coUateral also; Mark vi. 18, Herod might not take bis 
brother's wife; and 1 Cor. v. 1, "that one should have his 
father's wife," a " fornication not once named among the 
gentiles ;" and Amos ii. 7, " a man and his father go in to 
a maid, to dishonour My holy Name ;" so though for 
necessity it were tolerated in the beginning, yet of itself 
it is unlawfuL 

2. Come we to those that are strangers to us and not 
allied ; and they are either married, or free and unmarried. 

a) If married or espoused, (for that is all one,) it is adultery, 
forbidden. Lev. xviii. 20, and punished with death of both 
parties. Lev. xx. 10; see also Deut. xxii. 22 — ^24. And 
though the politic laws of men have not made it so, yet by 
the judgment of all divines, it is capital. And great reason 
it should be so ; for, 

a, it is the perverting of the whole estate of those two 
families whereof the parties are members ; and. 

246 Of ikc seventh c'immandmeJit. 

r /3, if tlie fault be in the woniftn, and the liiiBbantl know 
— not of it, there is notorious theft committed, for the 

man nourishcth and briugeth up a cliild that is 

not his, and layeth up inheritance for him, to the 

injury of his other children ; 
7, in whieh soever of them the fault be, tliere is a sin 

against the rest of the children ; 
S. yea, and a ein against one that is not, namely, against 

him that is so begotten, for he shall be bom a 

bastard, and one that shall not be accounted as one 

of the congregation of the Lord ; 
e. it is also against the state of the commonwealth, for it 

polluteth the land, Lev. sviii. 27. 

;9) Of them that are free and unmarried, 

1. Either the party continuetb with us, and then it is 
concubinalus, ' the keeping of a harlot to ourselves not being 
common,' and she is called a concubine. — God hatli shewed 
bow He disliked it by coutinual crossing of it ; first in 
Hagar, Gen. xxi. 10, "cast out the bond-woman and her 
son ;" Gen. xxxv. 22, in Jacob, by Reuben's incest with 
Bilhah ; Judg. six. 2, a Lcvite took a concubine out of Beth- 
lehem Judah, and as soon as he bad taken her, she began 
to play tiie whore ; 2 Sam. iii. 7, Saul was punished in hia 
concubine Rizpab, to whom Abner went in ; 2 Sara. xvL 22, 
David was punished in his concubines by his son Absalom in 
the sight of all Israel. 

2. Of those that do not keep a concubine continually to 
themselves, the deed is done either once only, or often ; 

1) once only, called 'deflowering,' Deut. sxii. 23, death 
appointed for it ; 

2) the deed often done is called 'fornication;' which 
word, though it be often used for the general sin, yet it ia 
indeed properly called vaga libido, ' a wandering lust,' or 
vagus cowmbitus, ' a wandering and loose use of women ;' 
Prov. ii. 19, tbey that enter into it hardly return again; 
Prov, V. 12, in his latter end he shall wonder at himself and 
say. How was I deceived ? 

C^' riff ^0Dn.9 "tmimmti m*^'^ i4T 

ir ac 

After die Bc: iubiiwsx tie versnamkiiL nf iL 
The p q jiJM gL of 131^ us: j» erfiifr 

1. <£ prsvtCA: msu. Ij!^^ . 3=:. ^>. iar t siex. ^ jroicancse 

1 Kixte^ rr. Ij!. 

r -' «;. 

And tlie lafS pctd of slD » uo de&nd it. 

To dekmd iLe ezl mikeih it a erring sm. Gen. xriii, ^1 : 
the Sodcnniu:^. Gen. t:t. 9. cn&d cnzt upon Loa vb« he 
repn/r«jd tLem- "^ Av*t hence," s»t ther, - ihoQ art but a 
strui^^er, and tLaxt iboQ ;ud^ and mie ^" and Piot. xul. :^\ 
''the adalxeTcnu vciznan saixlu I hare not CGvmmiltied iniqiiitT:^* 
of these the apostie nith. PfaiL iiL 19. thcx '* g 

Thus mnch of the aerenth cDmmandmeiit. 




Place of iki* commamimeni. 

In the former oommaDdment the lusts of the flesh are for* 
bidden ; in this the lust of the eve^, 1 John ii. 16. 

It dependeth well upon the other two commandments. 
For in the two former commandments order hath been taken, 
for preservation of life, and generation of children. Xow be- 
cause for the preserving of life we need food and raiment, 
1 Tim. vi. 8, and when we have children we must also provide 
for them, 1 Tim. t. 8, and so by consequent every man is to 
labour and care in this world, and that either. Keel. vi. 7, 
propter os, 'for his mouth,' or 2 Cor. xii. 11, to lay up for 
his children ; from hence cometh that worldly concupiscence. 

2-18 Of the eighth cimmandmeut, 

' which is the object of this commBudment. Aud the end of 
- the commandment is to moderate that concupiacencc ; wLichi 
of itself is no sin, aa we shewed before in the former 
mandmcnt ; but first to desire that which is sufficient, and 
then to double that, and to desire matter of superftuity, yea 
of vanity and pleasure, and from thence to double again, and 
to have unlawful desires of that which is another man's, this 
is that that maketh it sinful. 

Now it is not the hand only or civil theft, and atei 
another man's goods, which God forbiddeth, but also dealeth 
with the heart ; aa the heart may be adulterous though the 
body be not, so there is not only manus Juris, ' a theft of the 
hand,' but Kap&ta Kke-m-ri^, ' a thievish heart,' as tlie heathea 
said ; to this thievery also this commaudment reacheth. 


Of right and propriety. 

Before we come to the things commanded and forbidden, 
we must first deal 

1. with right and propriety, and 
3, with alienation ; 
because res aliena el nostra, the distinction of what 
another man's and what is ours, the unjust taking and de- 
taining, is the matter of this commandment, comprehended 
in the word steal ; and the object of the concupiscence liere 
moderated is, meum et fuum, ' mine and thine.' 

The civil lawyers define furtum, ' theft,' or furari, ' to steal/ 

to be rem alienam conlrectare, 'to lay hands on that:! 

which is another man's;' 
our divines, comentire contrectationi ret aliena, ' to conseat:| 

to the laying hands on that which is another man's j 
bat even concupiscere rem alienam is furari, to ' covet 1 

another man's goods' is 'to steal.' 

Quesl. 1. But how cometh it to pass that there is res mea , 
et aliena, ' mine and thine,' ' his, and his ?' 

Answ. Surely, Ps. xxiv. 1, "the earth is the Lord's;" and 
Ps. cxv. 16, He "hath given it to the sons of men," and 
not only to fill it and make use of it, but to subdue it and 


Of the eighth commandment. 249 

rule over it, and over the creatures that are therein : as God PART 

. IV 
gave power to Adam^ Gen. i. 28. \ — 

Quest. 2. But how came the division and appropriating to 
particular men? for without that there is not meum et iuum. 

Answ. Cain first built a city^ and called it by the name of 
his son Enoch, Gen. iv. \7, and so appropriated that to him 
and his ; and that made Seth and his family gather to them- 
selves also private possessions. 

After the floods whether by allotment of Noah^ or by their 
own choice^ his three sons had the chief parts of the earth ; 
Ham had Africa, Shem had Asia^ and Japhcth had Europe. 
Also afterward, by consent and agreement, things bcframe 
proper to certain particular persons, as Gen. xiii. 5 — 12, 
Abraham and Lot agreed to part the country betwefm them. 

Again, we come to have things proper to onrs^Jvfrs jurf. 
primm occupatioms, ' by the right of first seizing np^/n \hfm/ 
as Dent. xi. 24, '' all the places wherer/n th« ^lAfM iA ytntt U',H 
shall tread, shall be yours -/' no when wf. mnz4', n\^m h c^ff tufty 
never inhabited; or if it be terra fUrretirtn, •* Ur«/I fof^Vi m 
of her inhabitants,' jnimuM ftccuptd'/r, * t|*e fir •! S^V^f */f |^^ 
session in it,' hath^icf, 'right' %%%A tnie title m \i. 

There is liso ju$ prK^jnium jur^ IMH, ' fc \tV9\i^'f ftyrUi Uy iUa 
law of war/ becaoie the ff^^nUkU: K*».h jy////AW/» /^y7/7 ////////; 
'the outward sword/ *r*d a-*/ f/'io«h Mty fr/;< jj(« ^ttii$4)/, 
even by casting hire* o'*^, ;f te i$4*A )^;« %4:§ftUn'^A t4^$u**A 
otherwise be in uJetr frju* hiu* ntu^ k>« |^//)/k- 

Now this right <A pr/pr**^,y 'h i^^wf^ k- iiitiji U*»^ int*\f^t: 
to a man's self, ii*e}-^'i«:^.L Ivy/ rhiu^t ; 

1, he hath l,^A v:-v 4//»umMm; * ii>: \fHA^\u\i hmA ;*j1a.' iA 

it, but tEtw*; *ti^ UM:/ ** Lt; iiiJH> uAt (ji* Un^ ti/ 
ride *>a,- *x*cl bv,i. J-it.<: ; 

2, he LarrL fr^^mn*, '\U: •A-u*rt*/ wUi^^^av*.* A^^^wjxih o*" 

'XLer/ li^ aj*v m^Ij '^ givc it. 
'the prgjfe^ »ia<1 prj**i€ ri^jU.' 

Of the eiffhffi i 

Of alienaiian. 

Now for alienation, it is either 

liberal and free, or 

illiberal, as to Lire, sell, or let it go for debt. 
And this alienation is 

either a translatiou of the whole, both the thing, ' 
property, use and all ; or of the use only ; 

and either for a time, or for ever. 

To alienate the property, use, and all, 

for ever, is donatio, a ' giving' it to auother ; 
if but for a time, it is 

miituum, ' a borrowing and lending,' when it is of f 

the whole property ; 
when but of the use, commodatum, ' a permission to J 
nse the thing lent.' 

Illiberal alienation is that that is done upon some coniul 
deration ; and it is of three sorts usual with us now a days, 
do ttt des, as letting a farm at a rent ; 
do ut facias, as giving for homage or service ; 
facia ut des, I do a thing for my pay and hire ; as a 
civil contracts. 

At first, when men grow weary of liberahty, the first brt 
v/as permtttatio, 'changing;' which 

a. if it be money for money, is called cambium, 'exchange^ 
j9. if any other thing one for another, and not money, 

is ' bartering ;' 
7. if it be peatnite pro re, ' of money for any tiling,' it u 

emptio, 'buying;' 
&. ifrei pro ^etMmii, 'athingfor money,' uenrfirto, 'selUngn 
and that is either 

neyotiatio, ' merchandising,' whole sale, or 
by parcels, caUed ' retailing.' 

Beside this alienation of the thing itself, there is also 
^ienation of the use only, and not of the proprrty ; and that. 

Of Uie eighth commandment, 25 1 

if it be usus ret pro pecunid, ' the use of a thing for money/ it PART 

is ' letting ;' if it be pecunuB pro usu ret, ' money for the use of '- — 

a thing/ it is * hiring/ 

And out of this^ by reason of our distrust^ because some- 
times we will let one have the use when we dare not trust 
him with the property, there ariseth therefore from hence, the 
contracts of words, writings, pawns, pledges and suretiship. 

If he have but his bare word, it is 

in him that requireth it, stipulatio, 'a requiring of a 

promise and assurance/ 
in the giver of his word, sponsio, ' engagement by word,' 
a promise. 

If it be by writing, which nre proles humancB perfidies, 'the 

children of human perfidiousness,' 
if his own alone, chirographum, ' an hand writing / 
if with others, syngrapha, ' a joint evidence of men together/ 

Pawns, if they be ret, ' real,' they are either 
in regard of some oath, cautio, ' cautionary / or 
for the recovery of some thing received ; 
and then it is either 
moveable, pignus, ^ a pledge / or 
immoveable, as land, vTroOrJKac, ' a mortgage/ 
If the pawn be personal, it is either 
in war, obsides, ' hostages / or 
in peace, in matter of action, called vades, * sureties/ 

Of desire, lawful. 

Now that we see what the right and property of things is, 
and how it groweth, let us now consider how far our desire of 
this property, to make things ours that are not, may extend ; 
and we may take the measure of it after this order ; 

1. Remember that which is 1 Tim. vi. 8, " having food and 
raiment, be contented /' if God bestow no more upon us, let 
us be content with that ; because God, as he had plenty of 
spirit, so He had plenty of wealth, and could have made all 
rich if He would ; and it was in His wisdom that He made 
some poor, that as the rich might have pnemium benignitatis, 

252 0/ the eighth commandment. 

r ' the reward of his kindness,' so the poor might have rnerce- 
- dem patienlitB, ' the recompence of his patience.' 

2. Though wc must be contented with our estate, yet it is 
lawful to gather in summer, Prov. xxx. 25 ; to provide at one 
time fur the time that U to come, by all honest means, and 
with a sober mind. 

3. As a man secth his household increase, so his provision 
may be the more; for he must travail for his household. 
Gen. XXX. 30, that so he and they may drink out of their own 
cisterns, Prov, v. 15, and not be chargeable to others, 2 Cor. 
xii. 13. 

4. A man may travail for himself and his. Gen. xxx. 30, 
but his desire must always be limited according to the con- 
ditions above. Every man may labour that his cisterns be 
full, Prov. v. Id, that is, as the apostle saith, and as Solomon 
addeth, that he may not be chargeable to others, and yet he 
have suiBcient for himself; therefore he may desire to have, 
not only for him and his, but Esod, xxx. 12, some offering to 
the Lord, to help the church; and Matt. ssii. 21, to pay 
tribute to the king, to help the commonwealth ; and 2 Cor, 
viii, 12, to have to give the poor saints; and Eph, iv. 28, 
that he may give to him that needeth, whosoever he be. J 

and unlawful. i 

Thus far our desire may go, and yet still within compass ; 
but if we go beyond these four, we offend in our desire, and 
our desire is out of measure, and will come in the end 

a. to a murmuring and envying of others in better estate 
than ourselves ; 

0. secondly, to an unquiet overcare and taking thought J 
what we shall eat and what we shall do. Matt. vi. 31^ 
Luke xii. 17; •\ 

•y. and thirdly, to breed a nest of horse leeches, which are 
worms, that have linguam bian/cam, ' a cloven' or ' a 
forked tongue,' and cry, ' bring, bring ;' unde habeas 
nihil refert, sed oporlel habere,' ' no matter whenoa , 
you get it, have it you must;' 

and this is that which wc may call mippurationetn concupi 
ceniitE, ' an inward rankling of coucupisccnce.' 

Now for the mftking of subactum solum, ' the soil fit,' the 
way is, to bear a bigger sail than we are able to carry, and so _ 
come to have need, and so to unlawful practice; and then he 
is a fit soil fur the devil to cast in his seed ; and the devil 
perceiving man to be thus fitted, moveth him to stealth. 

Of what is forbidden in this commandment. 

^ I. In outward act. 
For the act itself forbidden iu this commandment by the 
name of stealth, it is, 

in the attaining and getting of a thing ; 
in the use of that we have gotten. 
In the getting there mnst be a respect of justice; 
in the use a respect both of justice and charity. 

Of getting ; first, of wrong getting. 
We must get our estates justly, 

a. that there be no oppression, exaction, fraud, robbery 

or s[)oil of our neighbour, or 
jS. that we consent not thereunto ; for it is all one to 
bold the sack, and to fill it; to do it himself, or to 
consent unto it. 

Of idleness. 

a. The apostle, Eph, iv. 28, setting down the affirmative 
part of this commandment, saith, " let even,- man laboiir with 
his hands the thing that is good;" so that if he have no 
calling, or any unlawful calling, and so do not labour the 
tiling that is good, he oft'endeth against this commandment. 

ff. These idle people, they are against the state of mankind, 
in paradise, and out of paradise. In paradise, God placed 
them in the garden, that they might dress it, Gen. ii. 15, and 
when they were driven out, Gen. iii. 19, in the sweat of their 
brows they were to eat their bread. 

y. There is no member of the body idle, but each bone and 
sinew doth his ofiicc and service, no one is idle and useless. 

8. And as the Lord at first iippointed that man should labour, 
BO when He giveth His reward, Matt. x\. 8, He will say to 


Of the ^Ujhlh i 


' His steward, "call the labourers, and give them tlieir hire 
- but Matt. XXV. 30, when He comcth to puiiiah. He will not 
only punish aervum ftuyiliosum, ' the wicked servaat,' but 
tervum imililem, 'the idle and unprofitable servant,' east hint, 
into utter darkness, aa a creature superfluous ; for God pi 
teth no difference between iiequam et nequaquam, ' that whi 
is wicked and that which is not at all ;' so au idle servant 
no servant, an eril calling aud no calling, is all one before God<: 

Of dealings, I. unlawful; 

And as we must not be idle, so wc must not be evil occu- 
pied to get wealth ; for to get wealth by evil means is no 
better than stealth, 

I. Whether it be in unlawful or unjust buying and Hellin|f, ■ 
as namely, when that is sold that eanuot be sold ; of which ' 
nature are, 

1, the grace of God: Simon Magus's fault; he would 
have bought the grace of God for money, Acta viii. 20 ; called 
ever since, ' simony ;' 

2, justice and judgment : quid dabia mild ut faciam Justitiami 
'what will you give me to do you justice?' is all one witli, 
gtiid dahis miki tit vendam tihi Deunt, ' what will you give 
to sell God unto you?' Ambrose and Augiisline. 

3, benefits and good turns : which should be done freel; 
and not looking for reward again, as the usurers sell thi 
money; for as donatio 'giving,' is liberalis alienatio sine 
mercede in aternum, ' a free alienation of our right to a thing 
for ever without any recompence ;' so mutuatio, ' lending,' is 
liberalis alienatio sine omni mercede ad tempus, ' a free aliena- 
tion of a thing for ever without any recompence ;' both lend'^ 
ing and giving must be free; for he who doth inacnbert pi 
tium liberalitati, 'set a price of his liberality,' eorrupteth tl 

2, Unjust ; whether- with cortlract ; 

II. Or again, in things that may be sold or contracted f 
there may be a fault in the evil manner of coutractiug, aoj 
so a theft. 

1 . For contracts therefore; — two things are required in evei 



Of the eighth commandtnenU 255 

contract, labor et merces, 'the labour and the hire ;' res appre- PART 

tiatCLy et pretium, ' the thing Talned, and the price ;' cura et : — 

stipendium, * the charge undertaken, and the wages for it ;' quid 
pro quo, ' one thing for another.' If either of these be want- 
ing, it is no better than theft : EzeL. xxxir. 3, if they " eat 
the fat, and clothe them with the wool, and kill them that 
are fed, and feed not the sheep,'' ther are no better tlian 
thieves and robbers; and so on the other side, if he do 
labour, give him his hire. Dent. xxiv. 15; neither defraud 
him whoUy, nor pinch him in it. 

2. And now for the substance of contracts, 

there must be no corrupt measure ; 

there must be no false weights ; 

the matter sold or contracted for must be good ; not 
the refuse of the wheat, Amos viii. 6; nor wine 
mixed with water, Isa. i. 22 ; but the ware must be 
sound and good. 

3. For the manner of uttering our wares, we must beware 
we do not over-reach our neighbour, nor take any advantage 
of his ignorance or oversight ; this is stellionatus, ' cozening.' 

4. For the price, we must not think when we come to buying 
and selling that we come to a spoil ; and therefore we must 
avoid that fault which is set down, Prov. xx. 14, ' it is naught, 
it is naught, saith the buyer,' and when we are gone, boast 
of our pennyworths. 

or without contract. 

III. Now of thefts that are without contract, 

1. In the family, isfurtum domesticum, ' thievery in a man's 
own house;' Tit. ii. 10, pickery in servants, beguiling their 
masters ; to this we may add servum fugitivum, ' a fugitive or 
runagate ser\'ant,' because he detracteth himself out of his 
master's possession, and defraudeth his master of his ser\ice ; 
so also the wasters of their master's goods are herein com- 
prehended, Luke xii. 45. 

2. Without the family there is a double theft, 

a. of things consecrated, and that is ' sacrilege ;' Lev. v. 15, 

Of the eiyhlh commaniimenl. 

there is a law for it ; Rom. ii, 22, he matcheth it with 
idolatry, where he saith, " tliou that ahhorrcst idola, 
committest tliou sacrilege?" which Is, to convert to his 
owD uae, or to divert a tiling from the sacred use to a 
profane ; 
j8. of things profane, and they are public or private. 

1) Public, when a thing is stolen that is the king's, being 
n public person ; or the common -wealth's, called peculalus, 
thievery to the state : and the thieves are called balnearii 
fitres, 'thieves at the halhs,' because they were about baths 

and such cominon places : such are they also that receive 
common wages and convert it to their own use. 

2) Private things are of two sorts, 

1 . Personal, having life ; personal theft is 

a, of men, called plagium, ' men-stealing ;' and tlie thieves, 
plagiarii, ' men-stealers ;' Exod. xxi. 16, punished with death 
if be steal him and sell him ; 1 Tim. i. 10: to this may be 
added Judas's sin, the betraying for money. Matt. xxvi. 15, 
though it be not an outright selling of him : and it is also 

^. of beasts, and then they are called abgregarii, ' stealers 
of flocks or herds/ as the Sabeans and Chaldeans, Job i. 

2. Heal theft is of things not having life, as of money, 
raiment, or other goods; Esod. xxii., order is taken for these 
thefts particularly. 

Aggravation of the guiU. 

Now all thefts are aggravated and made more grievous by 
circumstances of the persons against whom they are com- 
mitted; as if they be done against the widow, fatherless, 
strangers, or poor, Exod. xsii. 21—25; and Prov. xxiii. 10, 
" enter not into the fields of the fatherless, for He that re- 
deemeth them is mighty, and will defend their cause against 

And here is condemned the incloaure of commons, for cbm 
primiim occuparentur religivne, 'when religion took place at 
first,' there was always a consideration had that there should 
always be poor people, and therefore to them was left a diW- 
sion of lands in common to live upon, set out by marks; 
Dent. xix. 14, these marks must not be removed ; and Deut. 

Of the eighth commandment, 267 

xxvii. 17, the whole congregation curseth them that do it, PART 
and Hos. v. 10, see the detestation of it, Job xxiv. 2. — ^ — 

Thus much of the unjust getting of a thing, and of the 
theft therein committed ; which may be drawn to these two^ 
which Nazianzen calleth 

i7rc/3oXrf, or manus injecta, ' rapine,^ or ^ violence / and 

iircfiovX'^f ' a crafty way of compassing/ 

Secondly, of right getting ; 

Now the virtue opposite to this is, just getting; Prov. 
xvi. 8, ''a little with righteousness is better than great 
possessions without equity /^ and 1 Tim. vi. 5, not to " think 
that gain is godliness,^^ but that '^ godliness is great gain /^ 
and to be able to say with Jacob in every thing they get, 
when they are asked how they came by it. Gen. xxx. 33, 
*' my righteousness shall answer for me.^' 

and of restitution. 

But because the world is full of evil, and men have also 
mentem malam, ' an evil mind -/ therefore if a man have over- 
shot himself, there is a restitution appointed for the personal 
thefts before spoken of, save only for men-stealing; and so 
also for all real thefts restitution is allowed, unless the 
manner of the theft, as breaking a house in the night time 
or such like, alter the case ; Num. v. 7 ; Job xx. 18 ; Neh. 
V. 11; Luke xix. 8. 

Yea, and not only in things gotten by stealth, but in 
things gotten by lawful contract, there may be restitution 
required ; 

1, that which we call depositum, 'a thing committed to 
one's trust,' Exod. xxii. 7, 10. 

2, those things that come mb rations inventif ' under the 
nature of things found;' strays, or things lost, Exod. 
xxiii. 4, Deut. xxii. 2 ; and so also. Lev. vi. 4. 

3, things lent us for a time must be restored; for as 
Augustine saith, tametsi benigm dimittitur, tamen non 
injusti repeiitur, ' though it be parted with in courtesy, 
yet it is not unjustly called for again,' Exod. xxii. 14. 


258 0/ the eighth commandment. 

4, tilings hired must also be restored, Esod. xxii. 15. 

5, things taken in pledge must be restored again to the 
debtor, Ezek. xviii, 7; and if it be raiment, which 
they cannot want, it must be restored before the ! 
go down, Exod. ssii. 26, 

Thus much of atcalth in getting. 

Of using ; 

Now for the use of that we have gotten, 

1 , upon ourselves ; sufficiency for our own need ; 

2, upon others ; liberality to thera that want. 
These arc the two uses of riches ; both set down, Prov. v. 

16, 16, " drink the water of thine own cistern, and let thy 
fountains flow forth ;" so first for our own use, and then for 
the use of others. 

first, upon ourselves. 

First, for sufficiency for our own need ; which is the first 

It hath two extremes ; 

1. Niggardliness, or too much sparing. For as a man 
may inferre cmdem sibi, or be unclean in himself, as we shewed 
in the former commandment ; so by too much sparing or 
niggardliness, a man may commit fitrtum in se, 'theft to- 
wards himself.' And so Eccl. iv. 8, there is a covetous man 
alone by himself, that gatliereth riches, and never aaith, 
juare defraudo animam meam, ' why do I defraud my owa 
self?' so too much niggardhness is a defrauding or theft 
against a man's self; and not only against himself, but 
against others also, as Ambrose upon James v. 3, saith, 
esurientium est cibus qui apud te mucescU, et sUientium est 
potus qui apud te acescit, ' it is the bread of the hungry which 
mouldeth in thy cupboard, and the drink of the thirsty which 
soureth in thy barrel.' 

And if their sparing be that they may say, as Luke xii. 19, 
"eat, drink, take thy pastime," God will disappoint them, 
ver. 20, and suddenly take away their soul ; if they spare 
that they may be kept when they are sick, they shall 
spend their money upon pliysicians, as the woman with the 

Of the eighth commandment, 259 

bloody issue did, and be never the better; if it be to leave PART 

enough to their children. Job xx. 10, their children shall be '■ — 

beggars, and for the most part a prodigal son is the heir of 
a niggardly father. 

2. Prodigality, or too much wasting, is the second extreme 
in the first use of those things we have gotten ; it was the 
fault of the prodigal son, Luke xv. 13, he ^' wasted his goods 
with riotous living/^ And this riotous waster also is a thief 
to himself, for with being profuse and lavish, i<f> h firj Set, 
' when he needeth not so to do,' he stealeth from himself & 
&t, ' the [things which he may need / because he wasteth 
superfluously, he wanteth things necessary. 

Object. And howbeit it be true, that they say, that what- 
soever they spend, 

1, they do it of their own, and 

2, they have enough, and are able to maintain it ; 
Answ, Yet for all that, it ought not so to be ; 

1, though they be rich, they must not fare delicately every 
day, Luke xvi. 19; and 

2, for having enough, the heathen man could say. If you 
should allow your cook store of salt, and he should put too 
much in the pot, and when you found fault with him should 
answer you, he had enough, it were a foolish answer, and 
you would not like it at his hands ; no more will God like 
this action, or think well of this answer at your hands. 

This prodigal or wasteful spending is, 

1. when they do it irapa Kcupov, ^unseasonably,' daily, 

oftener than needeth ; or else, 

2. when they do it in too great a measure, and that is, 

a. either above their ability, more than they can. maintain, 
fi, or above their estate and calling. 

1) For keeping within compass of their ability, Luke xiv. 
29, he that layeth a foundation and is not able to perform it, 
they that behold it will mock him. 

2) For their calling, 1 Sam. xxv. 36, though Nabal be 
rich, yet he must not make a feast like a king ; and much 
less may mean men exceed. 



OJ Ihc eighth commandment. 

Aud he that offendeth herein, his table will be a snare J 
- unto him ; 

to his sou], by ofTending God in misspending bis creatures ;9 

to his body, by breeding diseases ; and 

to his goods, by wasting and consuming bis estate ; 

and so every way a snare to catch him, Ps. Ixix. 22. 

secoTidly, upon others. 
To come to the second use, liberality to them that want.^ 
We must let our fountains run abroad, something must be 
given to the poor; Acts ix. 35, "it is a more blessed thing 
to give than to receive;" those that are rich themselves 
must be also rich in liberality, 2 Cor. ix. 11; " rich in good 
works," I Tim. vi. 18. 

For this matter therefore we must enquire, 
how we have our riches given us ; 
what we are to think of the poor. 

How we have our riches given vs. 
I. How God committetb riches to men we shall see, Deati 
xxvi. 5 ; every man must do God homage for the riches t 
He htith given hira. We see there every man cometh with b 
basket, and bringeth his rent or offering, and the priest ai 
teth down his basket before the Lord ; and tlieu the party, 

a. first, acknowledgeth that there is nothing in him or his 
progenitors, that God should deal so liberally with him or with 
them, and therefore he is come to do Him homage ; 

^. secondly, I have brought this out of my substance, and 
have given it 

ad usus ecclesiasiicos, ' to ecclesiastical uses,' the use of 

God's priests, to the levite ; and 
ad ueus civiles, 'for a civil use,' to the strangers, father- 
less, and widow ; aud 
■y. thirdly, I have not done this of mine own accord, but 
by necessity of duty; I have done it 'according to thy eom- 

So all rich men must confess, 

a. That which I have, I have it of the free gift and men^ 

Of the eighth commandmeni . 261 

^. I have it not for myself only, hut there is a rent to be PART 
paid, both to the church, and to the poor brethren ; ' 

y. I may uot detain this rent, but I am tied unto it of duty 
by God's command, 

What we are to think of the poor. 

II. What we are to think of the poor, we shall see, Pa. 
rii. 1 ; we must judge wisely of the poor, and not, as our 
common fancy is, that they concern ub not. 

Deut. sv. 11, God hath said, "there shall be ever some poor 
in the laud," and therefore hath given commandment that 
we open our hands to the needy and to the poor. 

And they are called in that place, ' thy ' poor, and ' thy* 
needy ; so there are some poor that are made nostri, ' our 
own;' we may not shake them off, but are bound unto them; 
and therefore ver. 7, " thou shalt not have a hard heart, uor 
a close hand to them," nor ver. 9, " it shall not grieve thee 
to look upon them." 

And thus we see what we ought not do to the poor; and if 
we do thus, and the poor cry unto the Lord against us, it will 
be sin unto us, and the reward of sin we know is death. 

Now what must we do to the poor? sm^Iy, ver. 8, "lend 
him sufficient for his need j" and if lending will do him no 
good, "thou shalt give him," ver. 10. Our Saviour Christ 
hath joined them both together. Matt. v. 42, " give to him 
that asketh, and from him that would borrow of thee turn 
not away." 

There is in divinity a threefold necessity that we must 
have a care to relieve, 

1, necesaitas naturts, 'necessity of nature;' every man is 
bound to provide for himself, for the Bustcntation of nature, 
both inwardly, meat and drink convenient ; and outwardly, 
apparel and house-room ; 

2, necessitas pergoiue, 1 Tim, v. 8, ' necessity of a person' in 
want ; those that are ours, we must provide for them, aud 
namely for them of our household, or else we ai'e worse than 

3, necessiias statih, or condilionis, ' necessity of a man's 

Of llie eighth commandment. 

' state or condition/ that every man may have to live according ' 
_ to his estate and coudition. We must not say, as Augustine 
sbeweth it to be the common manner of men to say. If a. man 
have three hnudred pounds, he bath no more than will serve 
him ; and if he have three thousand pounds, he hath no more 
than will serve him. But our Saviour teacheth us, Luke xi. 
41, irXfiv ra ivovra Sore ikerifioiTuinjp, 'to give alms of such j^ 
things as we have,' and to purge our hearts inwardly, and t3i} 
things shall be clean unto us. 

After the two first necessities are served, then givB' 
alma of those things that are within ; for during those two 
particular necessities, we are not hound to give ; except it h6 
for the common good of the church, 2 Cor. viii. 3, and in that 
case even those that were in extreme poverty, yet to their 
power, yea and beyond their power, tliey were liberal. 

So that to conclude this point ; we must think of the poor; 
and thus know, that poor we must always have, and those 
poor we must relieve, according to their necessities and our 

Giving to tfte poor is as the sowing of seed. 
And the rather to move us, let us know that our liberal!^ 
to the poor is as the sowing of seed, and our benevolence 
that we give to the poor, it is indeed seed ; now 
Gal. vi. 7, "that we sow, we shall reap ;" and 
Hos. X. 12, " sow righteousness, and reap mercy ■" and 
2 Cor. ix. G, " sow sparingly, and reap sparingly ; sow 

Uberally, and reap liberally." 
Seed we know, if a man love it so well that he keep it still 
in his barn, worms will breed iu it and consume it, and so he 
ahall aniando perdere, ' lose it by loving it ;' and therefore a 
man must so love his seed that he do projicere aetnen, ' cast 
his seed,' and that is indeed amare semen, the true 'loving ati 
his seed.' 

And 80 the temporal blessings of God being seed, therA 
mustbea casting and a scattering of them; and this scatter, 
ing is not a casting away of the seed, but as when a man. 
hath sown an acre of ground, and one ask whose this seed ia, 
we do not say it is the gi'onnd's, but his that sowed it; so 

Of the eighth commandment. 263 

riches^ wheresoever thejr are bestowed, being seed, they are PART 
serentis non recipients, * the sower's, and not the receiver's/ • — 

And therefore as the husbandman doth credere iliud quod 
turn videty * believe that which he seeth not,' and so casteth in 
his com, and believeth that albeit it rot, and showers and snow 
fidl upon it, vet at last an autumn and harvest will come, and 
he shall reap an ear (or a com ; so if God enlighten our hearts, 
and give us fSedth credendi id quod nan videmus, 'to believe 
that we see not,' the firuit of our faith in the end will be videre 
quod credimuM, ' to see that which we now believe ;' and we 
shall see and feel, that the seed we sow is still serentis, it is 
still our own, and wiU bring us a hundred fold increase in 
the end. 

Thus much of the things commanded and forbidden in this 

§. 2. In the heart. 

Now this commandment, as the other, is also spiritual, and 
therefore striketh not only at the outward actions, but at the 
heart also ; for our Saviour telleth us. Matt. xv. 19, that out 
of the heart come thefts, and therefore the fountain of them 
must be dammed up. 

For if a man come once to that, 1 Tim. vi. 9, that he " will 
be rich ;" why then, quod rolumus valde volumus, ' what we 
will, we eagerly will and desire,' insomuch as Prov. xxi. 26, 
even the man that is " slothful," yet he " coveteth greedily ;" 
if he have a desire to be rich, he will needs be rich quickly ; 
and then Prov. xxviii. 20, ^' he that maketh haste to be rich 
shall not be innocent," but 1 Tim. vi. 9, " come to be drowned 
in perdition and destruction ;" and Prov. xx. 21, an heritage 
hastily gotten cannot be blessed in the end, because this ex- 
cessive desire of riches is no better than theft in the heart of 
him that is infected with it. 

How to avoid theft in the heart. 

And therefore to avoid this theft of the heart, 

1. We must place instead thereof a contented mind ; Hcb. 

xiii. 5, '* content yourselves with that you have /' and "be not 

careful what to eat, or what to drink, or what to put upon 

you," Matt. vi. 25 ; that is to say, be not so careful as to dis- 

Of the eighth commandment. 

trust Gijd'a providence, but 1 Pet, v. 7, "cast all your care 
upon the Lord, and He will care for you :" and if tlioii 
want, " cast thy burden upon tbe Lord, and He will nourish 
thee," Ps. Iv. 22 ; yea, " the lions shall lack and suifcr hun- 
ger, but they that seek the Lord shall want nothing that is 
good," Pa. ssxiv. 10. And let this be thy resolution ; if 
God will have me to be rich, He will so bless rae in ray law- 
ful endeavours that I shall be enriched thereby ; if not, aay 
as David said in the case of a kingdom, 2 Sam. xv. 26, " here 
I am, let Him do with me as it pleaaeth Him ;" and with 
St. Paul, Phil, iv. 11, 12, learn to abound aud to want, and in 
all things to be contented in what estate soever thou art. 

2. Another thing is, that as we must be content with our 
estate, ao we must have a care to set down aud reckon what 
we are able to reach unto with that estate wc have j and to 
look that condus he forlior promo, nndpromus debilior condo, 
' our receiver and bursar be above our market man,' and 'the 
market man beneath our cash-keeper ;' our comings in must 
be more than our layings out : or else if condus, ' our receiver 
and cash-keeper,' be the weaker, it will go out the faster, and 
so a man shall not sufficere rebus suis, ' have sufhcient for his 
occasion,' nor res ejus sufficere ei, ' his wealth be sufficient for 
himself;' and then his heart will be set on work to make 
justice pay for it ; rather to use unlawful and unjust means, 
than not continue as he hath begun. 

So these are the two means to avoid the theft of the heart : 
to be contented with that we have ; and 
not tospend above our measure ; 
and the heart being thus rectified, it is to be hoped that wa 
shall avoid the outward thefts before mentioned, which pro- 
ceed from the heart, as from the root. 
Thus much of the eighth commandment. 


The exposition of this commandment is. 
Lev. xix. 11, "thou shall not lie to thy brother;* 
ver. 1 6, " thou shall carry no tales ;" and 

Of the ninth commandment. 


Zech. viii. 16, \7, " speak every man the truth to Lis Deigh- part 
hour, and love no false oath ;" and '- — 

Eph. iv. 25, " CftHt off lying, and apeak every man truth to his 
neighboor," and 
ver. 15, " let us follow the truth iu love." 

fVordi of this commandment. 

The words of the commandment in hebrew are thus, won 
respondebia testimonium fatsum super vicinum tuutn, 'thou 
shalt not answer a false witness upon thy neighbour,' or 
' touching thy neighbour,' 

1, The word 'answering* there used must be understood 
according to the hebrew phrase; as the evangelists often 
use to begin thus, " and He answered and said," where no 
man speaketh to Ilim or demandeth any thing of Him : so 
that by the word of 'answering,' being so understood, it is 
meant that we should not only speak the truth when we are 
demanded, but even when we speak of ourselves without any 
demand of any other, we should speak truly. 

2. For the next word, ' witness ;' it is of four aorta, 

a. The great and chief Witness, even God himself; Job 
xvi. 19, " behold, my witness is io heaven ;" and 1 John T. 7, 
" there are Three which bear record in heaven, the Father, 
the Word, and the Holy Ghost:" these are they that bear 
witness unto all truth. And therefore howsoever wicked men 
may have the applause and commendation of other men, yet 
that indeed is the true praise which is not of men but of God) 
Rom. ii. 29; and therefore wc must not stand so much upon 
the opinion that men have of us, but we must say every one 
of us, as Paul doth, 1 Cor, iv. 4, " He that judgeth me is the 

ff. After this great witness, in the second place is the wit- 
ness that St. Paul speaketh of, Rom. ii. 15, " their conscience 
bearing witness :" which though it be a thousand witnesses, 
yet God is greater than our consciences, 1 John iii. 20; and 
though we know nothing by ourselves, yet are we not thereby 
justified, 1 Cor, iv. 4, for when we come to have the matter 

Of the ninth commandment. 

ht up coram magna teste, ' before the great "Witness,' we , 
may be found to be wrong. I 

7. Because God will not speak from heaven, and men's , 
consciences may be seared so as they will deny the truth, 
therefore the third witness ia that of one man to another ; 
Josh, xxiv, 22, " ye are witnesses that yon have chosen the 
Lord to serve Him, and they said. We are vrituesses :" and of | 
this kind of witness is this commandment, and the end of it 
is to establish the truth by witnesses, " by the mouth of two 
or three witnesses every matter must be confirmed," Matt, 
xviii. 16. 

8. There is also a witness of dumb creatures, as of a stone. 
Josh. xxiv. 27 ; and Abac. ii. 1 1, " the stone of the wall shall 
cry out, and the beam out of the timber shall make answer, . 
and testify against them ;" and James v. 3, " the rust of your 
gold and silver shall be a witness against you :" and this to 
shew that mnu is unfaithful in his testimonies, in that there 
must be a refuge to other creatures to witness against him. 

3. Now for the third word, 'false ;' it signifieth in the origi- 
nal three things : 

falsum, to speak ' that which is not so ;' alUer guam res te 
habet ; sermo non adaquatus rebus ; when our words and 
the matter do not agree ; 

tnendacium, ' a lie;' whereof the common derivation is that 
mertiiri is contra mentem ire, 'to speak one thing and 
think another;' 

vanitas, 'vanity;' because the speech of man was ordained 
for two necessary uses, namely, the building up of faith 
in respect of God, and charity in respect of our 
brethren, what speech soever hath not one of these 
ends, it is signum mendax, 'a lying sign,' because it 
hath no aignaltim, ' thing indeed signified ;' and there- 
fore all vain and frivolous idle talk is here forbidden. 

4. Quest. But seeing it ia said " thou shalt not bear false 
witness ' against' thy neighbour," what say you to officiosum 
mendacium, when we may by a lie help him, and save either 
hia life or goods? 

Aiisw. It is altogether unlawful ; and indeed the words of 

Of the ninth commandnivnl. 267 

tbc command m cut wiH not bear it ; for the word is im^. bereg- I 
neka, which is best trauslnted, super praximum tuum, which — 
may be either 'for' him, or 'against' him; so the law is, 
that in any matter concerning tliy neighbour thou shalt not 
speak an untruth, whether it be for him, or against him ; the 
word in the text will bear both, and may be rendered either 
'for* or 'against,' and therefore is best interpreted in as 
broad a signification as may be. 

Place and purpose of this commandment. 

For the coherence with the former commandments, it is 
thus : 

When God had established authority in the fifth command- 
ment, He took order for promiscnal duties in the three nest, 
the sixth, seventh, and eighth commandments ; and then if it 
fell out that those three commandments could not keep all 
well, but that there were some breach of them or of some of 
them, then they must come ad judices, 'to the judges,' 
Esod. xxii. 8 ; and before these judges there must be proofs ; 
and those proofs must be by witnesses, which this command- 
ment taketh order for, that they may witness truly. And bo 
for the rectifying of whatsoever is done amiss against the 
other three, this commandment was instituted and ordained. 

Tiie scope and purpose of God the law-giver in this com- 
mandment is, that God, as He is truth itself, so He would 
have the truth preferred among men; which truth, oa 
John xriii. 37, Christ saith of Himself, so we may all say, 
we are born and came into the world to this purpose, to 
bear witness to the truth. 

First, of what leads to the offence. 
1) The evil inclination ; 

For the offence itself, it cometh from the heart. Matt. xv. 19: 
false testimonies and slanders proceed from the heart, and 
from an inclination of nature that we all have, p-asaari ad 
famam, ' violently to surprise another man's good name j' and 
therefore we think if we can keep down the credit and 

268 Of the ninth commaniimeiil. 

ART estimation of another, we ourselves sliall be tlie better 
— : — thought of; and so, citber from an aspiring desire of our 
own good, or an envious and malicious mind to our neigh- 
bour's hurt, or from some sucli like corrupt inclination, we 
are moved to this sin. 

2) The festering of the same. 

And the suppuratio, the ' festering" or ' rankling' of it is, 

a. When we begin to imagine some device against our 
neighbour, and to say, " come, let us smite fiira with the 
tongue," as they did to Jeremy, Jer. sviii. 18; wheu we 
come to those evil surmises, I Tim. vi, 4; and from surmises 
and suspicions, to judging of our neighbours, Jam. iv. 12 ; 
yea and to condemning, Eom. xiv. 4; (whereas our judg- 
ments and conclusions should not be so hasty, but should be 
made according to signs preecedenlia et conaequentia, 'prece- 
dent and consequent,' and not suddenly, as they dealt with 
Paul, Acts xxviii. 4, no sooner a viper on his hand, but pre- 
sently they said he was a murderer ;) 

^. And not only surmise, and judge, and condemn, but 
(whereas God's will is tliat iibi malum contingit, ibi moriatur, 
'where sin befel, there let it die ;' if it be private, let it have 
private admonition, and there die, and go no further,) Prov. 
xi. 13, "he that is a slanderer discovereth secrets," Joseph 
was of another mind, and was very careful therein. Matt, 
i. 19; because Mary's being witli child was secret, and the 
fact might have been done by one that had a precontract, in 
simplici aclu fornicalionis, 'in the simple act of fornication,' 
he would not make her a public esample. 

y. And if it be a fault to report secret faults, though they 
be true, then much more do they offend against this com- 
mandment, that report more than is true ; as 2 Sam. xiii. 30, 
false tidings were brought to David that Absalom had slain 
all the king's sons. 

8. They also offend who mis-interpret men's actions, &s 
Christ's eating, and John baptist's abstinence. Matt. xi. 18, 

e. So do they also who will not suspend their judgment 
concerning what a man may be hereafter, for a wicked man 
by God's grace may in time see his folly, 2 Tim. ii, 25. 

Of the ninth commandment. 269 

3) The prepared ground. 

Come we now as in the former to subactum solum, ' the fit 
soil/ We arc made a fit mould for this sin by that which 
we call pruritus aurium, ^ itching ears ;' if there were no will- 
ing hearers of lies, there would not be so many tellers, Ps. 
xy. 3 : we must not only not slander our neighbour, but not 
receive an evil and false report against him ; as Augustine 
saith well, dUcet non libenter dicere, cum didicit non libenter 
audire, ^ a man will learn not willingly to speak, when he has 
learned not willingly to hear/ 

4) The watering thereof. 

The next point is irrigatio concupiscentite, 'the watering 
and cherishing of this sin/ This is that which St. Peter calls 
aXKorrpLoeirio'Kom'elv, 1 Pet. iv. 15, 'to take care of another 
man's diocese,' to be a curious searcher of other men's doings ; 
such people go about from house to house, and are prattlers, 
and busy bodies, 1 Tim. v. 13 ; they are of the mind of 
Ahimaaz, 2 Sam. xviii. 19, when Absalom was slain, he sued 
to be the tidings-carrier to the king ; every body is ready to 
be the reporter of an ill matter. It was the fault of the 
Athenians, Acts xvii. 21, they " gave themselves to nothing 
else but either to tell or to hear some news." So now a days, 
we are all of Peter's mind, John xxi. 21, ' what shall John 
do ?' what shall this man do, and what shall that man do ? 
But we must remember Christ's answer, " what is that to 
thee ? follow thou Me :" Peter must not meddle in John's 
diocese, nor one of us in another man's business, but every 
man meddle with his own matters, 1 Thes. iv. 11; and if we 
look well to our own, we shall have no leisure to deal with 
other men's. 

Secondly, of the offence itself 

Now we come to the outward actions. The actual sin 
against this commandment it is in words especially; and 
those cither vain and idle, or principally false and untrue ; 
either disagreeing from the truth and essence of the things 
we speak of, or from our mind and meaning. 



Of Ike ninth commandmenl. 

IT Aud these false Bpeeclies either concern ourselvesj or o 
— brethren ; for if it be hurtful to ourselves or our neighboui 
it is condemned, because it is against chai-ity ; but if it d 
hurt, yet if it be false, it is evil, because it is against the ti 
of God. — And therefore here is condemned falsehood in d« 
trine, though not as in the third commandment, as it toud 
eth God's glory, but in this commandment aa it hui 
our brethren. 

Of lies in general. 

Nov for false speaking between man aud man, and not in 
matter of doctrine ; we may divide it into 

1. Lies in general; and for them, 

seeing, John viii. 44, the devil was a liar from the beginning, 
and is the father of lies, and they that speak lies are his 
children, and seeing it is the property of the wicked to 
speak lies, Pa. Iviii, 3, 

aud not a light matter, but a fault that bringeth destruc- 
tiou. Pa. V. 6, " the Lord will destroy them that speak 
lies;" and Rev. xxii. 15, out of heaven, in the place of 
torments, shall be " those that love and make lies ;" 

therefore whatsoever it be that is false, is condemned, and 
not to be uttered, whether it do concern ourselves or 

Of false witness injudr/ment ; 

II. False witness; aud that is in judgment, or out of 

For false witness in judgment, Solomon hath a good com- 
parison, Prov. xsv. 18, "a man that beareth false witness 
against his neighbour, is like a hammer, and a sword, and a 
sharp arrow ;" and how is this ? Bernard anawereth it, that 
there are three parties smitten with one and the self-same 
tongue ; namely, the judge, the party that hired him, and be 
against whom he cometh ; 
judici est malleus, ' to the judge he is a hammer,' that ia 
to say, lie doth astonish the judge, as if he had a blow 
given on the head, that he knoweth not how to deter- 
mine or judge the matter; 

Of the ninth commandment. 271 

to him that hired him, he is a sword, to fight for him PART 

and his cause; but withal a sword to kill his soul, '■ — 

because he is his instrument against the truth ; 

to him against whom he witnesseth, he is an arrow, and 
the wound that he maketh sticketh in him, either in his 
goods, or life, or good name. 

tvhich may be in six different persons ; 

Neither is this false- witness-bearing to be referred to the 
witness alone, but to all the parties that have to do in 

The accuser may be a false witness by his untrue ac- 
cusation ; 
the defendant, by his untrue defence ; 
the judge, by the wrong determination ; 
the notary or registrar, by entering the sentence amiss ; 
and the advocate by informing amiss ; 
for every one of these is an actor in judgment. 

in the judge ; 

Of every one of these particularly. 
1. The judge: it is most perilous on his side; for Deut. 
i. 17, the judgment is God's; and therefore what judge 
soever giveth a wrong sentence, facit Deum mendacem, he 
^ maketh God to speak a lie,' and doth what he can to change 
God the author of truth into the devil the father of lies. — 
And seeing the apostle hath said it, 1 Cor. vi. 7, that it is a 
fault for one man to go to law with another ; meaning, that 
they are to blame that begin suits and quarrels, because 
both parties cannot be true, being absolute contradictions, 
and so by the means much untruth must needs be uttered in 
the place of judgment, and that is derogatory to God, Josh, 
vii. 19 ; therefore it were good there were a diminishing of 
suits, as much as might be ; and that men might not go to 
law for every trifle, but only hard and difficult matters might 
be brought in to judgment, Exod. xviii. ; and that for dispatch 
of matters there be more seats of judgment than one, as 
helpers to the higher places, Exod. xviii. 22, to judge the 
smaller causes. 




Of the iiiiitli commaiidmenl, 

in the notary 

2. The notary or registrar : lie may also be a false wit- 
nesa, if he enter nmiss, and so make false records. There 
is a memory of such registrars, Ezra iv. 19; Artaserses' 
notaries could find records that the Jews had been a rebellious 
people, and went about the building of the temple without 
Cyrus's decree; but when Darius a good king came to bear 
rule, he could find in a coffer that Cyrus had made such a 
decree, and so that the other were false records. So in the 
matter of judgment, not only those that decree wicked things 
are condemned, but those also that write grievous things, 
Esay s. 1 ; that is, when the record is more grievous than the 
decree, if the notary or registrar go not directly to the 
aenteace, it is a false record: and quando juslitia revertetur 
ad judicium, Pb. xciv. 15, 'when Christ the true righteousness 
shall come to judgment,' they shall answer for it. 

in the plaintiff or 

'. also a false witness. 

3. The plaintiff or accuser may 
and that three manner of ways ; 

a. when he doth caluntniari, ' falsely accuse' a manj 
Haman did the Jews, Esther iii. 8, that they had laws diverse 
from all other laws, and were not observers of the king's laws 

fi, when he accuseth a man upon uncertainty, and matters 
that he cannot prove, as the people dealt with Paul, Acta 
XXV, 7; 

y. when he doth prtevaricari, which is a metaphor taken 
from vari, 'those that have their knees out of joint,' and the 
convulsion is inward, so that both touch above and the feet 
are far asunder, aud so in old time when they wore long 
garments a man might easily have been deceived, thinking 
them to be as broad at the kuces as at the feet: so they that 
strive together, being friends privily, are cal[ed prmvaricaiores ; 
that make a mockery of the place of judgment; such also are 
they that betray the cause with weak proofs, or taking upon 
them the defence of one part, take bribes and are corrupted 
by the contrary. 

Of the ninth commandment, 273 

in the defendant. 


4. The defendant may also be a false witness, and that in 
these three cases ; 

a. If being demanded according to form of law, he do 
veraare se ad agitandaa actiones aut ad coffitandas excusationes, 
* betake himself to plead he hath done well, or to devise 
excuses ;' as Adam did, Gen. iii. ; he put it off to the woman. 
Job did otherwise. Job xxxi. 33, " if I made a faulty I con- 
fessed it.'' 

But we are not bound to accuse ourselves, unless it be 
before the seat of judgment where a lawful course is taken; 
as John xviii. 20, Christ saith, " if any can accuse Me, let 
him come forth -/' and so to Pilate, John xix. 9, because they 
did not proceed expublicd infamid nee ex semiplend probationer 
' from a public fame nor upon an half proof,' but only ques- 
tioned with Him to see if he would accuse Himself, He gave 
no answer at all. 

Or if it be a truth, and stand upon two points or more, we 
may answer one part and not the other ; and so as Paul did. 
Acts xxiii. 6, occultare partem veritatis, ' conceal part of the 
truth;' the council being divided, some sadducees, some 
pharisees, the sadducees holding that there was no resurrec- 
tion nor angels, and the pharisees confessing both, he said he 
was a pharisee, and was judged and accused of the hope and 
resurrection of the dead ; though indeed it was not for that 
alone. So if a man have divers ways to defend himself, he 
may choose which he liketh best. 

/9. Though for a remedy for those that are oppressed, 
appeals be allowed, yet if the defendant in an evil cause will 
delay more than needeth, he is a false witness. 

7. When sentence is given, if he do not submit unto it, he 
is also a false witness, and resisteth the ordinance of God, 
and so God himself, Rom. xiii. 2. 

in the advocate or laimfer ; 

5. The advocate or lawyer may be also a false witness, and 
that in these three respects ; 


Of Ike ninth commandmenl. 

a. If he take evil causes in hand, knowing tlicm to be 

1) Exod. xxiii. 2, we must not agree in a controversy to 
overthrow the truth, 

2) and then not put to our hand, nor help him in his 
plea; 2 Chron. xix. 2, Jehu saith to Jehoshaphat, "wilt 
thou help the wicked, and love thera that hate God ?" 
and Rom. i. 32, they are not only condemned that 
"do wicked thinp themselves," but those also that 
" favour those that do them." 

^. K he take too many causes in hand, more than he 
is able to look well unto ; for though they be good causes, 
yet he must take no more upon him than he is able to per- 

7. If he do in any cause take a bribe or a gift out of 
the bosom, that is, secretly, to wrest the ways of judgment, 
Prov. xvii. 23, or by wrong means seek to bolster out any 

in the loilnesB. 

6. The witness himself, of whom we spoke in the beginning, 
may be a false witness, if he do fail in any of these three ; 

a. Being lawfully demanded by a magistrate to speak his 
knowledge, if it be not in matters beside the question, he is 
bound to tell what he hath seen and heard. Lev. v. I. 

ff. Though it be not by the magistrate demanded, yet if it 
be for the delivery of the innocent, he must witness liis 
knowledge, Prov. xxiv. 11. But if the magistrate require it 
not, or if it be beside the question, he need not answer, unless 
in case of dehverance. 

7. When he doth swear or testify in any matter, he mtut 
speak truly ; not according to the greek proverb, da mihi 
mvluvmjusf'urandiim, 'lend me an oath,' do it for me now, 
and I will do as much for thee another time. But Solomon 
telleth us, Prov. xi. 21, "though the wicked join hand in 
hand," and so happily escape the hands of men, " yet they 
shall not go unpunished" at Ood's hands. 

Thus much for false witness in judgment. 

Of the ninth commandment. 275 

Of false tvitness out ofjvdgment ; 

Now for that kind of false witness, which is out of judg- 

Though a man be from the judgment seat, yet he must 
not say, Ps. xii. 4, ego sum dominus Ungues, ' my tongue is my 
own,^ for nemo est dominus sui nisi ad liciia, ' no man is lord 
over himself/ neither ought to dispose of himself, ' but to 
lawful actions/ 

which may be in four ways. 

There are four ways wherein a man^s tongue may offend 

out of judgment, 
and four ways may we be hurt by the tongue, 
according to the four good things that a man hath ; — 

1, favour and credit, against which they commonly oppose 
contumelia, ' disgrace/ when a man is present ; 

2, good report, name and fame, against which is opposed 
obtrectatio, ' the depraving of a man behind his back :' 
Plato calleth such a depraver, mus nominis, ^ a mouse 
gnawing at a man's good name / but Paul, 2 Tim. iiL 3, 
calleth him diabolus, ' a devil ;' 

3, friends and well willers ; against this do offend those 
susurrones, ' tale carriers,' of whom Prov. xvi. 28, " he 
soweth dissension among princes/' he is able to set whole 
realms together by the ears ; 

4, a man's estate and condition ; against this is opposed 
subsannatio, ^ scofiGing and flouting / 2 Sam. xvi. 5, 
Shimei's sin. 

Other ways of offending against this commandment. 

And not only in words may we offend against this com- 
mandment, but by writings also ; if we write that which is 
untrue, as Neh. vi. 6, Sanballat sent a letter to Nehemiah, as 
full of untruths as it could hold. 

And not imtruths only are forbidden, but because, 1 Cor. 


P A R T 

Of the ninth commandment. 

PART xiii. G, " love delightetli in the truth," and Eph. iv. 15, " the 

'- — truth must be followed in love ;" we may offend therefore even 

in reporting a truth, if our truth have not love joiued with it ; 
as 1 Sam. xxii. 9, Doeg told the truth to Saul, that " David 
went to Nob to Ahiraelech, and he aakcd counsel of the Lord 
for him, and gave liim victuals and the sword of Ootiah ;" yet 
though all this were true, David, Pa, lii. 2, saith, " his tongue 
was hke a sharp razor that cutteth deceitfully," 

Against this commandment also offend all they that speak 
fair and mean mischievously; all false brethren, that have 
their lips swim with butter and oil, and in their hearts carry 
a sword to stab a man. Matt. xxii. 16, the disciples of the 
Pharisees and the herodians come unto Christ to entangle 
Him, and they begin smoothly, " Master," say they, there is 
the butter, saith Chrysostom ; " we know that thou teachest 
truly," there is tlie oil ; but the sword follows, " shall we pay 
tribute to Caesar or no ?" If he answer ' yea,' all the people 
will hate Him ; if he say ' no,' off goes His head for treason 
against Ceesai*. 

The commandment bids us rehuke where need is. 

Another thing in this commandment is, that as we must not 
slander our neighbours and report worse of them than they 
deserve, so on the other side if they do ill, we must adhibere 
jratemam correptUmem, we must ' brotherly rebuke them,' 
and not suffer them to sin, if it lie in us to hinder it. 

I Thess. V. 14, " admonish them that are unruly ;" if it be 
an ordinary fault not aggravated by circumstances, it must 
be with the spirit of meekness. Gal, vi. I ; if otherwise, it 
must be roundly and sharply, Tit. i. 13 : if it be an open 
fault, they must be rebuked openly, 1 Tim. v. 20; if secret. 
Matt, xviii. 15, secretly and privately in the ear; unless it 
tend to another man's hurt, and then it must be declared to 
him, as Acts sxili. 16, Paul's sister's son told him when there 
was wait laid for him. 

And BO as Augustine saith well, there is, 

Veritas dulcit qate fovet, ' a pleasing truth which eucourag- 

Of the ninth commandment. 277 

eth;* when we are doing well, we must be com- PART 
mended ; — 

Veritas amara quae curat, 'a bitter truth which cureth/ 
when we do ill we must be rebuked, and this is the way 
to bring us to repentance and so to amendment, 2 Cor. 
vii. 8, 9. 

Of the vice opposed to this, viz. fi<ittery. 

The vice opposed to this virtue of rebuking, is flattery, a 
common vice among us, because rebukes are odious, Amos 
V. 10. Albeit indeed vulnera diligentis, ' the wounds given 
by a friend,' are better than oscida blandientis, * the kisses of 
a flatterer / as in physic amarum sanum, ' a bitter pill which 
cures,' is better than pemiciosum dulce, ' a sweet potion which 
is poisonous :' yet such is our nature, that because we are led 
by ^CKavrla, ' self-love,' we love ourselves, and think well of 
ourselves, therefore he that will speak well of us and think 
well of that we do, him we love ; and so on the contrary if 
he mislike us or our actions and speak against any thing we 
do, presently we hate him ; and this maketh flattery so com- 
mon a vice now-a-days, because as rebukes are odious, so 
flattery giveth content. Of this mind were they, Esay xxx. 10, 
that said unto the seers, '' prophesy unto us no true things, 
but speak flattering things unto us.^ 


This vice of flattery is of two sorts. 

1. In uncertain things, to commend a man before we know 
whether he be worthy of it or no. This may be called the 
hasty commendation, at the first beginning and at first sight 
to commend a man so highly, that we make the party think 
he hath done enough and hath answered all expectation; 
whereas perhaps the greatest matter is still behind, as 1 Kings 
XX. 11, it is not the putting on of harness, but the putting of 
it off^, that is worthy of commendation ; not the beginning, 
but the end of the race is worthy praise. Such were they of 
whom we read in Herodotus, which answered Cambyses, that 
indeed they found it unlawful which he would have done 
(incestuous marriage), but against that they found that a king 
might do what he would. 

Of the ninth commandment. 

In certain things, and them either good, or evil. 

a. To commend a man for an eril thing is plainly con- 
demned ; laudatuT mali qui laudatur ob malum aul de mato, 
'he is not well praised who is commended for or concerning 
any evil ;' to say to the wiekcd, " thou art righteous," ProT. 
xxiv. 24 ; to call darkness light, and to speak good of evil, 
Esay V. 20. They may well be called ccementarii diaboli, ' the 
devil's daubera,' Ezek. siii. 10; and his upholsters too, for 
they sew pillows under men's elbows, ver. 18; where the 
prophet importeth thus much, that the iricked are asleep in 
sin, and he would have them sleep with as much disease and 
unrest as might be, without any pillows, or sucli matters of 

ff. In good things a man may be too much commended : 
to praise him above measure for a good action, is no better 
than flattery, 2 Cor. xii. 6; it makes men think above that 
they see or hear. To praise with a loud voice is reproved, 
Prov. xxvii. 14; and David, Pa. xii. 3, prayeth to God to 
" cut off all flattering lips." 

0/ committing these same faults against ourselves. 

And this vice of flattery may not only be used to others, 
but may also reflect upon ourselves, 

when we suppress the truth in our consciences, Rom. i. 18; 
when we glory and boast of ourselves, 2 Cor. sii. 1 ; whereas 
we should 'let another man's mouth praise us, and not 
our ovm lips,' Prov. xxxii. 2. 

And as we must not flatter ourselves, in speaking better of 
ourselves than there is cause ; so again on the other side we 
must not take upon us a fault that we have not done ; as 
where 1 Sam. xxxi. 4, Saul killcth himself, 2 Sam. i. 10, one 
Cometh and aaith he killed Saul, in hope of reward at David's 
hands ; but he was deceived, for David caused him to be 
slain for killing the Lord's anointed by his own confession. 

Neither must we deny any thing of ourselves that is true, 
. whether it be good or evil. 

Of the ninth commandment. 279 

a. If it be good^ some think it modesty and humility to part 

deny that they can do so well as they can ; but as Jerome — — 

saith, mendax humilitas incauta humilitaa, ' humility telling a 
lie is an unadvised humility -/ and saith he^ non ita caveatur 
arrogantia ut caveatur aut evitetur Veritas, ' let no man so 
shun arrogancy that withal he shun and let go truth/ 

13. If it be evil that we are charged withal, though we need 
not voluntarily tell our faults, yet being asked, we must not 
deny a truth; as Sarah offended in denying she laughed, 
when indeed she did laugh, Gen. xviii. 15. 

And so to conclude, we must 

neither affirm any untruth, ( of ourselves. 

nor deny any truth, \ nor of any other. 


Question concerning a harmless lie. 

There is question concerning mendacium innoctmm, 'an 
harmless lie,* of which cometh no loss, as they say. 

But saith Augustine, those that say so are not innocui, 
' harmless,' for though they account no loss but of goods, 
name, or life, &c. yet there is an error, for there is a loss 
beyond all these, the loss of the truth. This is in three things ; 

1. contra quctm se res habet, when the speech is ' contrary 
to the things spoken of,' though he be persuaded of it in his 
mind ; Augustine, hie temeritatis non mendacii accusandus est, 
here * the speaker is to be blamed for rashness and not for 
^y^^^ *i such are they, that have not learned their tongue to 
say nescio, * I know not,' but speak things which they know 

2. contrct quam se animus habet, ' what the mind knoweth 
to be false ;' the midwives' lie, Exod. i. 19 ; Michal for David, 
1 Sam. xix. 14; the woman of Bahurim, 2 Sam. xvii. 20; 

S. jocosum mendacium, 'the jester's lie;' Hos. vii. 3, to 
make the king merry ; Gal. L 10, please none out of truth. 

Object. If a man be sick, and I know that his son is dead, 
and if I tell him it will kill him, what shall I then answer if 
he ask? 


Of lite ninth commandment. 

Answ. Augustine answereth as Paul doth, nihil contra veri- 

_ taleyn possamus, ' we can do nothing against the truth,' 2 Cor. 

xiii, 8; perdes omnes qui loquuniur mendacia, 'Thou wilt con- 

fonnd all them who tell lies,' Ps. v. 6 ; and bo he concludeth 

that neither for body nor life we may depart from the truth. 

she ifl my sister," Abram kcepeth back part 

Of seeming exceptions. 

As for the midwives' lie, no doubt the women of the 
Hebrews were stronger than the Egyptians, and had done as 
they said ; and so tliey said true, and told not a lie, but part 
of the truth. 

Ttahab's lie, Josh. ii. 4, 5, may better be called occuftaiio 
veritalis, ' an hiding of the truth ;' there is only allowed in 
her a good disposition. 

Quest. Judg. ix, 8, "the trees went forth to anoint a king," 
was that true ? 

Answ. It is voxficta, ' a figurative speech,' as Christ often 
used the like. 

Gen. XX. 12, 
of the truth. 

I Sam. svi. 2, when Samuel feared to go to anoint David 
king, God bade him take an heifer with him, and say he 
went to do sacrifice. 

If a question be moved that hath two meauinga, the answer 
may be made to the one, so it be true ; so Christ answered 
the truth, of another kingdom than Pilate asked, John xviii. 36. 

So Jacob was in one sense Isaac's eldest son, because he 
had bought his eldest brother's birth-right. Gen. xava. 19. 

So John is Eliah, "in the power of Elias," Matt, xi. 14. 

When the thing is changed in circumstance, the perform- 
ance may be otherwise than was spoken of : the angels would 
not have come in, had not Lot changed their minds by hig 
importunity, Gen, xix. 2; Peter would not let Christ wash 
his feet, till he was otherwise persuaded, John xiii, 8 : Paul 
had come to Corinth had not Satan hindered him, 2 Cor. 
i. 17; ao none of these are against the truth. 

Now since truth is aquitas, this ' equity' 
I, the thing and the thought; 

1 between. 

Of the tenth commandment. 281 

2, the thought and the sign of it; and that is verbo PART 
aut facto ; factum, ' a deed/ is a sign of our — — — 
thoughts, as well as our words are ; Matt. vii. 20, 
" ye shall know them by their fruits." 

Miscelianeoits rules. 

We must take heed of judging another man's heart, God 
hath only to deal with that, 2 Chron. vi. 30 ; men's meanings 
must not be sought after, as Chrysostom saith, " my heart is 
not your servant, and therefore judge it not.*' 

We must not be too severe in judging : especially for the 
time to come ; leave that also to God ; we must not think if 
one once sleep in sin, that he will never wake ; they may 
return to God ; Augustine, multi sunt intus fures et multa 
oves foris ; sic multi inserti sunt refringendi et multi infracti 
inserendiy 'many within the church are thieves, and many 
without will in time be sheep ; so many graffed in are to be 
cut off, and many broken off shall be graffed in again.' 

If we have o£Pended in a thing unknown, that none can 
prove ought, non retegendum peccatum nisi sine peccato celari 
nan potest, 'the sin is not to be revealed unless it cannot be 
concealed without sin •/ but with David, say to Gt)d, tibi soli 
peccavi, ' against Thee only have I sinned,' Ps. li. 4. 

If ever we have said to God as they did, Judg. x. 15, " hear 
us but this once, and we will serve Thee," or in our sickness 
promised more obedience after health restored, Hos. vii. 14, 
we must not lie to God, but have a care to perform it, or else 
the vineyard will lie to us. 


Of the form, exposition, and place of this commandment. 

The papists make this commandment two commandments. 
Which cannot be ; our reasons are these : 
1, because there is but one period; 

Of the tenth commaudmenl . 

, because then there should be a law of particulars, 
which is least of all in God's laws ; 

3, because, Rom. vii. 7, the apostle setteth it down 

in brief, non concupisces, ' thou shall not lust ;' 

4, the consent of the Hebrews before Christ, and the 

fathers since Christ. 

The exposition of this commandment we have, 

Deut. V. 31, "thou shalt not covet, no nor desire that 

which is thy neighbour's ;" 
Esay Iv. 7, we must forsake our owu imaginations ; wliich 

are also condemned, Jer. xviii. 12; 
Mark vii. 14, that which defileth a man ia within him; 
Rom. vii. 7, " thou shalt not lust :" 
Eph. ii. 3, mention is made of the lusts of our flesh. 
The dependence is this ; that having taken order in the 
former coraraandraents both for our actions, and the con- 
senting to those actions, be they good or bad ; now He dealeth 
with the first motions and thoughts of the heart. Prov. iv. 
53, " out of the heart cometh life ;" and as life, so good and 
evil life come from the heart. 

End of this commandment. 

The end of the commandment is, 

1. That God might shew himself to look further than man 
doth, and Hia law to reach further than man's laws ; for 
though man's law do bind the hands and stop the mouth, 
yet it saith, cogitationis panam nemo patiatur, 'let no man 
be pimished by man for his evil thought;' but God's law 
taketh hold of our very thoughts, and therefore. Acts viii. 22, 
we must pray that the thoughts of our hearts may be forgiven. 

2. To stop the mouths of all proud pharisees that should 
dare to boast of their performance of God's laws ; for though 
in the other commandments we might flatter ourselves, yet 
this will make us appear to be most wretched, Rom. \'ii. 24, 
In the other commandments the act, yea and the consent 
to the act, is forbidden j but in this, the thought, which in 
respect of tlie consent is called partus imperfectus, ' an i 


Of the tenth commandment, 283 

perfect birth :* in the other, intentio etsi non conscquaris, ' the PART 
intention though not executed -/ in this, cogitatio etsi non - 
sequariSy ' the thought though not performed/ As Augustine 
saith, magnum fecit qui non sequitur malum, sed non sic perfecit, 
nam cogitare prohibetuTy ' he hath done much who pursueth 
not evil; but he hath not yet done fully well, because he 
should not think evil/ 

Of the two sorts of concupiscence. 

Concupiscence is of two sorts, good, and evil. 

1. The good concupiscence is also twofold, 

a. the lust or concupiscence of the spirit against the flesh. 

Gal. V. 17; 
)3. the concupiscence or desire of nature, or our natural 

desires and appetites of meat, drink, and such like, 

are not evil ; they were in our Saviour Christ ; Matt. 

iv. 2, He was hungry, and desired to eat ; John iv. 6, 

He was weary, and desired to rest. 

2. The evil concupiscence is, when it is not a hand to the 
understanding, as it ought to be, but choketh and corrupteth 
it ; and it is also of two sorts ; 

a. foolish concupiscence, which is set upon earthly things, 
and not upon things that are above. Col. iii. 1 ; when 
our natural affection, which of itself is not evil, goeth 
beyond his bounds, so that we seek wholly these 
things, and set our hearts upon them ; 
)8. hurtful concupiscence, which is the lust of the flesh 

against the spirit. Gal. v. 17. 
This is thnt prceputium, Acts vii. 51, that uncircumcision, 
that hindereth the ears and heart from that which is good, 
and corrupteth our understanding in good things : and in 
evil things it will bring us per malum aut ad malum, ' through 
evil, or to evil ;' if our end be good, then per malum, to use 
evil means ; or if we use good means, then the end shall be 
evil. It is called, 

the old man, Eph. iv. 22, Col. iii. 9. 
sin dwelling in us. Bom. vii. 5. 
the sting of death, I Cor. xv. 56. 
the prick, 2 Cor. xii. 7. 

Of the tenth commandment. 

- Of the workitiff of evil concupiscence. 

The manner of workiDg of this concupiscence is after tbese 
BIX ways : — 

1. When sin began, Gen. iii. 6, the fhiit was holden oat 
by Satan and presented to our first parents, with these three 

it was profitable, good for meat ; 
it was pleasant to the eye ; 

it was to be desired in regard of the knowledge, 
and so of the preferment, that should come by 
it; eritia sicut dii, 'yc shall be as gods;' 
so the first working of the concupiscence is, to hearken to 
Satan's temptation ; 1 Tim. v. 15, to turn buck after Satan. 

2. The entertaining of the temptation, and retaining it in 
our hearts, and consenting to it: this is that which Job 
speaketh of, Job xx. \S, 14, when a man favoureth wicked- 
ness, and will not forsake it, but keepeth it close ; though it 
be sweet in his mouth, yet it is poison to liira ; the gall of 
asps is in the midst of him. But Satan's suggestions, ever 
sinful in him, yet are not so in us, if we reject them and 
never yield to them : occasions of temptations we ought to 
avoid, but temptations wc cannot ; nor is it a sin to be 
tempted, for the devil suffered not Christ to be free from 
temptation ; if we resist them, pray against them, fly unto 
God for help, they may be trials to us, but God will deliver 
us from the evil of tbem. 

3. The retaining of the seed of wickedness in our hearts 
with consent, bringeth forth delight; and this delight is 
coneeptio peecati, 'the conceiving of sin.' 

4. To stay and continue in this delight, moroia delectatw ; 
and this may be called articulatio fcetiis, ' the forming and 
fashioning of the joints' of sin, an evil brat. 

o . Aberratio cordis in peccato, ' the searching up and down of 
the heart about a sin;' the reasoning of it, and after it is 
once lost, to call it back again ; and to make a contrary cove- 
nant to Job's ; he made a covenant with his eyes not to look 
upon a maid, Job xsxi. I, and we make covenants still to 

Of the tenth commandment. 285 

look upon sin^ and to set all the imaginations of our thoughts part 
upon it ; and this is vita peccati, ' the very life of sin/ for now ^^' 
it lives and moves. 

6. The birth itself^ and bringing it forth into action and 
execution in the course and practice of our lives. 

And these six are in every sin, though many men have not 
the Spirit of Gk>d in that measure that they are able to watch 
them all ; and besides, iniquitas scepe mentitur sibi, ' sin often 
lies to itself.' 

The apostle St. James, chap. i. ver. 14, goeth by degrees ; 
first, saith he, a man is tempted ; 
and when is he tempted ? when he is drawn away by his 

own concupiscence, and is enticed ; 
and what followeth of that ? then lust conceiveth ; 
and what doth it bring forth ? sin ; 
and what doth sin bring forth ? death. 

Of the bait and the hook ; 

So that our lust becometh sininl two ways ; 
by the bait and allurement we are enticed, as St. James 

saith ; so the first thing is esca, ' the bait / 
by the hook, whereby we are drawn away as it were by 
force and violence ; uncus, ' the hook.' 

in ourselves ; 

For Satan taketh advantage of our weakness and corrup- 
tion; and 

1, he offereth us matter of pleasure, or profit, or preferment, 
all which we take delight in, to see if he can that way allure 
us, and entice us to that which is evil ; 

2, if that way prevail not, then he useth force and violence 
to draw us unto it : 

And for the working of sin in our own corrupt nature, 
first, we take hold of pleasure, 
pleasure breedeth lust, 
lust grows to delight, 
delight breeds custom, and 
custom breeds necessity ; 

Of t/ie tenth commaiiilmfnf. 

for nftcr once we have tnkeu delight in a thing and used it 
- at any long time, wc grow to a necessity of luing it aliU, we 
caDnot abide to leave it ; and ao that which at first was a bait 
to allure ns, becometh at last a hook to draw us. 

from the devil ; 
And for Satan's working, 

1. For his allurements, we know from the beginning how 
he euticcd and deceived our first parents Adam and Evej he 
hath ntethodum decipiendi, ' a method of deceiving,' many 
fetches and devices, as appeareth 2 Cor. ii. 11, "take heed 
lest Satan circumi'ent us, we know his enterprises ; " 

2. If baits and allurements will not serve, then he useth 
the hook of force and violence to draw us ; 

1 Pet. V. 8, he is a " roaring lion ;" 

Matt. viii. 32, the swine were carried headlong into 

the sea by the devil, there was violence ; 
3 Cor. vii. 5, fighting without, and terrors within ; 
1 Thess, ii. 18, Paul saith, he would have come unto 

them, but that Satan hiadered liim. 

and from the world. 
YeEj and the world also hath these two means to prick us 
on to sin, 

baits to allure us, profit, pleasure, and preferment ; 
hooks to draw us; if baits will not serve, it will be 
violent with threatening us, by loss, grief, and re- 
proach ; 
and BO as Augustine saith, aul amor erit mail inflammana, 
aut titnor malt kumilians, ' either love to the bait will entice 
us to evil, or fear of the hook will draw us, or at least keep 
us from doing of good.' 

{in ourselves, 
and from the devil, 
and from the world, 
there are these two means, 
baits to bIIiitc us, 
force to draw us into sin. 
And thus much of the tenth and last, and ao of all the ten 





[The following account of the 'Lambeth Articles* may be 
acceptable to the reader. 

Whitaker, regius professor of divinity in Cambridge, 
having imbibed strong calvinistic notions, denounced the 
Margaret professor as a Pelagian; and having represented 
to archbishop Whitgift that the orthodoxy of the univer- 
sity was in danger, unless a series of theses, nine in number, 
which he had framed, should be sent down to Cambridge 
stamped with the authority of some of the heads of the 
church, prevailed upon the primate to call a meeting of 
bishops and others of the clergy at Lambeth for that pur- 
pose, and managed to get his theses accepted in the main, 
though the emendations with which they were sent back 
were sufficient to shew how little the general tenor of them 
was really approved by the theologians who had sat in judg- 
ment on them. Whitgift was censured afterwards by queen 
Elizabeth for the whole proceeding, and promised to write to 
Cambridge that the articles might be suppressed. They are 
here given, with their emendations ; 

Articuli Lambethse propositi Articuli Lambethae propositi 

prout k cl. V. D. Whita- prout ab episcopis reli- 

kero in ipsius autographo quisque theologis concepti 

concepti episcopis aliisque sunt, et de sensu quo ad- 

theologis Lambethae pro- missi sunt, 


290 Bishop Andreices judgment 

I. I. 

Deu8 ab cBtemo prcedestina- Admissus est hie artieulus 
vit quosdam ad vitam, et quoa- totidem verbis. Nam si per 
dam ad mortem reprobavit, primiim 'quosdam* intelli- 

gantur 'credentes/ per se- 
cundum ' quosdam/ ' increduli ;' lis hie non intenditur, sed 
est verissimus artieulus. 

II. II. 

Caitssa efficiens prcedesti- Caussa movens aut efficiens 
nationis non est prcBvisio fideiy praedestinationis ' ad vitam' 
aut perseverantia, aut bonorum non est 'prsevisio' fidei aut 
operum, aut ullius rei qtuB in- perseverantiee, aut bonorum 
sit personis prcedestinatis, sed operum aut alius rei, quae 
sola et absoluta et simplex vo- insit personis praedestinatis, 
luntas Dei. sed sola ' voluntas benepla- 

citi Dei.* Additur in hoc 
secundo articulo a Lambethanis 1° ' movens -/ 2® ' ad vitam ;' 
3° mutatur 'sola absoluta et simplex voluntas Dei* in 
'sola voluntas beneplaciti Dei;' idque non sine justft ra- 
tione. Caussa enim movens praedestinationis ' ad vitam/ non 
est ' fides/ sed meritum Christi, cum Deus servandis salutem 
destinavit non propter ' fidem/ sed propter Christum. ' Mo- 
ventis* vocabulum proprie 'merito* convenit; ' meritum' au- 
tem est in obedientia Christi, non in fide nostra. Additur, 
'ad vitam/ quia licet praedestinationis *ad mortem* caussa 
sit 'praevisio* iufidelitatis et impcenitentiae, adeoque alicujus 
rei quae insit personis praedestinatis ' ad mortem / tamen 
nulla est caussa praedestinationis 'ad vitam/ nisi sola 'vo- 
luntas beneplaciti Dei/ juxta illud Augustini, 'Praedesti- 
nationis caussa quaeritur et non invenitur; reprobationis 
vero caussa quaeritur et invenitur.* 'Absoluta et simplex 
voluntas Dei* majus quiddam dicit, qukm 'sola voluntas 
beneplaciti/ nam et conditionalis voluntas est beneplaciti, 
et vult Deus uos rectfe facere, si nos velimus ejus gratiae 
non deesse; et placuit Deo servare singulos homines, si 


Pt^cedestinatorum prcefinitus In hoc articulo nihil mu- 

of the Lambeth Articles. 291 

et certus est numerus, qui nee tatur ; verissimus enim est si 
aufferi nee minui potest. de praescientift Dei intelliga- 

tur quae nunquam fallitur^ 
non enim plures vel pauciores servantur quam Deus pree- 

IV. IV. 

Qui non sunt prcedestinati In hoc articulo nihil mu- 
ad salutem, necessario propter tatur ; verissimus enim est ; 
peccata condemnabuntur. quia statuit Deus non remit- 

tere peccata nisi credenti- 
bus. Quod si ita hanc thesin et priorem interpreteris^ ut 
et 'peccata' et Mamnationem' necessitate quMam ex ips& 
praedestinatione deducas atque ex ek fluere existimes^ aperte 
Augustino^ Prospero^ Fulgentio, &c. contradicis^ et cum 
Manichaeis Deum peccati auctorem necesse est facias. 

V. V. 

Vera, viva et justificans fi- Vera, viva et justificans fi- 
des et Spiritus Dei sanciifi- des et Spiritus Dei sanctifi- 
cans non exstinguitur, non ex- cans non exstinguitur^ non 
ddity non evanescit, in iis qui excidit^ non evanescit^ in 
semel ejus partictpes fuerunt, ' electis/ aut ' totaliter* aut 
aut totaliter aut finaliter. ' finaliter.* In autographo 

Whitakeri verba erant, 'in 
iis qui semel ejus participes fuerunt/ pro quibus a Lam- 
bethanis substituta sunt^ ' in electis/ sensu plane alio et ad 
mentem Augustini; cum in autographo sint ad mentem 
Calvini. Augustinus enim opinatus est ' veram fidem quae 
per dilectionem operatur^ per quam contingit adoptio^ justi- 
ficatio et sanctificatio^ posse et intercidi et amitti; fidem 
vero esse commune donum electis et reprobis, sed perse- 
verantiam electis propriam:' Calvinus autem^ 'veram et 
justificantem fidem solis salvandis et electis contingere.* 
£t cl. v. D. Overal defendit et in academic et in con- 
ventu Hamptoniensi^ 'justificatum, si incidat in graviora 
peccata^ antequam poenitentiam agat^ in statu esse dam- 
nationisj' ibique contraria sententia quae statuit 'justi- 
ficatum^ etiamsi in peccata graviora incidat^ justificatum 


292 Buhop Aiidrtwrt juilgmtnt 

tameu manere,' il regiii nn^estate damnata est. Ita in lio 
articulo nihil minua qu&m Whitnkeri sententia probata eat. 

Homo verijideiis, id est, fide 
justificante pradttus, certus 
est, cerlitudine fidei, de re- 
missione peccatorwn suorum 
el xalute sempitemd sud per 

' Homo vere fidelis, id est 
fide justificautc pneditus,' 
certiia eat ' pleropliorifl fidei' 
de 'reraissionc' peccatorum 
saorum et salute sempiternfl 
suA per Christnm. Nihil hlc 
mutatur, nisi quod pro ' cer- 
titudine' aubstituitur vox grreca 'plerophorifi.' Quidam 
fiutem ex theologis volucnint pro 'fidei plerophoria' re- 
poni ' spei plerophoriam ;' veriim eorum absentia ciim tran- 
sigerctur negotium, effecit ut maneret vox ' fidei' quam scrip- 
serat Wliitakerus. Voce autcm 'pleropliorise' usi suut, quia 
non designat 'plenara' et 'absolutam certitudincm,' qualia 
est 'scientia; vel priDcipioruni fidei,' (cum fidea sit talium 
rerum quarum est cvidcntia vel certa scientia,) sed miuorem 
qucndam certitudinis gradum, quippe cum etiam iu jadicia- 
riis et foreusibus probation ilius UBurpetur. 

Verissimus est hie articulus, si de certitudino pi'ffiaentii 
statiis intelligatui', uut etiam futuri, acd couditiouatA. 
Credit enim fidelis se credere, et credit credentem servatum 
jri i credit etiam peraeveratiimm se ; sed non uu& omuiuo 
Bt e&dem eertitudine; quia certitudo lia:c partim iiititur Dei 
promissionibus, qui nos teutari ultra vires non patitur ; partim 
pii propositi siiiceritate, quA pro tempore future nos Deo 
obedieutiaiu prseatituroa sancte iu nos recipimus. 

Alioqui si hie sensus affingitur assertioni, Lomiuom cer- I 
titudiae eMem, qui Christum credit mortuura et ease muudi 
gjjvatorem, credere debere se esse servandum sive eleo- I 
turn, repugnaret hsec assertio Confessioni regis Edvardi, in ] 
qu& legitur, 'Decretum pra^destiuatiouis iucoguitum est;' et i 
Augustiuo", ' Preedestinatio apud noa, dimi in pnesentis vitaa | 
periculis versamur, incerta est.' De civit. Dei, lib. xi. cap. 13*, 
et alibi ; ' Justi, licet de autc perse vcr an tise prsemio certi sin^ I 
de ipsa tameii perse verautia sua reperiuntur incerti,' 


^oi. 772, 


c.p. 18. 
'iL cul, 282.] 

I. 838.] 

of llie J.a,Hbfth .Irlkles. 


tid salutem 

Gratia auffidem 
non Iribuiiur, not 
calur, non concedilur univer- 
sis homiaibiis, giui s 
sinl, si velint. 

Gratia 'aalutaria* non trU 
buitur, non communicatur, 
non conceditur universis ho- 
libus, qua servari possint, 
si velint. Pro 'j^ati^ suffi- 
cient] ad salutem/ quod erat 
in Whitakeri autographo, substituerunt Lambetlmni ' gra- 
tiam salutarem,' ut plane R])))areat loqid eos dc ca gratia 
quie est actu ultimo aalutaria, sive actu cffica.\, sen quse 
per »e, non addila uovii gratiA., salutem opcratur. Ha;c 
quidem nou conceditur, sed ne offcrtur universis, cum sint 
plurimi (utpotc Pagani &c.) quibus evangelium nee interna 
nee extern^ voce pr^dicetur. Ergo ilia verba, 'qua servari 
possint si velint,' intelligenda aunt de potentia proximA et 
immediate. Nam si dc potentii remotiorc intellexissent, 
fruatri induxissent vocem 'gratis sufficientis,' quie 'anffi- 
ciens' nppellari »olet, non quod ait efficai, vel per se actu 
opcretur salutem, sed quod sufficiena sit ad salutem ducere, 
model homo non ponat obicem. Et biec Augustini et Proa- 
peri fuit sententia, qui gratiara saltern parciorcm oecultio- 
remquc omnibus datam ajuut, et talem quidem quse ad 
rcmedium aufficeret, Unde Fulgentius, 'Quod con adju- 
. yantur quidam ft gratiii Dei, in ipsis caussa cat, non k Deo.' 


Nemo potest venire ad Chris- 
tum nisi datum ei fuerit et 
nisi Pater earn trajcerit ; 
omnes homines non trahuntur 
a Patre ut venianl ad Fllium 

In hoc articulo nihil mu- 
tatum ; non omnes trahuntur 
ti-actu ultimo. Sed qui ne- 
gat oranea tralii tractn re- 
motiore toll it opitulatiouom 
ill am general era, sive com- 
mune auxilium quo omnium homiuum corda pulsari dicit 
Prosper. 'Tractum' autem theologi Lamhethani non iatel- 
leierunt (cum Whitakero) deter minationem physicam irre- 
sistibilem; sed divinam oporntionem, prout commnniter in 
conversione hominis operatur, quro naturam voluntatis liberam 
non tollit, sed ad bonum spirituale idoneam primo facit, de- 
inde et ipsam honam fant, 

Bishop Andrmces jiidt/menl 

Non eat posilum in arbilrio In hoc quoque nihil muta- j 
out potestate vniuscujusque turn ; verissimum enim est 
hominis servari. salutem nostram esse { 

mario iion iu nobis, sed & 
gratia pneveniente, escitante, concomitante et subaequente 
in omni opcre bono ; secundario ab arbitrio et voluntate , 
hominis couaentiente atque Hcceptniite. Nulla potestas est 
arbitrii ad bouum apirituale, niai gratia non modo tollat 
impedimenta, sed et virea suppeditet. Non est ergo positum 
in arbitrio primitus et potissimum; iino iiullo modo in 
arbitrio est positum, ut homo qnilibet quolibet momento ad 
salutem poBsit pervenire. At vero esse aliquam aliquando in 
arbitrio potestatem gratiae subordinatam et gratise consen- 
tientem, nemo inficiaa iverit qui Augnstinum audiverit; 
'Dum tempua est,' inquit, 'dura in nostra potestate est 
opera bona facere;' et alibi, de poenia inferni loquens, 'Ma- 
jus eat,' inquit, ' quod timcre debes, et in potestate habcs J 
DC eveniat tibi.'] 

Reverendissimi tov irdi'v doclissimiqne patrix l.ANCEl.OTi winto- 1 
KIENSI8 (qui ipse ejusdem pars magna fuit) de Sj/nodo oblatia 
a D. WBiTAKEHO ai-ticulis judicium . 

QcATUOH priores articuli de Praedestinatione sunt et Re- 
probatione; quarura ilia ab apostolo dicitur, S> ^dBo^.' hfec 
a propheta, abyssus mulla; Rom. xi. 33, Pb. xxxvi. 6. 

Ego certe (ingenue fateor) sequutus sum Augustini consi- ' 
lium: mjsteria hsec quje aperire non possum, clauea miratuH 
sum, et proinde, per hoa sedetim annos, ex quo presbyter sum 
factuB, me neque pnblice neque prJvatim vel disputasse de eis, 
vel pro concione tractasse ; etiam nunc quoque malle de eis 
audire quAm dicere, Et quidem eum lubrieus locus sit, et 
habeat utrinquc periculosa pfEecipitia, cumque loci Paulini 
imde fere eruitur inter hv<7v6r}Ta ilia, de qulbua Petrus. » 
per sint habiti; cumque nee multi in clero sint qui ea dextrtt , 
expedire, et perpauci in populo qui idonei itllus audltores esse I 
possint; suaderem, si fieri possit, ul indiceretur utrinque ] 
silentium, nee ita passim ct crude propunerentiir a quibusqiie I 

of the Lambeth Articles, 295 

ut assolet. Certe multo niagis expedire arbitror ut doceatur 
populus noster salutem suam quaerere in manifestis vitse 
sanctae et fideliter institutae (quod et Petrus suadet), quam in 
occultis consilii divini ; cirjus curiosa nimis inspectio vertigi- 
nes et scotomata generate potest et solet, sedificationem certe 
in angustis ingeniis vix solet. Sed tamen rogatus sententiam 
meam de his articulis, idque k dominatione tu& cui non 
parere religio fuit, sic paucis respondeo. 


Esse apud Deum in aetema ilia sua sive praescientia dicere 
libeat sive scientia, qua videt quae non sunt tanquam ea quse 
sunt^ prsedestinatos quosdam, quosdam reprobos, extra con- 
troversiam esse arbitror. Scripturse verba sunt, irpo Kara- 
fioXry: Kocfiov, id est ab aeterno scilicet, elegisse Deum nos ; et 
cum elegisset, prsedestin^e, Eph. i. 4, 5 ; elegisse autem ix 
Tov Koa-fjLoVy *de mundo,' Joan. xv. 19; quare non omnes in 
mundo elegisse, sed quosdam, alioqui enim electio non foret. 
Quos vero non elegit et eligendo approbavit, (ut electionis 
natura fert) reprob&sse; et Scriptura verbis utitur dirayOetvy 
* rejiciendi,' Rom. xi. 2, airoSoKi/jLa^eiv, ^ reprobandi,* Heb. 
xii. 15. Tantum ne utrobique par ratio videatur, et eadem 
praedestinandi ratio, eadcm reprobandi; si hoc plen^ non 
constet, cuperem addi, aliter prsedestinatos illos, nempe per 
Christum, Eph. i. 5, aliter hos reprobatos, nempe propter 


Verissimum Dei per prophetam verbum est, * Tantummodo 
in me auxilium tuum,' id est, nee k quoquam auxilium nisi k 
mc, nee k me quicquam nisi auxilium : verissimum et apo- 
stoli, ^Quis discemit?' id est, a Deo solo habere nos quo k 
reliquis discemimur. 

Sed tamen de paiticula ilia [^sola voluntas beneplaciti'] 
quseri potest, 

Primo, includatne Christum, an secludat ; id est, sitne actus 
prsedestinandi actus absolutus, an relatus ? 

Quod ad me, existimo relatum esse : nee ullam esse Dei 
eifSoKlav iv avOfHoiroi^, id est^ Woluntatem qu& beneplacitum 
sit ei in hominibus/ nisi in Filio in quo 6vS6«(f7o-e, nee yel ante 

Bisliiip Andre^ees' judgvimt 

vel sine intuitu Christi priBdcstinari qucnquam; sed (uf 
habent sacrie script urse) Christum prim 6 TrpoeyvQiiTfiivov, 
•pneacitum," 1 Pet. i. 2, deinde in eo nos, Rom. viii. 29; 
ChriBtum primo opttrBivra, ' prEedeatinatiiin,' Rom. i. 4, deinde 
per cam nos, Eph. i. 5 ; iion autem priore loco nos (uti 
nonnullis videtur), posteriore ilium, et propter nos: neque 
enim pncdestinari posse nos ei« vi'oBea-iav, 'ad adoptionem 
fijiorum,' nisi in Filio naiurali, neque pnedestinari nos posse 
ut conformes simus imagini Filii, nisi Filius primo statuatur 
cujus imagini conformemur. Quare et liuic (^uoque articulo 
cuperem addi, ' beneplacitum Dei in Chrislo.' 

Deinde queeri potest sec undo, includatne pnescientiam 
Dei voluntas hsec sola beneplacili, an excludat? E^o cerld 
nullo modo existimo divellenda htec, ncmpe pra?scire et pne- 
desttnare, sed (quod apostoli faciunt) conjun<];cuda. Neque 
hic vero audco pracipitare sentenliam meam, aut damnare 
paires, qui ferfe omnes secundiim praivisam fidcm et eligi et 
pncdestinari nos asserunt. Id quod vel Beza' ipse fatetur in 
xi. ad Rom. 2. (edit. 2') 'patres hic nullo modo audiendi, qui 
ad pnevisionem hoc referunl.' In quo tamen (ut mihi videri 
solel) potius de serie ct online quo utitur Deus in actu pra&- 
dcstinandi loquuntur, quam de caussft prsedesti nation is. Quaro 
seriem alii alitor ad suum quisque captum Solent texere 
patres in ed mihi sentcntid videntur fuisse ; electionem 
nullam fore nisi ita texatur; Deum primo, diligere Christum, 
dein nos in Christo; quod apostolus dicit, 'gratificare nos 
in dilecto,' Eph. i. 6 ; secundo, gratificatos sic gralid donare 
et fide ; tertio, sic donatos atque ita a reliquis discretos 
eligere; quarto, electos pnedcstinarc. 

Cert& electionis hoc natura postulat, qute nullA omnino 
existente differentiS. inter eum qui eligitur ct cum qui rcjici- 
tur, ncc esse ncc cogitari potest: sic (Ecumenius ex Grseco- 
rum sentenlia, p. 323." etTrto*' /una eicKcyy'jv, ^Setfec Stl xol 
BU^epov aW^Xoif ovSeis yap eKXeyerai h-epov a(ft erepov et 
/ii? T( avTov SiaWaa-croi. Sic Augustinus' ad SimpL i. 2, 'non 
tamen electio prtecedit justificationcm' {scil. prsevisam), 'sed 
electionem justiticatio: nemo enim eligitur nisi jam distana 
ab illo qui rejicitur; unde quod dictum est. Quia elegit nos 

' [viil. Bd Rotn. 
ii. 29. fin. p. *« 1 , 

, p. 43:1. Ad 

- [vol. V 

'!-J . 

col. 02.] 

of the Lambeth Articles, 297 

Deu8 ante mundi constitutionem, non video quomodo sit 
dicendum nisi prsescientift.' 

Neque secus scholastici. Thorn. Primdy Q. 23. Art 4/ 
'prsedcstinatio praesupponit electionem^ et electio dilectionem;' 
nempe primo fecit eligendos, dein elegit; dilexit ut daret, 
elegit qusB dedtt. Nee alia mihi mens videtur reverendissimi 
Eboracensis^; sic enim ille^ ^ Quid in Jacobo dilexit Deus ab 
ntemo, cum nihil boni fecisset ? certe quod suum, quod ipse 
erat illi daturus.' 

Certe apostolus ipse non veretur in negotio hoc conjungere 
ihlav TTpoOea-iv et hoOeUrav x^P^^^ atque hoc irpo 'xpovfav 
utoMflmv, cum sc. ioOeura ilia x^^ "^^ "^^^ ^^ prsescientift 
esse potuit ; cum seterno scilicet proposito Dei, ipsara quoque 
gratiam quam se daturum prsevidit ante tempora secularia. 
Neque incommodum inde ullum (ut mihi videtur) si Deus 
ut coronat in nobis dona sua, sic eligat in nobis dona sua ; 
nempe quae primo diligendo dedit, quo post sic data eligeret : 
atque ita cum dilectio, quae est actus gratiae qu& Deus dis- 
cemit, tum electio, quse est actus judicii qua sic discretos sell- 
git, utraque conservantur. Atque hoc modo manebit elec- 
tio: recentiorum enim series ilia omnem plane electionem 
toUit; qua Deus ponitur homines nee in uUa mass& exis- 
tentes, nee ullo modo per sua dona discretos, primo actu et 
eo absoluto, simul et semel, hos quidem addicere saluti, illos 
vero perditioni sempiternse; post quam addictionem quis 
electioni locus esse possit non intelligo, aut quomodo ilia ipsa 
addictio electio dici possit — Sed hsec tota quaestio (uti dixi) 
de ordine potiiis est quo procedit Deus, ad captum nostrum 
qui ex parte cognoscimus, qusim de causs& quoad actum ipsum, 
qui unus est in Deo et simplicissimus ; vel si de causs&, non 
de primi actus caussd intelligi debet, sed de causs& quoad 
integrum effectum (ut loquuntur) in praedestinando. 

Quaeritur, sitne actus integralis (conceptu nostro) ex variis 
actibus constans, an primus ille solus? et si plures et varii, 
quis ordo, quae series actuum ? 

* Praedestinatio, quae sine praescienti& non potest esse, non est 
nisi bonorum operum,' Aug. ^ De prcedest sanctorum^ cap. x. 

' [vol. X. p. 94. b.] p. 15. Hardrov. 8vo. 1613. 

» [«c. Matth. Hutton, S.T.P., ar- •• [vid. vol. x. col. 80«.] 

chiep. Ebor., " De elect, et reprobat." 

298 Bishop Aiidreurs Juil(/mi:iil 

' Electi sunt ante mundi constltuCioncm, efi pra^lcstinutione 
in qii& Delia sua futura facta priescivit,' Idem.' ibid. cap. xvii. 

'An quisquam dicere audcbit Deum non prsesciese quibus 
esset daturuE lit crederent ?' De dono perseverantitB, xiv.'' 

' Ista igituT sua dona quibuscunque Deus donat, proculdubio 
donaturum sc esse pnescLvit, et in su& prsescientia prsparavit,' 
cap. svii.' 

'Si nulla est prxdestiiiatio quam defendimus, nun pnesci* 
untur a Deo; preesciunlur autem,' ibid.'° 

' Heec igitur (dona) qiif« posclt a Domino, et semper ex quo 
esse coepit poposcit ccclesia, ita Deus vocatis suts datnrum se 
esse prsescivit, lit in ipsa praedcstinatione jam dederil,' xxUi." 

Sunt ipsa Aiigustinl'' verba initio cap. xiii. Decor, et gra,, 
'Eorum qui priedestinati sunt ita certus est numerus, nt iiec 
addatur iis quisquam, nee minuatur.' 

Et Ambrosius'' De voc. 1. 2. c. ult., ' De plenitudine membro- 
rum corporis Cliristi priescientia Dei, quse falli non potest, 
nihil perdit, ct nullo detritnentu minui potest summa prae- 
cognita atquc in Christo ante secula tcterna prEeelecta.' Cer- 
tissimum enim est scientlam divinam ccrtissimara esse nee 
falii posse, noviase autem Dominum qui sunt ejus. 

'Qui non est inventus scriptus in libro vita;' (i, e. pnedesti- 
natus) 'missus est in lacum ignis,' Apoc. xx. v. ult. id est, 
damnatus est ; damnatus autem proculdubio propter peccata 
sua; quis cnim hoc negabil? atque id necessario, si sic loqui 
placeat ; scd necessitate ex hypotbesi, non absolutd ; id est( 
(ut articulus ipse se explicat,) propter peccala, idcoque quia 
peccarunt, non autem ideo quia non sunt prscdestinati. — 
Qiianquam ego (quod et patres et scholnstici sedulu faciunt) 
terminishis ['uecesaitatis'] et [' necessario'J absiinendum cen- 
serem, et pro iis ['certo'] vel ['sine dubio'] substituenda ; 
vitandas enim, quoad ejus fieri potest, Kawwpavia^. 

' [ut 

col, 772 J 
. p. 46. ed. Froben, Tol. | 

of the Lambeth Articles. 299 


Certe nemo unquam dixerit (credo) *fidem in electis fina- 
liter excidere :' ilia vero non excidit ; sed quod non excidat, 
hoc habere existimo a natura subject! sui, non sua ; ex privi- 
legio personse, non rei. Atque hoc propter apostatas, quibus 
vitio dari non debet quod excidant k fide, quae vera et viva 
nunquam fuit. 

An vero Spiritus Sanctus ad tempus auferri aut extingui 
possit, existimo quseri adhuc posse ; fateor hserere me. 

De fide;; — *Tu stas fide, noli altum sapere, sed time: 
alioquin excideris et tu;' quomodo non irrisorium prsecep- 
tum, si non possit excidere ? 

1. * Cavete ne errore abducti excidatis propria firmitate,' &c. 

2. ^ Videte ne quis deficiat k gratia Dei ; excidistis gratia, 

qui in lege,' Gal. v. 4. 

3. ^Spiritum Sanctum tuum ne auferas a me,' Ps. li. 13. 

4. * Spiritum nolite extinguere.' 

Quomodo non irrisorise prseceptiones et orationes hse, si 
nullo modo excidere h firmitate fidei aut deficere k grati& 
possimus, si nullo modo Spiritus auferri aut extingui possit? 

Etsi non sum ncscius et hoc ipsum [' non posse amitti tota- 
liter'] exponi posse sic, ut in totum prorsus vel penitus amitti 
nequeat etsi tota amittatur, id est, ita amitti ut non sit locus 
revertendi unde exciderunt. 


Existimo qu& certitudine certus quis est, se vere fidelem 
esse, aut se fide justificante praeditum, e&dem certum esse de 
salute SU& per Christum. Puto autem cam potius esse ttXi;- 
pwf>opULv spei (de qud ad Heb. vi. 11.) quam fidei, et (si un& 
voce cxprimendum sit) ireTrolOrja-iv potius qukm irurrtv, Non 
enim eandem certitudincm haberi posse de eis enuntiatis 
quae conditionem in se continent quam nos prsestare oportet 
ut verse sint, ut, * qui credit, invocat,' vel, * si credas, invoces,' 
quam de iis quae non sunt conditionatae, sed mere categorical, 
ut, * Deus est omnipotens,' sed minorem ; quae tamen non hae- 
sitet, sed assensum suum ad alteram partem contradictionis 

Bp. Aiidrefees' judgment of ihe lAimbcth Articht.\ 

Gratiam salutarem non existimo confcrri uninibus ; setl 
offerri tamen omnibus, hoc ipso quod prffiviae qusdam ad 
cam (lispositiones non solum offerantur, sed etiam confcran- 
tur omnibus; quibus illi nisi dcessent, ipsa ([uoque salutaris 
gratia illis conferretur. ' Tribui,' ' communicari,' ' conccdi,' ei 
relativEB voces sunt, ct acceptionera implicent, verum est ; sed 
si relationem non inchidant, sed ex parte Dei offerri, vel 
Deum paratum esse vel praESto ut concedat ac communicet, 
sic existimo omnibus tribui; offerri itaqnc, et prfcsto esse 
Dcum ut conferatur, per homines autem ipsos stare quod 
oblaCa non conferatur, non cnim gratiam nobis, sed dus ill! 
deesse. Aug. Df Gen. cont. Manich. lib. i." 'latud lumen uon 
irrationab ilium animaUum oculos pascit, sed pura corda corum 
qui Deo credimt, et ab amorc visibilium reruol et lem- 
poralium se ad ejus prsecepta servanda converiunC. Quod 
omnes homines possunt si velint, quia illud lumen omnium 
botninum,' &c. 

VerS dieitur 'nemiuem venire ad Filium, nisi trahatur;' et 
'omnes non trabi ut veniant ad Filium,' id est, tta trahi at 
veniant; sed et illud addendum, <quod vel non trahantur 
omnes, vel non sic trahantur, caussam esse dissolutam ipsorum 
liominum voluntatcm, non absoliiiam vohintatem Dei.' 

Non est positum aut in llbcro arbitrio cujusfjuam nisi per 
Filium Uberato, aut in potestate ullius nisi dat& illi desuper, 

Materia hujus litis futtira est : quisque ul affectua est, utque 
animum habet, vocukm aliquam pcrtrahet ad opinionem suam; 
si desit, supplebit de sensu suo: ego quod ab initio suasl 
etiamnum suadeo, Bdele utrinque gilcntium. 

Atque hiec de Priedestinatione et Keprobatione. Sed ita 
tamen, lit scntentiam et hftc in re et de ipsis articulia meque 
ipsiira per omnia Gr. Fr. censurte submissum velim. 

° [cap. ill. Vdl. i. col. 8*8.1 




' Nbminem tantft firmitate sufliiltum,' &c. * ut de salute su& 
debeat esse securus.' Ita D* Barret: jubetur retractare sic, 
' Fide justificatos/ &c. ' debere de salute su& certos esse et 

1. * Certos' non debuit addi; non enim negaverat ille, nee 
quisquam (credo) sani cerebri: san^ retractare non debuit 
quod non asseruit, nee verbum interponi cujus in articulo 
nulla mentto. 

2. ' Securum esse debere quemquam de salute/ miniis com- 
mode dictum. Certe verba ilia concionatoris censuram ef- 
fugere poterant ; leviter enim immutata, verba sunt Leonis, 
sic enim ille (dicente namque Paulo, ' Qui stat, videat ne 
cadat'), ^Nemo est tant& firmitate suffultus ut de stabilitate 

SU& debeat esse securus,' Serm. v. De quadr. Sane parcendum [p. 39.] 
fuerat, si non illi, saltern Leoni. 

Sententiam vero cur minus probem &ciunt hsec. 

1. Locus in censur& citatus nihil ad rem, nempe Mebere 
justificatos securos esse.' Locus est, Rom. v. 1, ^Fide justi- 
ficati pacem habemus erga Deum.' Certe; pacato igitur 
animo licet esse nobis, at non securo. Quippe nee pax ipsa 
secura est: nam et nobis prima cura incumbit, pax hsec ut 
vera sit; 'multi enim sanant contritionem filise mese dicentes. 
Pax, pax, et non est pax,' dicit Deus, Jer. vi. 14, et Ezek. 
xiii. 10. Deinde si vera sit, secunda cura incumbit, ne per 
violatas a nobis conditiones pacis auferatur a nobis denuo, 

r [Tid. '*Stfype'8 Life of Whitgift/* vol. ii. p. 229. sqq. Sto. Oxon. 1822.] 

Biiliop Aiiilreicfx' jwli/ou'jit 

Deo ipso (licente, Jer. xvi, 15, ' Absttili pacem meam a 
populo isto, nempc inisericordiain meam,' &c. 

Atque ut securis nobis esse non licet, quia pacem habemiu; 
ita neque quia slamus in gratifl, sive per fidem. Stanti enim 
in grntijl curandiim qnod dicit apostolus, Heb. xii, 15, ' Videte 
ne quia vestnlm deficiat a gratift Dei.' Slant! autem per fldem, 
curandum quod idem dicit, Rom. xi. 20, ' Tu fide' sive, per 
fidem, 'stas ; noli ahum sapere, sed time ;' et quod alibi, 1 Cor, 
X. 12, ' Qui Blare se putat, vidcat ne cadat ;' quse verba apo- 
stoli ab Augustino et Bernardo usurpantur contra securitatem. 
Aug.' De dono persever. cap. 8. Bern.' Serm. i. de Septuagex. 

2. Sacne literse nusquara securitatem suadent : quin potiua 
eam vocem malam in partem accipiunt ; quasi enim ab ed ab- 
aiinendum sit, nolantur ab apostolo qui eam usurpant ; ' Ciim 
dicent homines, Pax et securitas, superveniet iis repentinua 
interitus,' 1 Thess. v, 3 ; quare tanquam mall ominls decli- 
nandam ceaseo. 

3. Neque vocis ratio niagis favet. ' Securus' enim excludit 
curam et non htesitationem lantum : reverb enim cura; op- 
ponitur securitas: atqui jiibemur a Spiritu Sancto omnem 
curam subinferre; et cupere se dicit apostolus, Heb. vi. 11, 
'ut unusquisque Dostrflm eandem solicitudinem ad fiaem 
usque QstcndaL' 

4. Rei vero ipsi (nempe securitati) repiignare vidctur con- 
ditio tum vitai Christiana;, qufe militia est; turn vitie humanae, 
qujE tentatio est super teiram : quarum neutra securitateta 
fert, quin perpetuam potius curam et solicitudinem, turn 
orandi ne in tentationeni inducamur, tum considerandi noa 
ipsos ne et nos tentemiir; idque etiam iis qui spiritualea 
sunt, Oal. vi. 1. 

5. PerpetUEB IHbb Christi et aposlolorum voces, ' vigilate,' 
'attendite,' 'cavete,' 'tentate vos,' 'probate vos,' &c. excutiendce 
securitati sunt omnes, non ingenerandEe ; quid enim aliud 
sonant voces hie, quam, 'ne sitia securi?' Nee voces modo sed 
etiam sententice; Paulus, 'Cum timore et tremore operamiai 
salutem veatram,' Phil. ii. 12. Petros, 'In timore incolatils , 

■ [vol, «. tdl. 830.] 

■ [Mi. I0«0 

of the censure upon Barret 303 

vestri tempore conversamini,' 1 Pet. i. 17. Joannes, *Tene 
quod habes, ne alius accipiat coronara tuam,' Apoc. iii. 20. 
Quae omnes id agunt ut cum fide retineatur et timor, ne cer- 
titudo degeneret in securitatem. 

6. Certe D. Petrus cum jubet, ^Satagite ut certam reddatis 
electionem vestram/ ut nos eniti vult ad certitudinem, ita 
statuere videtur satagere quemque rerum suarum ut eo tan- 
dem perveniat; quasi is summus sit gradus in vit& h&c, et satis 
sit, imo prseclare nobiscum actum sit, si e5 aspirare liceat. 

7. Neque vero quoad certitudinis gradum plane sequandus 
»yidetur prsesentis vitse status cum statu futurse, sed distinctio 

aliqua retinenda, cum ultra securitatem nihil sit« Quare sit 
hoc ipsum, 'securitate frui/ peculiare iis qui defuncti jam 
sunt, et hnvUciov illud apostoli cantarunt, ^ absorpta est mors 
in victoriam ;' nos yer& hic in terris militantes, con ten ti cer- 
titudine, cedamus gradu hoc summo securitatis, et relinquamus 
eum ecclesiae in coelis triumphanti, quae sola seciura est 

8. Male autem semper successit iis qui ita se certos autuma« 
bant ut etiam securi fuerint ; Davidi suum *non movebor,' Ps. 
XXX. 6, Petro suum *etsi omnes, non ego.' Melius multo iis, 
qui ita certi ut tamen soliciti : Jobo, ^ scio quod Redemptor 
mens vivit,' &c. cap. xix. 25, et, * haec mihi spes reposita est 
in sinu meo ;' et, ^ tamen verebar omnia opera mea,' cap. ix. 28. 
Paulo, ^ certus sum quod neque mors,' &c. Rom. viii. 38 ; et, 
^ tamen castigo corpus meum, ne quo modo cum aliis prse- 
dicavero ipse reprobus efBciar,' 1 Cor. ix. 27. 

9. Tametsi quod affertur de ^carnali et spirituali securitate,' 
frigidum plane sit, cum pari ratione et de prsesumptione et 
de superbia loqui liceat, nempe per Kard'Xprjo'iVy abusive sci- 
licet ; tamen etiamsi sic mollire liceat, etiam atque etiam vi- 
dendum est quid seculi nostri et populi indoles postulet ista 
de re doceri ; et an cxpediat, his prsesertim moribus atque his 
temporibus, frigescenti hominum curse atque conatui bend 
operandi, per istiusmodi theses frigidam suffundere, et quasi 
certitudo parum sit, securitatem inculcare ; cum (ut rectfe 
Gregorius) securitas sit mater negligentise ; cumque non 
solum ex trepidatione nimia (ut in Caino) sed saepe etiam (ut 
in Saulo) ex nimia spe desperatio. 

BUIwp Andrewrs jiiili/mpiil 


ID. Ultiinu; a reccpto in ccclcsiA luqiiendi gencrc noa 
censeo recedendutii ; qui fere {cum Leone siiprk citato) sen- 
tiunt, Nee posae nos nee debere de ealute securos esse. 

a. Augustinus", Confess, x. c, 32, 'Et nemo Eecurus esae 
debet in \stk vit^ quce lots tentatio nomiaatur, utriim qui fieri 
potuerit es deteriore melior non fiat etiam ex meliore dete- 

De dono persev.'^ cap. viii. ' Deua eutem melius judicavit 
miscere quosdam non perse veraluros certo numero sanctorum 
suorum, nt quibuB non expedit in hujus vitie tentatione secu- 
ritaa, non possint eaac sccuri.' 

Ibid. cap. xxii.s' ' (jiioniam de vita !etcrn& quani filiis promis- 
sionb promisit non mendax Deus ante tempura asterna, nemo 
potest esse securus, nisi cum uonsummsta fuerit isia vita qax 
tentatio est super terram ; sed faciei nos persevcrare in se us- 
que iu ejus vitBD finem, cui quotidJe dicimus, Ne uos iuferas 
in tentatioacm.' Sic concionari docet Augustiiius. 

Ep. CXX3C. ad Frob.' ' Unde mirum videri potest, cunj sta 
secundum hoc seculum nobilis, dives, tantte familise mater, et 
ideo licet vidua non tamen desolata, quomodo occupaverit 
cor tuum prsecipueque vendicaverit orandi cura; nisi quia 
prudenter intelligis, quod in hoc mundo et in hac vitfi nidla 
anima possit esse secura :' et paulo post, ' nam etsi sibi quis- 
que, nemo alteri notus est; tamen nee sibi quisque ita notus 
est, ut sit de suft crastina conversatione securua," 

/9. Chrysostomus', Hom. xi. in Ep. ad Philip,, in verba, 
' Si quo modo apprebendam,' ' Dixi me in ipsum credidisee et 
potentiam resurrectionis ejus, et consortcni passionum ejus 
factum esse, et conformatum morti ejus, veruntamen post 
ista omnia nondum sccurus sum ;' et paulo post, ' Si ei^ qui 
tanta passus est, si qui persecutionem tulit, si qui mordfica- 
tiunem habebat, nondum securus fuit, quid dicemus nos?' 

7. Ambrosius"' in Psal, xxxvii., "Nisi forte sic iutclligamus, 
quod etsi innocens quisque ait, securua esse non possit, coi 
«nt adversits gravissimos hustes quotidians ccrtamina.' 

t. Hilarius" iu Psal. cxxxvii,, 'Nullum diem Justus quisque 

voLLcol. 187.] 

Ul BUD. ci>1. S£5.j col. 383.] 

vol. li coL 2ST.J 
vol i. col. S32. { .^S.1 
col. 560.; ]].] 

of the censure upon Barret 305 

sine metu transigit, neque anxia semper erga se fides securi 
temporis otium recipit; scit enim omnes dies insidiarum 
sibi plenos/ &c. 

6. Gregorius*, Epist xxv. ad Gregoriamy *Inutilem rem 
postulastiy quia secura de peccatis tuis fieri noQ debes, nisi 
cum jam in die vitae tuse ultimo plangere cadem peccata 
minime valebis.' 

(^. Bemardus^y Epist cvii. ad Thorn. Beverly ^ De qua tamen 
jam percept& suimet ex parte notitia, interim quidem glori- 
etur in spe, nondum tamen in securitate;' Bernardo enim 
securitas in excessu est, et opponitur timori in defectu. Vide 
Serm. in Cantic. xi.^ 

17. Fideles de prsedestinatione perseverantiaque su& incertos 
esse per omnem vitam, probat Augustinus, 

In De corrept. et gratid, cap. xiii. ^ initio fer^. 

Contra articulos sibifaUb impositos^, Artie. 12. 

In Epistold ccxvii.^ 

In De dono perseveranticBy cap. xiii.^^ baud longe ab initio. 

In De civitate Dei, lib. xi. c. 12.^ 

^ [vol. ii. coL 869.] opp. S. Aug., vol. x. Append, col. 

• [col. 1493 F.l 211.1 

' [col. 585 sqq.J « [vol. ii. col. 799.] 

f [vol. X. coL 772.] ^ [vol. x. col. 838.] 

* [Al. Prosper. Aqait pro Aug. ' [vol. vii. coL 282.] 
doctr. respons. ad object. Vincent in 










JUXTA Southamptoniensem villam eccUtia BeaUe Maria 
collapsa cemitur, solis eancellU ad Macros usui iuperttitibus : 
pauae aliquot €edes ibi in propinqud parte numerantur ; ctBtera 
parochianorum multitude hinc inde sparsim inhabitant in villis, 
turn loci longinquo intervallo, turn lestuario hnge periculoso 
divisi ab eccletid. Ex ed accedendi difficultate non prof ana 
modo plebecuke animot facile invasit misera negligentia atque 
dispretio divini cultus, ted et viri probi sedulique pietatis cul- 
tores remoram in trajectu SiBpe experti sunt, haud ipso quidetn 
capitum discrimine eluctabilem ; consortem hujus infortunii 
cum se factum sentiret (dum ibi loci familiam poneret) vir 
strenuus Ricardus Smith, armiger, heroicos plani animos 
ffestans, atque inspiratos de caslo, commune hoc religionis dis- 
pendium privaiis quingentarum aliquot librarum expensis (aut 
plus eo) redemity et capellam egregiam, quam Deo divinisque 
officiis dicari supplex vovet, in alterd parte fluminis magnified 

Spectato probatoque capelUe hujus Jesu omni adparatu, 
adest tandem reverendissimus in Christo pater, konorandissi- 
mus Lancelotus episcopus fVintoniensis, Septembris 17, anno 
1620, herd octavd matutind aut circiter; erat autem dies 
dominicus : episcopus capellam statim ingressus induit se ponti- 
ficalibusy quem secuti itidem {qui ipsi a sacris domesticis 
aderant) Matth^eus et Christophorus Wren, SS. TheoL Bacc, 
sacerdotalibus induuntur; egressus dein cum illis episcopus. 

mshop And retoes form of consecration 

convenarum magnd stipanle catervd,fundaforem affarl orditttr | 
in /i<Ecftrti verba: — 

Captain Smith, jou have been an often and earnest suitor 1 
to me, that I would come hither to yoii; now that we 
come hither to you, what have you to say to us? 

Tarn Hie prafatd humillimi reverentid schedulam porriffU, I 
gtiam suo nomine reeitari cupit per WilUelm. Cole, qni epUcopo ] 
d registris erat; earn ille, ad nuhim episcopi, clard voce tie J 
perUgit ; — 

"In the name of Richard Smith, of Peer-tree in the county I 
of Southampton, esquire, right reverend father in God, I 
present unto you the state of the village of Weston, and the 
hamlets, Itcbin, Wolston, Kidgeway, and the part of Bittern 
Manor, (being all of the parish of St. Mary's, near South- 
ampton, in the diocese of Winton,) as well in his own as in 
tbe name of the inhabitants of the said village, hamlets, 
&c., wherein arc many households, and much people of all 
eorts, who not only dwell far from the church, but are also 
divided from the same by the great river of Itchin, where 
the passage is very broad, and often dangerous, and very 
many times on the days appointed for common prayer and 
that service of God, so lempcstuous, as the river cannot be 
passed ; and so the people go not over at all, or if any do, yet 
they both go and return back in great danger, and sometimes 
not the same day. Besides, in the fairest weather, at their 
return from church they press so thick into the boat for haste 
home, that often it proves dangerous, and ever fearful, espe- 
cially to women with child, old, impotent, sickly people, and 
to young children ; many times also they are forced to baptize , 
their children in private houses, the water not being passable; 
and when they He sick, they are witliout comfort to their 
eouls, and die without any ghostly advice or counsel; their 
own minister not being able to visit them, by reason of the 
roughness of the water, and other ministei-s being some miles 
off remote from them. 

" And thus much formerly having been presented to your j 
predecessor, he favourably gave leave to the said Richard j 
Smith to erect a chapel on the east side oC the said river, at ] 

of a church and churchyard. 311 

the only proper cost and charges of him the said Richard 
Smith; which chapel being now finished^ with intent and 
purpose that it may be dedicated to the worship of God> and 
that His holy and blessed name might there be honoured and 
called upon by the said Richard Smithy his family, and the 
inhabitants aforesaid, who cannot without great danger pass 
over unto their parish church; I, in the name of the said 
Richard Smith, and in the name of them all, do promise 
hereafter to refuse and renounce to put this chapel, or any 
part of it, to any profane or common use whatsoever ; and 
desire it may be dedicated and consecrated wholly and only 
to religious uses, for the glory of God, and the salvation of 
our souls. 

^^ In which respect he humbly beseecheth God to accept of 
this his sincere intent and purpose, and he and they are 
together humble suitors unto your lordship, as God's minister, 
the bishop and ordinary of this diocese, in God's stead to 
accept of this his free-will offering ; and to decree this chapel 
to be severed from all common and profane uses, and so to 
sever it; as also by the word of God and prayer, and other 
spiritual and religious duties, to dedicate and consecrate it to 
the sacred name of God, and to His service and worship only ; 
promising that we will ever hold it as an holy place, even as 
God's house, and use it accordingly ; and that we will from 
time to time, and ever hereafter as need shall be, see it con- 
veniently repaired, and decently furnished in such sort as a 
chapel ought to be ; and that we will procure us some suffi- 
cient clerk, being in the holy order of priesthood, by your 
lordship, as ordinary of that place, and by your successors to 
be allowed and licensed, and unto him to yield competent 
maintenance, to the end that he may take upon him the cure 
of the said chapel ; and duly say divine service in the same 
at times appointed, and perform all other such offices and 
duties, as by the canons of that church, and the laws of the 
realm, every curate is bound to perform." 

Post hcBC episcopus. 

Captain Smith, is this the desire of you and your neigh- 

312 Bishop Andreices form of cvmecration 

Quo affirmato, ille : — 
In the name of God let us begin. 

Ordilur igilur a paalmo xxiv, 
" The earth is the Lord's, and all that is therein," &c. 

Altemi vera respondejit uterque gacellanus, et sic deinceps ad 
Jinem psalmi; dictd avlem ho^oXor/ia, paulatim se promooet 
episcopus ad portam capella, atque recital i psalmo cxxii. 

" I was glad whan they said unto me, We will go into the 
house of the I^rd ; our feet shall stand in thy gates, O 

Substitit itaque pr<B foribus universa multitudo, intrante epi- 
scope et fundatore cum sacelianis, qui genua stalim Jlectuni 
vbi spectari Commode oudirique possinl ^ plebe; atque epUeopuB 

Let us dedicate and offer up unto God this place with the 
same prayer that king David did dedicate and offer up bis, 
1 Chron. xx'ix. 10; 

" Blessed be Thou, O Lord our God, and the God of our 
fathers, for ever and ever," &c., usque ad finem ver. 1 8, paucU 
mutatis; deinde 

Most glorious God, the heaven is Thy throne, aod the 
earth is Thy footstool; what house then can be built for 
Thee, or what place is there that Thou canst rest in ? How- 
beit we are taught by Thy holy word, that Thy will is not to 
dwell in the dark cloud, but that Thy delight bath been ever 
with the sons of men ; so that in any place whatsoever, where 
two or three arc gathered together in Thy name, Thou art in 
the midst of them ; but specially in such places as are set 
apart and sanctified to Thy name, and to the memory of it, 
there Thou hast said Thou wilt vouchsafe Thy gracious 
presence after a more special manner, and come to us and 
bless us. 

Wherefore in all ages of the world Thy servants have sepa- 
rated certain places from all profane and common uses, and 
hallowed unto Thy divine worship and service, either by 1 

of a church and churchyard. 313 

ingplratioii of Thy blessed Spirit, or by express commaodment 
from Thiae own mouth. 

By inspiration of Thy Holy Spirit; ao didst Thou put 
into the heart of Thy holy patriarch Jacob, to erect a stODe 
in Betliel to be an house to Thee, which act of his Thou 
didst call for, and hi^^hly allow of. 

By express commandment from Thine own mouth; so did 
Moses make Thee the tabernacle of the congregation in the 
desert, which Thou didst honour by covering it with a cloud, 
and filling it with Thy glory. 

And after, when it came into the heart of Thy servant 
David to think it was in no wise fitting that himself should 
dwell in an house of cedar, and the ark of Gotl remain but in 
a tabernacle, Thou didst testify with Thine own mouth, that 
in that David was so minded to build a house to Thy name, 
it was well done of him to be so minded, though he built 
it not. 

The material furniture for which house though his father 
plentifully prepared, yet Solomon his son built it and brought 
it to perfeclion. To which house Thou wert pleased visibly 
to send fire from heaven to consume the sacrifice, and to fill 
it with the glory of Thy presence, before all the people. 

And after, when for the sins of Thy people that temple was 
destroyed. Thou didst by Thy prophets, A^ai and Zacbary, 
(by shewing how inconvenient it was that they should dwell 
in ceiled houses, and let Thy house lie waale,) stir up the 
spirit of Zorubabel to build Thee the second temple anew; 
which second house likewise by the fulness of the gloiy of 
Thy presence Thou didst shew Thyself to like and allow of. 

Neither only wert Thou well pleased with such as did build 
Thee these temples, but even with such of the people after- 
wards as, being moved with zeal, added unto their temple, 
their mother church, lesser places of prayer, by the names 
of synagogues, in every town throughout the land ; for the 
tribes to ascend up to worship Thee, to learn Thy holy will, 
and to do it. Which very act of the centurion, to build Thy 
people a synagogue, Thou didst well approve and commend 
in the gospel. 

And by the bodily presence of Thy Son our Saviour at 
the feast of the dedication, testified by Si. John, didst really 

314 Bishop Andrewei form of coruecraCian 

well allow of and do hononr to Buch devout religious Eervices . 
as we are now about to perform. 

Which also by Thy holy word hast taught us, that Tbiae 
apostles themselves, and the christians in their time, as tbey 
had houses to eat and drink in, so had they also where the 
whole congregation of the faithful came together in one place, 
which they expressly called God's church, and would not have 
It despised, nor abused, nor eaten nor drunken in, but had in 
great reverence, being the very place of their holy assemblies. 

By whose godly examples the christians in all ages succes- 
sively have erected and consecrated sundry godly houses for 
the celebration of divine service and worship, monuments of 
their piety and devotion, as our eyes see thia day, 

We then, as fellow-citizens with the saints and of the 
household of God, being built upon the foundation of the 
apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the head 
comer-stone ; walking in the steps of their most holy faith, 
and ensuing the examples of these Thy patriarchs, prophets, 
and apostles, have together with them done the same work, I 
say, in building and dedicating this house, as an habitation 
for Thee, and a place for us to assemble and meet together 
for the observation of Thy divine worship, invocation of Thy 
name, reading, preaching, and hearing Thy most holy word, 
administering Thy most holy sacraments; and above all in 
Thy most holy place, the very gate of heaven upon earth, aa 
Jacob named it, to do the work of heaven; to set forth Thy 
most worthy praise, to laud and magnify Thy most glorious 
Majesty, for all Thy goodness to all men; especially to us of 
the household of laith. Accept, therefore, we beseech Thee, 
most gracious Father, of this our bounden duty and service ; 
accept this for Thine house ; and because Thine holiness he- 
comes Thine house for ever, sanctify this house with Thy 
gracious presence, which is erected to the honour of Thy most 
glorious name. 

Now therefore, arise, O Lord, and come into this place of 
Thy rest, Thou and the ark of Thy strength ; let Thine eye 
be open towards this house day and night; let Thine ears be 
ready towards the prayers of Thy children which they shall 
make unto Thee in this place, and let Thine heart delight to 
dwell here perpetually: and whensoever Thy servants shall 


of a church and churchyard. 315 

make to Thee their petitions in this house^ either to bestow 
I'hy good graces and blessings upon them^ or to remove Thy 
punishments and judgments from them; hear them from 
heaven Thy dwelling-place, the throne of the glory of Thy 
kingdom, and when Thou hearest, have mercy ; and grant, O 
Lord, we beseech Thee, that here and elsewhere Thy priests 
may be clothed with righteousness, and Thy sidnts rejoice in 
Thy salvation. 

And whereas both in the Old and New testament Thou 
hast consecrated the measuring out and building of a material 
church to such an excellent mystery, that in it is signified and 
presented the fixution of the joy of Thy heavenly kingdom, 
we beseech Thee that in this material temple made with 
hands we may so serve and please Thee in all holy exercises 
of godliness and christian religion, that in the end we may 
come to that Thy temple on high, even to the holy places 
made without hands, whose builder and maker is God ; so as 
when we shall cease to pray to Thee on earth, we may with 
all those that have in the like manner erected such places to Thy 
name, and with all Thy saints eternally praise Thee in the 
highest heavens, for all Thy goodness vouchsafed us for a time 
here on earth, and laid up for us there in Thy kingdom for 
ever and ever; and that for Thy dear Son's sake, our blessed 
Saviour, Jesus Christ, to whom, &c. 

Blessed Father, who hast promised in Thy holy law that in 
every place where the remembrance of Thy name shall be 
put. Thou wilt come unto us and bless us ; according to that 
Thy promise, come unto us and bless us, who put now upon 
this place the memorial of Thy name, by dedicating it wholly 
and only to Thy service and worship. 

Blessed Saviour, who in the gospel with Thy bodily pre- 
sence didst honour and adorn the feast of the dedication of the 
temple ; at this dedication of this temple unto Thee, be pre- 
sent also, and accept, good Lord, and prosper the work of our 

Blessed Spirit, without whom nothing is holy, no person 
or place is sanctified aright, send down upon this place Thy 
sanctifying power and grace, hallow it, and make it to Thee 
an holy habitation for ever. 

Blessed and glorious Trinity, by whose power, wisdom, and 

Bishop Aiidrewes' form of consecration 

love, all things are purge<l, lightened, and made perfect; 
enable ub with Thy power, enlighten us with Thy truth, per^ 
feet us with Thy grace, that hoth here and elsewhere, acknow- 
ledging the glory of Thy eternal Trinity, and in the power of 
Thy divine majesty worshipping the Unity, we may obtain 
to the fruition of the glorious godhead, Trinity in Unity, and 
Unity in Trinity, to be adored for ever. 

God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy QhoBt, 
accept, eanctify, and blesa this place to the end whereunto, 
according to His own ordinance, we have ordained it; to be 
a sanctuary to the Most high, and a church for the living 
God. The Lord with Hib favour ever mercifully behold it, 
and go send upon It His spiritual benediction and grace, that 
it may be the bouse of God to Him, and the gate of heavea 
to us. Amen. 

Hac precatus episcopus baptiaterium adit, atque impositd 

Regard, O Lord, the supplications of Thy servants, and 
grant that those children that shall be baptized in this laver of 
the new birtli may be sanctified and washed with the Holy 
Ghost, dehvcred from Thy wrath, received into the ark of 
Christ's church, receive herein the fulness of grace, and ever 
remain in the number of Thy faithful and elect children. 

Suggestum dein ; 

Grant that Thy holy word, which from this place shall be 

preached, may be the savour of life unto life, and as good 

seed take rout and fructify in the hearts of all that shall 

hear it. 

'ApoKoyelov quoqve ; 

Grant that by Thy holy word, which from this place shall 

be read, the hearers may both perceive and know what things 

they ought to do, and also may have grace and power to fulfil 

the same. 

Sacram eliam niensam ; 

Grant that all they that shall at any time partake at this 

table the highest blessing of all, Thy holy communion, may 

of a church and churchyard, 317 

be fulfilled with Thy grace and heavenly benediction, and 
may to their great and endless comfort obtain remission of 
their sins, and all other benefits of Thy passion. 

Locum nuptiarum ; 

Grant that such persons as shall be here joined together in 
the holy estate of matrimony by the covenant of God, may 
live together in holy love unto their lives' end. 

Universum denique pavimentum. 

Grant to such bodies as shall be here interred, that they 
with us, and we with them, may have our perfect consumma- 
tion and bliss, both in body and soul, in Thine everlasting 

Tumjlexis genibus ante sacram mensam pergit porro. 

Grant that this place, which is here dedicated to Thee by 
our o£Bce and ministry, may also be hallowed by the sanctify- 
ing power of Thy holy Spirit, and so for ever continue 
through Thy mercy, O blessed Lord God, who dost live and 
govern all things, world without end. 

Grant as this chapel is separated from all other common 
and profane uses, and dedicated to those that be sacred only, 
so may all those be that enter into it. 

Grant that all wandering thoughts, all carnal and worldly 
imaginations, may be far fi*om them, and all godly and spiri- 
tual cogitations may come in their place, and may be daily 
renewed and grow in them. 

Grant that those Thy servants that shall come into this Thy 
holy temple, may themselves be made the temples of the Holy 
Ghost, eschewing all things contrary to their profession, and 
following all such things as are agreeable to the same. 

When they pray, that their prayers may ascend up into 
heaven into Thy presence, as the incense ; and the lifting up 
of their hands be as the morning sacrifice ; purify their hearts, 
and grant them their hearts' desire, sanctify their spirits, 
and fulfil all their minds, that what they faithfiilly ask, they 
may efiectually obtain the same. 

When they offer, that their oblation and alms may come up 

Bishop Amlrewes furm of consecration 

as a memorial before Thee, and they find and feel that with 
such sacrifices Thou art well pleased. 

When they sing, that their souls may be satisfied as with 
marrow and fatness, when their mouth praiseth Thee with 
joyful lips. 

When they hear, that they hear not as the word of rnaOf 
but aa indeed it is, the word of God, and not be idle hearer^ 
but doers of the same. 

Populus interea tacile tttgresius in imis substitit, dum li<tc in 
cartceilts ogerentur ; quibvs Jinitis, sejes guisque suas jtissi 
vapessuTit, aique ad soUnnem liturgiam sacellani te paranl. 

Alter lacellanorJtm ci 

i mejisd venerans sic incipit -■ 

If we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the 
truth, &c. 

Confessionem, absolutionem, dominicam ■n-poa-ev^iji' recitunt, 
ifc.-^Psalmos cartuTit pro tempore accotnmodos, ps. Ixxxiv, 
czxli. et czxxii., altemis respondente populo quibua facuUoM 
eral et libri. — Lectio prima definitur h Gen. xxriii. & vertu 
prima ad Jinem. — Hymn., Te Deum, ^c. — Lectio secunda ex 
secundo capite S. Joan. a. versu 13 adjinem. — Hymn., R. c. 

"I believe in God the Father almighty, Maker of heaven 
and earth," &c. 

Et post tisitatas eollectas hanc tpecialem addidit episcopus : 
O Lord God, mighty and glorious, and of incomprehensible 
majesty. Thou fiUest heaven and earth with the glory of Thy 
presence, and canst not be contained within any the largest 
compass, much less within the narrow walls of this room ; yet 
forasmuch aa Thou hast been pleased to command in Thy 
holy law that we should put the remembrance of Thy name 
upon places, and in every such place Thou wilt come to ua 
and bless ns, we are here now assembled to put Thy name 
upon this place and the memorial of it, to make it Thy house, 
to devote and dedicate it for ever unto Thee, utterly sepa- 
rating it from all worldly uses, and wholly and only consecrate 
it to the invocation of Thy glorious name: wherein suppli- 

of a church and churchyard, 319 

cations and intercessions may be made for all men; Thy sacred 
word may be read^ preached, and heard; the holy sacraments 
(the laver of regeneration, and the commemoration of the pre- 
cious death of Thy dear Son) may be administered; Thy 
praise celebrated and sounded forth ; Thy people blessed by 
putting Thy name upon them. We, poor and miserable crea- 
tures as we are, be altogether unfit and utterly unworthy to 
appoint any earthly thing to so great a God ; and I the least of 
all Thy servants, no ways meet to appear before Thee in so 
honourable a service ; yet being Thou hast oft heretofore been 
pleased to accept such poor offerings from sinful men, most 
humbly we beseech Thee, foi^iving our manifold sins, and 
making us worthy by counting us so, to vouchsafe to be pre- 
sent here among us in this religious action, and what we sin- 
cerely offer, graciously to accept at our hands ; to receive the 
prayers of us, and all others who either now or hereafter en- 
tering into this place, by us hallowed, shall call upon Thee ; 
and give us all grace when we shall come into the house of 
God, that we may look to our feet, knowing that the place we 
stand on is holy ground, bringing hither clean thoughts and 
undefiled bodies, Uiat we may wash both our hearts and hands 
in innocency, and so compass Thine altar. 

Jam alter sacellantis denuo exiens^ et venerans ante sacram 
mensamy incipit Ktaniam ; in fine cujus recitavit hoc ipse epi- 
scopus : — 

O Lord God, who dwellest not in temples made with 
hands (as saith the prophet), yet hast ever vouchsafed to 
accept the devout endeavours of Thy poor servants, allotting 
special places for Thy divine worship, promising even there 
to hear and grant their requests ; I humbly beseech Thee to 
accept of this day's duty and service of dedicating this chapel 
to Thy great and glorious name; fulfil, O Lord, I pray 
Thee, Thy gracious promises, that whatsoever prayer in this 
sacred place shall be made according to Thy will, may be ac- 
cepted by Thy gracious favour, and returned with their desired 
success to Thy glory and our comfort Amen. 

JPost benedictionem populi cantatur psalm, cxxxii., conscen^ 
diigue suffffestum M. Robinson, Theol. Bac.y fundatoris summo 

320 Bkhup Andrewen' /vrm of eongecratiojt 

Togatu : episcopua hoc ei tandem eoncessil; {geminas toraret iUs' 
atque fundator in mores diixerant, sed titrdque defunctd, Jam 
tertiis gaudehat thalamh concionator ;) thema ejut demmptum i 
Gen. cap. xxvUi. ver. 16, 17; inter ccetera docte" egit de omni- 
prceaentid diviad, ubivis hcorum, turn xpeciatim (pro benepladto 
mo) in ecclesid, deque reverentid et veneratione ibi dehitd. — 
^rgitur in liturgid, qud mulier qinedam pavpercula purifi- 
canda ad limen eancellorum accedens, genua Jlectit, gratiaaqut 
post partum, solenni eccUHte ritu, agit ; baptizandits autem vet 
matrimonio jungendus, nulhts aderat. — Itur dein ad coma 
dominicte administrationem, sacellanorum allero ad australem, 
altera ad septentrionalem partem sacra menaa genu flectenta 
et dicente : — 

"Our Father, which art in heavcD, hallowed be Thy name," 

AiUe epistola lectioneTn hane spedalem eolleetam, wi^ cum 
collectd solitd pro rege, recital sacellanorum alter: — 

Moat blessed Saviour, who bj Thy bodily presence at the 
feast of dedication didst honour and approve such devout and 
religious services as we have now in hand, be Thou present 
also at this time with us, and consecrate us into an holy tem- 
ple unto Thyself, that Thou dwelling in our hearts by faith, 
we may be cleansed from all carnal affections, and devoutly 
given to serve Thee in alt good works. Amen. 

EpiBtolam secundua aacellanug, ante sacram mensam stans, 
legit ex 1 Cor. cap. iii, a ver. 16 ad Jinem. — SS. evangelium i 
prior sacellanus iUdem starts recitat i cap. x. S. Joannis d j 
ver. 22 ad Jinan. — Dein symbolum Nicanum, omnibus etiatn j 

Post ilia episcopus, sede s 
provolvit atijue ait ; — 

Let us pray the prayer of king Solomon, which he prayed 
tuple, the first temple 

? egressus, cmam sacrd mensd aese 

in the day of the dedication of hit 
that ever was, g Chron. vi. ab initio i 
Jinito ait : — 

, 40, 


Thus prayed king Solomon, and the Lord appeared unto I 

of a church ami i-hnrcht/ard. 321 

him, and ansnered and said unto bim, I have heard thy 
prayer, and have choeen this place for Myself, to be an house 
of sacrifice, 2 Chron. vii. 12. 

Thus did God answer; we have prayed with Solomon, 
answer us, O Lord, and our prayer, as Thou didst him and 
bis; behold the face of Thine anointed, even Christ our 
Saviour, and fur His sake f^rant our requests. 

Dein in cathedram ibidem se collocat, assidentibtu Thumd 
Ridley canceilario episcopi it dextrU, a sinistris verb doctors 
Barlo archidiacono IVinton., acltimque eonsecratioiiis, pilea 
tectus, promulgat in hanc fnrmam : — 

In nomine Domini Amen. Cum strenuus vir Ricardus 
Smith de Peer-tree in comitatu Southarapt. armiger, pi& et 
religiosa devotlone ductus, capellam hanc in quottam solo 
vasto vocato Ridg way-heath, juxta OBdes suas communiter 
nuncupatos Peer-tree, infra parochiam ecclesiee paroch. Bcatce 
Marite juxta villam Southampt. diocescos ct jurisdictionis 
nostriE, continentem intra muros ejusdem in longitudine ab 
Orientc ad Occidentem quinquaginta [wdes et dimid. aut 
circiter, in latitudine vero ab Aquilone ad Austrum vi- 
gioti pedes et dimid. aut circiter, propriis suis sumptibua 
sedificaverit, ercscrit, ct construxerit ; eandemque capellam 
cancellis ligneJs distiuxerit; sacnt mens!\ decenter inatructH, 
baptisterio, pulpito, sedibus convcnienlibus, tarn infra super 
solum quiun supra in modum galeriai, campanS ctiam aliisque 
necessariis ad divlnum cultum suSicienler ct decenter oma- 
verit; nobisque supplicaverit tarn suo nomine quam altonim 
inhabitantlum in vilii'i de Weston, ac hamlettis de Itchin, 
Hidgway, ac quorundam etiam inhabitantium In manerio 
nostro de Bitternc, de parochi'i prsedictit, qualenus nos auc- 
toritate nostrfL ordinari:! ct cpiscopali pro nobis et succea- 
eoribus nostris dictam capellam ab uaibus pristinis commu- 
nibus et profanis quibuscunque scparare, et in usus Bacros 
et divinos consecrare et dedicarc dlgnaremur. 

Nos Laucelotus permissione divinl Wioton. episcopus, 
plo ct religioso tani ipsius quam aliorum in villH et hamlettis 
prsdictis habitant lum desiderio in h4c parte favorabihter 
ariiiucntes, ad coneecrationem capellie hujus dc novo pro- 

Bishop Andrewei farm of conatcration 

priis suraptibus dtcti strenui viri Kicardi Smith, sic ut pre»* 4 
fertur erectie et ornate, auctoritatc nostril ordinarifi et epi- j 
scopali procedentes, eandem capellam ab omni comiiiuni etj 
profaQO usu in perpetiium scparamus, et soli divino cultui aa J 
divinorum cclcbrationi in perpetuum addiciinus, dicamiis, de« fl 
dicamus : ac InEuper eudem auctoritatc nostril ordinari^ et epi- J 
scopali, pro nobis et successonbus nostris licentiam pariter et A 
facultatcm in Doniino conceditnus, ad rem divinani ibidem J 
faciendatn, nempe preces publicas et sacram ecclesiffi litur- 
giam rccitandaui, ac verbum Dei sincere proponendum et 
pnedicaudum, sacramenta sacrx eucharistiie et baptismatis 
in efidem mintstranda, matrimonia solemnizanda, mulieres 
post puerperium ad gratiarum actionem piiblicam recipiendaa 
et adjuvandas, mortuus sepcliendos, oa:teraque quxcunque 
peragenda, quse in aliis capellis licite fieri possunt et solent. 
Ac tam presbytero in capellH prtedicta deservituro precea 
divinas dicendi, cseteraque prcemissa facicodi, quam domino 
Bicardo Smith, et familia; ejus, reliquisqiie in dictis locis 
habitantibus, preces divinas audiendi, ca^teraque priemissa 
percipiendi, plenam in Domino potestatem conccdimua, Ean- 
demque capellam ad levamen (anglice, 'a chapel of ease') sub 
diclS ecclesia parochiali B. MariEe juxta villam SouthampL 
tanquam matrlce ecclesia sufl, quantum in nobis est, et de jure 
divino, canonibus ecclesise et statutis hujua rcgni Angha: pos- 
BumuB, in honorem Dei et sacros inbabitantium uaus, nunc et 
in futurum consecramus, per nonien capellie Jeeu in parochi& 
sanctai Mariie juxta villam Southampt., et sic consecratam 
futsse, et esse, et in futuris perpetuis temporibus remanere 
debere, palam et pubHce pronunciamus, decernimus, et de- 
claramus; et per nomen capellie Jebu nomiDamus ct appel- 
lamus, et sic perpctuis futuris temporibus nominandam et i 
appellandam fore decernimus : privilegiia insuper omnibus et J 
singulis in capite usitatis, et capellis ab antiquo fundatis com- 
petenlibus, capellam hanc Jesu pnedictam ad omnem juria 
elfectum munitam et stabilitam esse volumus; et quantum in J 
nobis est, ct de jure divino possumus, sic munimus et stabili- 
inus per prtesentes; absque prsejudicio tamen ullo, et salvo I 
semper jure et interesse ecclesiie parochialis sancta; Mange i 
juxta villam Southampt. tanquam matricis ecclesiffi ; et rec- j 
loris, guardianorum, aliorumquc ministrorum cjusdem pro [ 

of a church and churchyard, 

tempore existentium (in cujus paroehiii dicta capella Jesu 
notorie aita et situata est) in omnibuH et siugulia decimis, ob- 
lationibus, obventionibus, vadiis, feudis, proficuis, prtvilegiia, 
jiiribus et emolumentis quibuacunque ordinariis et extraor- 
dinariis cisdem respective debitis vel consuetia, ac infra prte- 
cinctiim sen limites capells Jesu prsedictte orientibus et pro- 
venientibus, et ad dictam eccleaiam matricem Banctffi Marise, 
rectori, guardiania vcl aliis ministris ejusdem dc jure vel 
consuetudine quoquo modo spectantibua vel periinentibus, 
in lam amplis iiiodo et fornift prout eisdem debebanlur aut 
solvi BolebaQt ante banc nostram consecrationem bujua ca- 
pe Use prEedicCse. 

Froviao, quod praidicius strcnuus vir Ricardus Sciith, ac 
ejus h^redes ct Hssignati, aliique in dicta villA et bamlettis, &c. 
habitantes, nun solum dictam capellam, quoties opus fiierit, 
impensis suia propriia reficere et reparare, aed etiam ad re- 
parationes prsedictse matricis cccleaiae aanctse Marise juxta 
villain Soutbampt., et ccemcterii ejusdem ecclesiie, ac ad 
omnia alia onera ad quie cieleri parochiani dictie matricis 
ecclesiie teneantur. 

Proviso etiam, quod tarn dictus strenuus vir Ricardua 
Smith, b^rcdes ct assigoati ejus, quam reliqui omnea in 
dictia villis et hamlettia, &c. babitantes, in signum subjec- 
tionis capellic bujus sub ecclesi^ matrice beatse Marise juxta 
Soutbampt. ac senioritatis ejusdem ccclesije supra dictam ca- 
pellam, singulis aonis de tempore ad tempua nd festum pas- 
cbatia, vel ad festum pentecostes, ad dictam ecclesiam ma- 
tricem venire, et in dictft matrice ecclcsifh tantiim, non in 
dictt capellii, (si tuto ad ecclesiam parocbialera venire pos- 
sint,) preces audire, ct sacramentum eucharistiae ibidem per- 
cipere; vel si tempeatate aut alio impedimeuto delineantur 
quo minus tunc venire possint, turn die dominico, quo tuto 
venire possunt, subsequcnte, venire et eucharistiam accipere 
omniuo teneantur, absque special! licentia nostrfL seu vicarii 
nostri gcneralis in hfic parte obtentA. 

Proviso etiam, quod in dict& capelld sacramentum baptis- 
matis non ministretur, ncc matrimonia solemuizentur, neque 
verbum Dei prtedicetur, neque sacramenta vel sacramentalia 
aliquibus pro&nis conferantur, prseterqu&m solis inbabitan- 
ttbuE 9CU degentibus in villa, bamlettis, &c. prsedictis, uec 

r del 

Bishop Andretaes' Jbrm of consecration 

etiam reliquls dictse matricis ecclesiro parochiania in occi- 
denUU parte ripse inhabitantibus, inacio vel invito rectore 
ecclcsiie matricis saoctae Mariie juxta villam Soiithampt. 
preedictam, eeu absque assensu, consensu et liccntii ejuadein 
prius habil& et obtcntft. 

Et iilteriiis, dicto atrenuo Ricardo Smith, hteredibtis et. 
aflsignatis suis, liberam et plenam potestatem in Domino con- 
cedimuB per pnesentes, idoncum presbyterum de tempore in 
tempus nominandi ad deserviendiim et divina officia in dict& 
capell4 excquenda, k nobis et successoribus nostris de tem- 
pore in tempos approbandum et licentiandum : ad quod dic- 
tus strenutis vir H. Smith, ha^redos et assignati sui, et reliqui 
in dictis vill& et hamlettis, &c. inliabitantes de tempore in 
tempus in futuruni propriis suis sumptibus dictum presby 
terum sivc curatnni in eMem capellA deservientem, et auc- 
toritate nostrii vel succesaorum nostrorum ut praefortiir ap- 
probatum et licentiatum, alent et sustinebunt, ac anniiale sti- 
pendium viginti marcarum ad minimum eidem presbjtcro vel 
curato prsestabunt, et aotvcnt ad quatuor festa, Nalivitatis 
Christi, Annunciationis, Nativitalis sancti Johannis baptistas, 
et sancti Michaelis, per tequales portiones, sine ulla tamen 
diniiuutionc vel defalcattone juris ecclesiastici, decimaruoi, 
oblationum, vel obventiouum quarumcunque ad dictam eccle- 
siam parocbialem sancti Marise, bcu ad rectorem ejus pro 
tempore existentem, quo modo de jure vel conauetudine spc^ 
tantium seu pertincntium. 

Et ulterius, quod pro sepulturis in capelld prsedictA, et in 
choro seu navi cjusdem, omnibusque aliis in dicti capelii 
vel extra gercndis, vadia, quoad defVinctos tarn in domo dictt 
strenui viri R. Smith, bEcredum et assignatorum suorum, quam 
in dict4 villi, hamlettis, &c., rectori dictie ecclesia: matrieiB 
pro tempore oxistenti, et successoribus suis, et guardianis 
respeclLve, et clerico, cieterisque ministris dictie ecclesiie 
parochialia dcbite soivantur, in tarn amplia modo et formft 
prout pro sepulluriB in choro seu intra cancellos seu etiam in 
navi dictie ecclestte matricis solvi consuetum fuit, ct prout 
Golvi aolet et deberet si personie pnedictee Intra cancellos seu 
navim dictas matricis ecclesiie sepulta: fuisaent. 

Quod si autem altquando defuerit in dictft capel 
bytcr, curalus lecitime per nos aul successores noatros licea- 



of a church and churchyard. 325 

liatns et approbatus, tunc prsedictus strenuus vir R. Smithy 
haeredes et assignati sui ac reliqui in dict& villft, et ham- 
lettis, &c. inhabitantes, ad matricem ecclesiam convenire^ 
aut ibidem precibus interesse teneantur^ prout ant^ solebant, 
donee dicta capella de legitime curato ad ibidem divina cele- 
branda idonee provideatur et idem admittatur. Qudd si au- 
tem aliquo tempore in postenim (quod Deus avertat) per con- 
tinuos sex menses per culpam aut negligentiam parochianorum 
defuerit idoneus curatus in dict& capella qui ibidem divina 
celebret, aut si curatus sit qui per sex menses continues non 
celebret, tunc nobis et successoribus nostris potestatem reser- 
vamus pro e& vice tantum idoneum curatum ad dictam ca- 
pellam nominandi, ad supplendam negligentiam dictorum 
R. Smith, hseredum et assignatorum suorum. Quod si autem 
dicta capella decenter non fuerit reparata vel instructa libris 
aliisque ad cultum divinum necessariis, per tempus pnedictum, 
(nisi ex legitime in ea parte causd, per episcopum approbandd. 
hoc contigerit,) tunc iu perpetuum post dictos sex menses 
continuos sic elapsos, teneantur omnes infra prsecinctum seu 
limites dictse capellse inhabitantes ad matricem ecclesiam 
convenire, pro divinis audiendis, prout ante banc nostram 
consecrationem tenebantur; aliqu& in h&c concessione seu 
consecratione nostra in contrarium non obstante, ac perinde 
ac si hsec concessio seu consecratio facta nunquam fuisset. 

Postremo reservamus nobis et successoribus nostris, epi- 
scopis Win ton., potestatem visitandi dictam capellam, prout 
alias capellas infra nostram diocesin situatas, communiter 
nuncupatas peculiares, ut nobis eisque constet an decenter in 
reparationibus aliisque conservetur, et an omnia ibidem de- 
center et secundum ordinem fiant. Quae omnia et singula 
sic reservamus; quoad csetera vcro prsemissa, quatenus in 
nobis est, et de jure possumus, pro nobis et successoribus 
nostris decemimus et stabilimus per prsesentes. 

Actu demum recitato veneratur denuo, atque infit. 

Blessed be Thy name, O Lord God, for that it pleased 
Tliee to have Thy habitation among the sons of men, and 
to dwell in the midst of the assembly of Thy saints upon 
earth ; bless, we beseech Thee, this day's actioo unto Thy 

Biihnp Atidreices form of consecration 

people ; prosper Thou the work of our hands 
prosper Thou our handy -work. 

Finitis precationibus istis dominus epiacopus 
tim capesiit uH prius, popuhiaqve tiniversus non commttnica- 
turns dimittitur, el porta claudUur. — Prior saceilanus pergit 
legendo sententias Was hortatorias ad eUemosynas, interea dunk 
alter saceilanus sinffulos communicaluros adit, atque in pati- 
nam argmteam oblationes colligit; collecta est summa 41. 12s, 2dm. 
guam dominus episcopus convertendam in calicem huic capeUat 
donandum decemit, 

Cceteris rebus ordine gestis, demum episcopus saeram mensam 
redit, (sacellanis utrisgue ad aliguantiilum recedentibvs,) lotisqvM 
maiiibus, pane fracto, vino in calicem effitfo, et agud admistd, 
starts ait. 

Almighty God our heavenly Father, who of His great 
mercy hath, &c. 

Eucharistiam ipse prima loco accipit sub ntrdgue specie, 
proximo loco tradit fundatori, (guem jam coram sacrd mejud 
in geuna supplicem collocdrant,) dein utrigue sacellano ; ad 
cateros vero pergentem episcopum atgve panem iia tradentemt 
prior saceilanus subseguitur, et calicem ordine porrigil. Cum 
vinum, quod prius effuderat, mm siifficeret, episcopus de novo 
in calicem ex poculo gi/od in sacrd mensa stabat effundit, admit- 
tdque agud, recital clari verba ilia consecrataria. 

Finild tandem exhibitione dominus episcopus ad sacras menset 
septentrionem in genilnis, redtante guoque populo, ait .- — 

Our Father, which art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name*- 

O Lord our heavenly Father, we Thy humble servants 
entirely desire, &c. 

Glory be to God 
towards men. 

on high, and in earth peace, goodwill 

Concludil denigue cum hdc precatione. 

Blessed be Thy name, O Lord, that it hath ])leased The 

to put into the heart of this Thy servant to erect an house 1 

of a church and churchyard. 327 

Thy worship and service, by whose pains, care, and cost, this 
work was begun and finished. Bless, O Lord, bis substance 
and accept the work of his hands ; remember him, O our 
God, concerning this ; wipe not out this kindness of bis that 
he hath shewed for the house of his God and the offices 
thereof; and make them truly thankful to Thee, that shall 
enjoy the benefit thereof, and the ease of it ; and what is by 
him well intended, make them rightly to use it, which will 
be the best fi-uit, and to God most acceptable. 

Post hcBc vota populum starts dimittit cum benedictione hdc. 

The peace of God, which passeth all understanding, keep 
your hearts and minds in the knowledge and love of God, 
and of His Son Jesus Christ our Lord ; and the blessing of 
God almighty, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, be 
amongst you, and remain with you always. Amen. 


STA TIM a prandio {quod in (Bdibus suis vicinis fundator 
capellcB satis laute appardrat domino episcopo atque convena-^ 
rum magncR frequentice) ad rem divinam reversis, alter sacella- 
norum prcBtt. 

Our Father, which art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name; 
Thy kingdom come ; Thy will be done in earth, as it is in 
heaven; give us this day our daily bread; and forgive us 
our trespasses, as we forgive them that trespass against us; 
and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil; 
for Thine is the kingdom, the power, and the glory, for 
ever and ever. Amen. 

Post responsaSy psalmus xc. recitatur altemis. 

Post psalmum episcopus cum universd muUitudine egreditur 
capelld, atque ad orientalem coemeterii partem stans, denuo 

Captain Smith, for what have you called us hither again ? 

Bishop Andrewes' form of consecration 

lUe tchedulam, ut prith, humiUime porrigit, guain prtefutus A 

registris recital 1« htsc verba. 

" In the name of Richard Smith, of Peer-tree in the county 
of Southampton, esquire, right reverend father in God, I 
present unto you the state of the village of Weston," &c. \ut 
prim, usque arf] " the river cannot be passed, whereby it often 
Cometh to pass that they have been constrained to bury their 
dead in the open fields, the water not beinp; passable, or if 
they durst venture over, yet tlie dead body was followed with 
BO little company as was no way seemly. 

" And thus much formerly having been presented to your 
predecessor, the right reverend father in God, James, late 
bishop of Winton, and petition to him made to give and 
to grant leave unto the said Richard Smith to enclose a piece 
of ground for a burial place on the east side of the said river, 
he favourably gave license and granted power unto the said 
Richard Smith so to do, as may appear by an instrument 
under bis episcopal seal, bearing date the twenty-third of 
February, in the year of our Lord God, according to the 
computation of the chiu-ch of England, 1617. 

" Which place of burial being now enclosed with a decent 
rail of timber, at the only proper cost and charges of him the 
said Richard Smith, with intent and purpose that it might be 
dedicated and consecrated only and whoUv for christian 
burial, for him the said Richard Smith, and his family, and 
the said inhabitants, and none other; in which respect I be- 
seech God to accept of this sincere intent and purpose, 
and both he and they are together humble suitors to your 
lordship, as God's minister, the bishop and ordinary of this 
diocese, in God's stead to accept this his free-will otfering, 
and to decree this ground severed from all former common 
and profane uses, and to sever it, as by the word of God 
and prayer, and other special religious duties, to dedicate 
and consecrate it to be a cemetery or place of christian burial, 
as aforesaid; wherein their bodies may be laid up until the 
day of the general resurrection ; promising that they will ever 
so hold it for holy ground, and use it accordingly, applying it 
to no other use but that only, and that they will from lime 
to time, and ever hereafter as need shall be, sec it conveni- 

of a church and churchyard, 329 

ently repaired and fenced in such sort as a cemetery or burying 
place ought to be." 

Hoc ipsum verdy ah episcopo paucis interrogatisy vivd voce 
confirinant fundatoTy et qui e vicinid. — Lectio prima desumitur i 
Gen. xxiii. — Secunda lectio destinabatur d prima epist, ad Cor. 
cap, XV. d oer. 15. adjinemy propter angustias temporis omissa. 

Thim dominus episcopus in genua ibi submissus precatur. 

O I^rd God, Thou hast been pleased to teach us in Thy 
holy word, as to put a difference between the soul of a beast 
and the spirit of a man, for the soul of a beast goes down to 
the earth from whence it came, and the spirit of a man re- 
turneth unto God that gave it ; so to make diverse accompts 
of the bodies of mankind and the bodies of other living 
creatures, in so much as the body of Adam was resolved on, 
and afterwards the workmanship of Thine own hands, and 
endued with a soul from Thine own breath ; but much more 
since the second Adam, Thy blessed Son, by taking upon 
Him our nature, exalted this flesh of ours to be flesh of His 
flesh whose flesh Thou sufferedst not to see corruption; so 
that the body returns to the earth, and the soul to Him that 
gave it; it shall from thence return again, it is but a rest, 
and a rest in hope (saith the psalmist), for it is a righteous 
thing with God that the body, which was partaker with the 
soul both in doing and suffering, should be raised again from 
the earth to be partaker also, with the soul, of the reward or 
punishment which God in mercy or justice shall reward, not 
to one of them alone, but jointly to them both : there being 
then so great difference, it is not Thy will, O Lord, that our 
bodies should be cast out as the bodies of beasts to become 
dung for the earth, or our bones lie scattered abroad to the 
sight of the sun; but when 'I1iy servants are gathered to 
their fathers, their bodies should be decently and seemly laid 
up in the bosom of the earth from whence they were taken. 
Neither is it Thy pleasure, O Lord, that they should be buried 
as an ass in the open fields, but in a place chosen and set apart 
for that purpose : for even so from the beginning we find the 
holy patriarch Abraham, the father of the faithful, would not 

Bishop Andretcfs' Ji>rm nf ronsecrutkni 

bury his dead in the common fields, nay, nor amonpst the 
bodies of Hethitcs who were heathen men, but purchased a 
burial place for himself in the plain of Mamrc, which became 
as it were the churchyard of the patriarchs, wherein they laid 
the dead bodies of Sarah his wife, of himself, his son Isaac and 
Rebecca his wife; after them Jacob and Leah were buried 
there. After this manner did the patriarchs in old lime, who 
trusted in Gotl, sever themselves places for burial ; whose 
children we are so long as we do their works, and walk in the 
steps of their most holy faith. 

Ensuing then the steps of the faith of our father Abraham, 
we for the same purpose have made choice of the very same 
place wherein we now are, that it may be as the cave of 
Mamre, even God's storehouse for the bodies of such our 
brethren and sisters to be kid up in as He shall ordain there 
to be interred, there to rest in the sleep of peace till the last 
trump shall awake them ; for they shnlt awake and rise up 
that sleep in the dust ; for Thy dew shall be as the dew of 
herbs, and the earth shall yield forth her dead. 

We beseech Thee, good Lord, to accept this work of ours 
in shewing mercy to the dead; and mercifully grant that 
they whose bodies shall be here bestowed, and we all, may 
never forget the day of putting off the tabernacle of this flesh, 
but that living we may think upon death, and dying we may 
apprehend life; and rising from the death of sin to the life of 
righteousness, which is the first rising of grace, we may have 
our parts in the second, which is rising to glory by Thy 
mercy, O most gracious Lord God, who dost live and govern 
all things, world without end. 

Priorem dem formulam per omnia secutus, in cathedram tbi 
se collocat, atgue actum consecrationis promnigat. 

In Dei nomine Amen. Nos Lancelotus permissione diving 
Winton. episcopus bunc locum jacentem in vasto solo vulgo 
nuncnpatum Ridg way-heath, infra parochiam ecclesite paro- 
chialis sanclse Marise, &c., et jam propriis sumptibus strenui 
viri Ricardl Smiih de Peer-tree armigeri in circuitu capellee 
noviter ah eo quoque propriis sumplibus snis constitulifi, palis 
inclusum et arboribus consilum; continentem in longitudine 

nf a church and rhurchyanh 

148 pedes aut circiter, in latitiidine 124 pedes ant circiter, in 
toto vero circuitn 435 pedes aut circiter; a pristini 
quibtisciinque communibiis usibus efprofanis in usus sacros 
separanditm fore decernimiia, el sic separamiis ; ac eundcm 
inhabitanlibus vel degenlibus in famili^ R. Smith, in villa de 
Weston, bamlettis de Itchin, Wolston, Ridgway, et in parte 
mnnerii de Bitterne, qnee est de parochil sanciie Maria; ju: 
Soiitbampt, in ccemeterium sive locum sepulturie pro corpo- 
ribus inibi deccdenlium christiano ritu hnmandis, qtiantitm 
in nobis est, ac de jnre et canonibus ecclesiastic is, ac de 
statutis hnjus regni Anglife possumus, auctoritate nostr^ ordi- 
narifi. et episcopali assignamus; ae per nomen Coemeterii 
Ca)>ellx Je3d designamus, dedicamus, et in usum pnedictum 
consecramus ; ac sic assignatura, dcdicatum, et consecratum 
fuisse et esse et in futurum perpctuis leinporibus remanere 
debere palain ac publice declaramus ; ac Ccemeterium Capeltte 
Jesu cleineeps in perpetuum nnncupandum decemimus: pri- 
vilegiis insuper omnibus et singulis coemetertis et loeis gepul- 
tiine ab antiqno consecratia et dedicatis competentibus coe- 
meteriiim prffidictum sive locum scpulturee ad omnem juria 
effectnm munitum esse volnmns, et quantum in nobis est et 
de jure possumus sic munimus et atabilimus per prsesentes, 

Proviao tamen quod priedictiia Bicardua, hceredes et as- 
aignati sui, ac reliqut in dict^ villA, hamlettia, &c., inbabitantea, 
propriis suia snmplibus dictum ccemeterium de tempore in 
tempua in decent! statu conservabunt, et clausuras ejus qnoties 
opus fuerit aufficientcr et convcnienter reparabunt. Salvis 
etiam et omnino reservatis rectori eccleaia; parochialis sanctK 
Mariee pr^ictse, ac guardiania aliisque miuistris dictie 
ccclesise pro tempore existentibus in perpetuum, omnibus 
et aingulia oblationibus, mortuariis, feudis et vadiis, pro 
omnibus et singulis sepulturis mortuorum in hoc coeme- 
terio ant ratione eorundem de jure sive consuetudine de- 
bitia, et in tarn amplis modo et formd ac si personse prte- 
dictse sepultse fuissent in coemcterio matricis ecclesis prse- 
dictce. Quaa quidem ubiationes et mortuaria, feuda et vadia 
ia et singula sic de jure ac consuetudine debita rectori, 
L^ardianis et ministris dicta; matricis ecclestse pro tempore 
vexistentibus in perpetuum solvenda, quantum in nobis est et 
|ora patiuntur, reservamua per pnesentes; salvtl item nobis et 

DUhop Anilrewes' Jorni of coiisucrati'in 

sijccessoribua nostris, tanquam loci ordinariis, potcEtate vis'i- 
tandi dictum ccemeterium de tempore in tempus, et inqui- 
rendi an sufficienler reparatum fuerit in clausuris ; et an ouinift 
ibi ilecenter ct secundum ordinem tiant; ct, si minus fiant« 
per ccnsuras ecclesiastic as corrigendi. 

Ilisjiniti» precatur denuo. 

Lord God of Abraltain, Isaac, and Jacob, who because Thou 
art the God, not of the dead, but of (he living, shewest hereby 
that tbejr are living and not dead, and that with Thee do live 
the spirits of all tbem that die in the Lord, and in whom the 
souls of tbem that are elect, after tbey be delivered from the 
burden of this flesh, be in joy and felicity; Thou hast said 
Thou wilt turn men into small dust, and after that will say, 
Return again you children of men: Thou art the God of 
truth, and hast said it ; Thou art the God of power and might, 
and wilt do it ; by that power whereby Thou art able to sub- 
due all things unto Thyself, and bring to pass whatsoever 
plcoseth Thee in heaven and earth, with whom nothing is 

Lord Jesu Christ, who art the resurrection and the life, in 
whom if we believe, though we be dead yet shall we live ; who 
by Thy death hast overcome death, and by Thy rising again 
hast opened to us the gate of everlasting life ; who shalt send 
Thine angels, and gather the bodies of Thine elect from all 
the ends of the earth, and especially those who by a mystical 
union are flesh of Thy flesh, and in whose hearts Thou hast 
dwelt by faith: we humbly beseech Thee for them, whose 
bodies shall in this place be gathered to their fathers, that 
they may rest in this hope of resurrection to eternal life 
through Thee, O blessed Lord God, who shalt change their 
vile bodies that they may be like Thy glorious body, according 
to the mighty working whereby Thou art able to bring all 
things, even death and all, into subjection to Thyself. 

Holy and blessed Spirit, the Lord and Giver of life, whose 
Icmplca the bodies of Thy servants are by Thy sanctifying 
grace dwelling in them; we verily trust that their bodies that 
have been Thy temples, and those hearts in which (Christ 
hath dwelt by faith, shall not ever dwell in corruption, but 

of a church and churchyard, 333 

that as by Thy sending forth Thy breath at first we received 
our being, motion, and life in the beginning of the creation, 
so at the last by the same Spirit sending forth the same 
breath in the end of the consummation, life, being, and moving 
shall be restored us again ; so that after our dissolution, as 
Thou didst shew Thy holy prophet, the dry bones shall come 
together again, bone to his bone, and sinews and flesh shall 
come upon them, and Thou shalt cause Thy breath to enter 
into them, and we shall live ; and this corruption shall put on 
incomiption, and this mortal shall put on immortality. 

God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost, 
accept, sanctify and bless this place to that end whereunto ac- 
cording to Thine own ordinance we have ordained it, even to 
bestow the bodies of Thy servants in, till the number of Thine 
elect being accomplished, they with us, and we with them, 
and with all other departed in the true faith of Thy holy 
Name, shall have our consummation and bliss both in body 
and soul, in Thy eternal and everlasting glory. 

Blessed Saviour, that didst for this end die and rise again, 
that Thou mightest be Lord both of the living and the dead, 
whether we live or die Thou art our Lord, and we are Thine ; 
living or dying we commend ourselves unto Thee, have mercy 
upon us, and keep us Thine for evermore. 

Reintrantes igitur capellam cantant priorem partem psal. xvi. 
— Canscendit suggestum magister Matthaus Wren ; thema ei pos' 
terior pars ver. 17. cap. ii. S. Joan,, Zelus domus tuae, &c.; 
agit de affectihus in Christo, zelo inter c<Bteros ; nee illo faho^ 
sed pro Deo ; nee ccbco, sed secundum scientiam, pro domo, pro 
cultu Dei; de prcesentid Dei, prcecipue in templisy magno non 
morum solummodd nostrorum sed spei guoque et fidei incremento 
fulcimentoque ; Deum locorum distinctione gaudere cor^rmat^ 
turn exemplo mirifico Jacobi tantopere distinguentis Bethel, turn 
maximo omnium miraculo quo Christus mercatores e templo ejecit. 
Enarratis Christi per hoc factum devotionibus concluditin debitam 
a nobis templorum reverentiam^ atque istius fundatoris encomium 
meritissimum. — Cantatur pars reliqua ; et vespertines precationes 
(incipiendo jam i sgmbolo apostolico) secundum communem ec^ 
clesi(B formulamjiniuntur. 

















The commonwealth of Israel was considered either as 
personal, containing all the whole people, not a man 

left, or 
representative, in the estate, tribes, cities : whose daugh- 
ters the towns adjacent are called. 

I. The estate had ever one governor ; Moses ; — Joshua ; — 
Judges ; — Kings ; — Tirshathas [or viceroys, Ezra ii. 63] ■; with 
whom were joined the seventy elders. 

II. The tribes had every one their prince, k^b^3, pht/hrcha, 
Numb, ii., with whom were joined the chief of the families, 
tmw ^JTiO, patriarchcBy Numb. i. 4.** 

IIL The cities had each likewise their ruler. Judges ix. 30, 
1 Kings xxii. 26, 2 Kings xxiii. 8, with whom were joined 
the elders or ancients, Ruth iv. 2, Ezra x. 14 ; these last, not 
before they came into Canaan [and were settled in their 

It appeareth that Moses sometime consulted only with 
nUK ^(rK^9 the ' heads of the tribes,' and then one trumpet 
only sounded. Numb. x. 4 ; in some other causes with the 
nnp, the 'congregation,' and then both trumpets called. 
Numb. X. 3. 

The highest bench or judgment, for causes of greatest diffi- 
culty, was that of the seventy, who at the first were the fathers 

<^ "Whatsoever is included within copy." Ed. of 1641. 
these marks [ ] hath been added, to " [Exod. vL 25.] 

supply the imperfection of the written 

340 A summary vietc of the government 

of each family that came down to l^ypt, Gen. xlvi., which 
number did after that remain, Exod. xxiv. 1, 9, and was at 
last by God himself so appointed. Numb. xi. 16; see 
2 Chron. xix. 8. 

The inferior benches, for matters of less importance, were 
erected by Jethro's advice, of rulers of thousands, hundreds, 
fifties, and tithings, Exod. xviii. 21, 25, and after established 
by God's approbation, Deut. xvi. 18. 

In every city, as Joseph us ^ saith, were seven judges; and for 
each judge, two Levites ; which made together the bench of 
each city. 


The priesthood was settled in the tribe of Levi by God. 

Levi had three sons, Cohath, Oershon, and Merari; of 
these, the line of Cohath was preferred before the rest 

From him descended four families, Amram, Izhar, Hebron, 
and Uzziel ; of these the stock of Amram was made chief. 

He had two sons, Aaron and Moses ; Aaron was by God 
appointed high-priest. 

So that there came to be four distinctions of Levites : 
Aaron, as chief ; Cohath; Grershon; Merari. 

The commonwealth of Israel was at the beginning in the 
desert, a camp, in the midst whereof the ark and tabernacle 
were pitched, and according to the four coasts whereof they 
quartered themselves, on every side three tribes. 

On the east, . . Judah, Issachar, Zabulon, . . Numb. ii. 3. 

south, . Reuben, Simeon, Gad, ver. 10. 

west, . Ephraim,Manasses, Benjamin, . . ver. 18. 
north, . Dan, Aser, Napthali, ver. 25. 

These same quarters were committed to those four divi- 
sions of Levites : 

The east quarter to Aaron and his family, . . Numb. iii. 38. 

south ... to the Cohathites, ver. 29. 

west .... to the Gershonites, ver. 23. 

north ... to the Merarites, ver. 35. 

* Antiq., lib. iv. cap. 8. [§ 14. vol. i. p. 163.] 

both of the Old and New Testament 341 

who lodged among them, and took charge of them, as of 
their several wards. 

But there was not a parity in these four, for 

Aaron's family, which bare the ark itself, was chief; 
Cohath's, which bare the tabernacle and vessels, next; 
Gershon's, which bare the veil and hangings of the 

court, third ; 
Merari's, which bare the pillars and posts, last 

Neither were all the Levites of each of these several houses 
equal, but God ordained a superiority among them : 

Over the priests, Eleazar, 

Cohathites, . . . Elizaphan, .... Numb. iii. 80. 

Gershonites, . . Eliasaph, ver. 24. 

Merarites, . . . Zuriel, ver. 35. 

whom he termed 'nesiim,' that is, prelates or superiors. 

No more did He permit these four to be equals among 
themselves, but appointed 

Ithamar, Exod. xxxviii. 21, to command over 

Eliasaph, with his Gershonites, Numb. iv. 28; 
Zuriel, with his Merarites, Numb. iv. 33. 
Eleazar, Numb. iv. 16, to have jurisdiction over 
his own family ; 
Elizaphan, with his Cohathites. . 

Yea, he maketh not Eleazar and Ithamar to be absolute 
equals, but giveth Eleazar preeminence over Ithamar, and 
therefore termeth him ^ nasi nesiim,' princeps principum^ or 
prcelattis prcBlatarum, Numb. iii. 32. 

And all these under Aaron the high-priest 

So that, 

a. Aaron was the high-priest ; 

/3. under him Eleazar ; who, as he had his peculiar charge 

to look unto, so was he generally to rule both Ithamar's 

jurisdiction and his own ; 
y, under him Ithamar, over two families ; 

5, under him the three prelates ; 

6. under each of them, their several chief fathers, ^tTM") 

TraHi as they are termed, Exod. vi. 25 ; under EUza- 


A summary view of the Qooernment 

plian four, under Eliasaph two, under Zuricl two. 
Numb. ill. 18, &c. ; 
^ under these, the several persons of their kindreds. 

This is here worth the noting, that albeit it be granted that 
Aaron was the type of Christ, and so we forbear to lalte any 
argument from him ; yet Eleazar, who was no type, nor ever 
so deemed by any writer, will serve sufficiently to shew such 
snperiority as is pleaded for; that is, a personal jurisdiction 
in one man resiant over the heads or rulers of divers charges. 

The commonwealth being changed from the ambulatory 
form into a settled estate in the cities of Canaan; as before 
the Levitcs were divided according to the several quarters of 
the camp, so now wore they sorted into the several territories 
of the tribes; so God commanded. Numb. xxxv. 2, 8. 

The lot fell so, that the lour partitions of the twelve tribes 
were not the same aa when they camped before together, but 
after another sort ; for the tribes of 

1. Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin, made the first quarter; 

2. Ephraim, Dan, and half of Manasses, the second: 

3. Issachar, Asher, Napthali, and the other half of Manaa- 

seh, the third ; 

4. Zebulon, Reuben, and Gad, the fourth. 

Now in these four, 

1. The charge or oversight of the first was committed to 
Aaron and his family, and they had therein assigned to them 
thirteen cities; in Judab and Simeon nine, and in Benjamin 
four; Josh. xxi. 9, 10, &c. 

2. Of the second, the care was committed to the family of 
the Cohathitea, and they had assigned to them ten cities ; in 
Ephraim four, in Dan four, and in the half of Manasseh two ; 
Josh. xxi. 20. 

3. The third was committed to the family of Gcrshon, and 
they had therein assigned to them thirteen cities ; in Isaachar 
four, in Aaher four, in Napthali three, in the other half of 
Manasseh two; Josh. xxi. 27. 

4. The oversight of the fourth partition was committed to 

both of the Old and New Testament. 343 

the Merarites, and they had therein assigned to them twelve 
cities ; in Zebulon four^ in Reuben four, in Gad four ; Josh. 
xxi. 34. 

These were in all forty-eight cities; whereof the chiefs as 
may appear, were cities set on hills, and all so situate, in such 
proportion and distance, as that they most equally parted their 
tribe among them, to perform unto them their duties of attend- 
ance and instruction. 

Further, there were in Joshua's time added, by the decree 
of the princes, the nethinims of the people of Gibeon, for the 
lowest ministries, and for the service of the levites, Josh. 
ix. 27. — So that now the order was thus ; 

1, Eleazar; 

2, Phineas; 

3, Abisua; 

4, the three nesiims; 

5, the rase abothy or heads of the families ; 

6, the Levites; 

7, the nethinims. 

If this power and superiority was necessary when all the 
people and priests were within one trench, even within the 
view of Aaron's eye ; much more in Canaan, when they were 
scattered abroad in divers cities far distant, was the retaining 
of it more than necessary. 


Albeit in Saul's government small regard was had to the 
church, yet David found at his coming a superiority amongst 
them ; for besides the priests, he found six princes or rulers 
over six families of the Levites, 1 Chron. xv. 5, 6, &c. 

Uriel . . . over . . . Cohath. 

Asajah Merari. 

Joel Gershon. 

Shemajah Elizaphan. 

Eliel Hebron. 

Amminadab UzzieL 

Likewise between the two priests an inequality : one Abi- 
athar, attending the ark at Jerusalem, the higher function ; the 

344 A siimmnri/ I'iew vf the government 

other Zadok, the tabernacle at Gibeoii, 2 Sam, sx. 25, 
1 Chron. xvi. 37, 39. 

But after the ark was brought back, he set a most exquisite 
order among the Levites, and that by Samuel's direction, 
1 Chron. tx. 22, so that he is there reckoned as a new 
founder; of them he made six orders, I Chron. xxiii., 
priests, D'jnsi ~1 


ministers of priests,J 

judges, D'EiK? "l 

officers, D'lcc, J 
singers, q'SShd, 1 4,000, T 

j 4,000, r' 

porters, D'Ijk;', 

I. Of prieals, Zadok was the chief, of the family of Eleazar, 
and Abimelech the second, of the family of Ithamar, 1 Chron. 
xxiv. 3. 

Under these were twenty-four other courses, 

, „ r Eleazar, sixteen, T , _, 
of the posterity of | i^hamar, eight, j" 1 Chron. xxiv. 4. 

Which twenty-four are called, in the fifth verse, rulers of the 
sanctuary, and rulers of the house of God ; and to whom the 
learned interpreters think the twenty-four elders, Apoc. iv. 4, 
have relation. 

II. Of levites that ministered to the priests in their func- 
tion, likewlac twenty-four courses, out of the three families, 
the heads of whom are set down in I Chron. xxiii. 6, and 
xxiv. 20 : over all which Jehdeiah was chief. 

III. Of judges that sat for causes as well of God as the 
king, there were appointed 

on this side Jordan, upwards toward the river, Asha- 
biah the Hebronite, 1 Chron. xxvi. 30: 

on this side Jordan, downwards towards the sea, Chena- 
niah the Izharite, I Chron. xxvi. 29; 

beyond Jordan, over the two tribes and the half, Jerijah 
the chief of the Hebronites, 1 Chron. xxvi. 31. 

IV. Of officers, 

{Sbemaiah, 1 Chron. ssiv. 6 ; 
Seraiah, 2 Sam. viii. 17 ; 
Shevah, 2 Sam. xx. 25. 

both of the Old and New Testament. 345 

rLevites, 1 Chron. xxiv. 6; 
scribes J temple, 2 Kings xxii. 3, Jer. xxxvi. 10; 
of the I people, Matt. ii. 4; 

^ king, 2 Kings xiL 10. 

V. Of the singers likewise he set twenty-four courses, over 
which he placed three chief, out of the three families, 1 Chron. 
XV. 17, and xxv. 2 — 4; out of 

Cohath, .... Heman, Samuel's nephew, 1 Chron. vi. 33; 
Gershon, . . . Asaph, 1 Chron. vi. 39 ; 
Merari, .... Ethan or Jeduthun, 1 Chron, vi. 44 ; 
of these Heman was the chief, 1 Chron. xxv. 5 ; 
under these were divers others, 1 Chron. xv. 18. 

VL Of porters, who were divided into the 

1. Keepers of the watch of the temple. Matt xxvii. %5j 

Ps. cxxxiv. 1, who were placed on each quarter of 
the tabernacle, 1 Chron. xxvi. 13, 14, &c.; on the 
east side six, over whom was Shelemiah ; 
south, four, for the tabernacle two, and two for 

asuppiniy over whom was Obed ; 
west, four, over whom was Hosa; 
north, four, over whom was Zechariah ; 
over all these it seemeth Benaiah, the son of Jehoiada 
the priest, was the chief, 1 Chron. xxvii. 5. 

2. Treasurers for the 

a. revenues of the house of God, 1 Chron. xxvi. 20, for 
Cohath, Shebuel of Moses' ofispring ; 
Oershon, Jehiel ; 
Merari, Ahiah. 
/8. things dedicated by vow, 

Shelomith, 1 Chron. xxvi. 26. 
Over all the porters was Chenaniah, 1 Chron. xxvi. 29, 
and XV. 22, 27. 
It is to be remembered that, beside Zadok the high-priest 
and Ahimelech, the second, we find mention of Hashabiah, 
the son of Kemuel, chief of the whole tribe of Levi, 1 Chron. 
xxvii. 17. So that there was 

one over the ark, Zadok. 

the second over the tabernacle, . Ahimelech. 
the third over the tribe, Hashabiah. 

346 A summary view of the governme^it 

As over the 

Levites' ministers, Jehdeiah. 

judges, Chasabiah. 

officers, Shemaiah. 

singers, Heman. 

porters, Chenaniah, or Benaiah. 

Agreeable to this form we read 

That under Josias there were three, that is, Hilkiah, Zacha- 
riah, and Jehiel, 2 Chron. xxxv. 8, and that the Levites had 
six over them, 2 Chron. xxxv. 9. 

Again under Zedekiah, that there were carried into cap- 
tivity Seraiah, the chief priest, and Zephaniah, the second 
priest, 2 Kings xxv. 18. 

Likewise under Hezekiah, at the provision for the levites' 
portions, there were ten of the levites ; over whom was Cono- 
niah and Shimei ; and so Kore over the voluntary offerings, 
and six levites under him, 2 Chron. xxxi. 12, 13, &c. 


Of whom and Esdras it is recorded, that they did all 
according to Moses' institution, Ezra vL 18; Nehem. x. 
34, 86. 

!£liashib, Neh. iii. 1, 
Seraiah, xi. 11, 
Zabdiel, xi. 14; 

the courses were then but twenty-two, Neh. xii. 12. 

r Uzzi, .... Neh. xi. 22 ; 
There was then J Jezrahiah, Neh. xii. 42 ; 

vShallum, . 1 Chron. ix. 17. 
under Zabdiel, r Adaiah, • • • 1 -j^ , 

at his hand, 1 Amasai, ... J ^^^' ^^' ^^» ^^• 

{Shemaiah, .^ 
Shabbethai, rNeh. xi. 15, 16. 
Jozabad, . .^ 
SMattaniah, ") 
Bakbukiah, >Neh. xi. 17. 
Abda, ....-) 

both of the Old and New Testament. 347 

under Shallum ( ^^^''^' ' • 'V ^'^T' ''^- ^^' 

CTalmon^ . ./ Neh. xi. 19. 

So that there was 

1, the high-priest, 

2, the second and third, overseers of the priests, 

3, the princes of the priests, 

4, the priests, 

5, the overseer of the Icvites, 

6, the princes of the levites, 

7, the levites, 

8, the heads of the nethinimsy 

9, the nethinims, of |?^ Gibeonites. 

L Solomon s servants. 

[a bribf recapitulation or the degrees observed under the 


Out of these we gather this form to have been ; 

1. Moses, [in whom was] the supreme jurisdiction, to visit 

Aaron, Num. iiL 10. 

2. Aaron, the 

high-priest, Lev. xxi. 21, Num. xxxv. 28, Neh. iii. 1 ; 

head, 2 Chron. xix. 11 ; 

prince of the house of Grod, 1 Chron. ix. 11. 

3. Eleazar, the second, 2 Kings xxv. 18 ; 

prelate of prelates. Num. iii. 32, 
chief overseer, or bishop, Jer. xx. 1 ; 
at his hand, Ithamar. 

4. Prince of the tribe, 1 Chron. xxvii. 17. 

5. Elizaphan, Eliasaph, Zuriel, 

prelates. Num. iii. 24, &c. 
overseers or bishops, Neh. xi. 14, 22. 

6. [In] the twenty-four courses set by David; 

the princes of the priests, Ezra viii. 29, 

- , * >1 Chron. xxiv. 5 ; 

of the sanctuary, J 

elders of the priests, Jer. xix. 1, 2 Kings xix. 2; 

heads of the families, nUK ^tWT, Nt^^-^xii. 12 ; 

chief priests, Acts xix. 14 

348 A summary view of the government 

7. The priests themselves; whether at Jerusalem, or in 

the country towns, 2 Chron. xxxi. 19. 

8. The overseer of the levites, Neh. xi. 22. 

9. The princes of the levites, 1 Chron. xv. 5, 2 Chron. 

XXXV. 9, Neh. xii. 22. 

10. The head of the levites' officers, 

the scribe ; 

the singers, 1 Chron. xvi. 5, Neh. xii. 42; 
the porters, 1 Chron. ix. 17, and xv. 23; 
the treasurers, 1 Chron. xxvi. 24, 2 Chron. xxxi. 12. 
[11. The levites themselves.] 

12. The chief of the nethinims, Neh. xi. 21. 

13. The nethinimsy of 

the Gibeonites, Josh. ix. 21. 

Solomon's servants, 1 Kings ix. 21, Neh. vii. 60. 

It is not only requisite that things be done, and that they 
be diligently done (against sloth), but that they be done 
continually, and constantly. 

To this end it is, that God appoints overseers, 

a, to urge others, if they be slack, 2 Chron. xxiv. 5, and 

xxxiv. 13 ; 
/3. to keep them in course, if they be well, 2 Chron. 

xxix. 5, and xxxi. 12, and xxxiv. 12, 13 ; 
7. to pmiish, if any be defective, Jer. xxix. 26. 
For which, 

a, A power of commanding was in the high-priest, 2 Chron. 
xxiii. 8, 18, and xxiv. 6, and xxxi. 13; a power judicial, if 
they transgressed, Deut xvii. 9, Zach. iii. 7, Ezek. xliv. 24 ; 
under pain of death, Deut xvii. 12 ; punishment in prison, 
and in the stocks, Jer. xxix. 26; in the gate of Benjamin, 
Jer. XX. 2. 

13. Officers to cite and arrest, John vii. 32 ; Acts v. 18. 
This corporal. 

To suspend from the function, Ezra iL 62. 
To excommunicate, Ezra x. 8, John ix. 22, and xii. 42, 
and xvi. 2. 

, [This spiritual.] 

Why may not the like be [for the government of the 

hath of the Old and New Testament. 349 

church], there is alleged one only stop ; that the high priest 
was a figure of Christ ; who being now come in the flesh, the 
figure ceaseth, and no argument thence to be drawn. 

[For answer whereunto, we are to consider that] 

1. This is the anabaptists' only shift ; that we are to have 
no wars, for the wars of the Jews were but figures of our 
spiritual battle; no magistrate, for their magistrates were 
but figures of our ministers, pastors, and doctors, and all by 
Christ's coming abolished. 

2. Christ being as well King as Priest, was as well fore- 
resembled by the kings then as by the high priest; so 
that if His coming take away the one type, it must also the 
other. If it be said, there was in the king somewhat else 
beside the representation, the like is and may be truly said 
of the high priest ; and that some such thing there was, 
it is plain by St. Paul, who yielded his obedience to the 
high priest, appearing before him, and acknowledging him a 
governor of the people. Acts xxiii. 5, and that after the type 
was expired ; which had been merely unlawful, if there had 
not remained in him somewhat besides the figure. 

3. There is no necessity we should press Aaron ; for 
Eleazar being princeps principumy that is, having a superior 
authority over the superiors of the Levites [in Aaron's life- 
time], was never by any [in this point] reputed a type 
of Christ ; so that though Aaron be accounted such, yet 
Eleazar will serve our purpose. As also 2 Chron. xxxv. 8, 
we read of thnee at once, one only of which was the high- 
priest, and a type of Christ; the rest were not: let them 
answer then to the other twain, who were rulers or chief over 
the house of Ood. 

Why it may be, 

1. Out of die ecclesicRy [the new reformers] tell us, we 
are to fetch our pattern from the Jews; and therefore it 
seems they are of opinion that one form may serve both us 
and them. 

2. Except there should be such a fashion of government 
consisting of inequality, I see not in the New testament 
how any could perish in that contradiction of Core which 

350 A tummary view ofilie //nvernment 

St. Judc affirmeth ; for his plea was fur equalily, and ngaiost 
the preferring of Aaron above the rest. 

3. The ancient fathers seem to be of mind that the same 
form should serve both. 

So thinketh Sl Cyprian ^ lib. iii. ep. 9. Ad Rogatiaimm. 

So Sl, Hierome', ep. 85. ad Evagrium, ' Traditiones apo- 
Gtolica3 sumptie sunt de Veteri lestamento ;' et ad Nepotianum, 
De mid clericorum. 

So St. Leo, ' Ita veteris testamenti sacramenta distinxit, ut 
qute<lain ex iis, sicut erant condita, evangellcas erudition! pro- 
futura deccrperet ; ut quaa dudum fuerant consuetudines ju- 
daicse, (lerent obscrvantiie christianse.' 

So Rabanus'^ De institutione clericorum, lib. i. C. 6. 

They ground this their opinion upon that they see, 

1. That the synagogue is called a type or shadow, and the 
church the very image of the thing, Heb. x. 1 . 

2. That God himself saith of the christian church under 
the gentiles, that He will take of ihe gentiles, and make 
them priests and levites to Himself, Esay Ixvi. 21, there 
calling our presbyters and deacons by those legal names. 

3. That there is an agreement in the 
(■ twelve, Num. i. 16, and Lnke ix. 1. 
t seventy, Num. xi. 16, and Luke x. 1. 

names, angel, Mai, ii. 7, and Rev. i, 20. 

And their often interchange and indifferent using of priest 
or presbyter, levite or deacon, sheweth they presumed a cor- 
respondence and agreement between them, 

[Thus then] 
Aaron -, ^Christ, 

mbers, ■ 


princes of priests [should be 
priests J. answer- 

princes of levites I able unto] 
levites I 

nethinims . J 

'-clerks and sextons. 

[Ep. iii. p. D.l 

803, n 257 sqi|.] 

• [vc 

L p. 5,] 

both of the Old and New Testament 351 


1. The whole ministry of the New testament was at the 
first invested in Christ alone. 

He is termed our Apostle, Heb. iii. 1, 

Prophet, Deut. xviii. 15, Acts iii. 22, 

Evangelist, Esay xli. 27, 

Bishop, 1 Pet. ii. 25, 

Doctor, Matt, xxiii. 10, 

Diaconus, Rom. xv. 8. 

IL When the harvest was great, Matt ix. 38, that His 
personal presence could not attend all. He took unto Him 
twelve apostles ; as the twelve patriarchs, or twelve fountains 
(as St. Jerome), or the twelve princes of the tribes. Num. i. ; 
gathering His disciples. Matt. x. 1 ; 
choosing out of them, Luke vi. 13 ; 
whom He would, Mark iii. 13 ; 
called them to Him, Luke vi. 13 ; 
made them, Mark iii. 13, 
named them, apostles, Luke vi. 13. 
These He began to send, Mark vi. 7 ; 

gave them in charge. Matt x. 1, and xi. 1, 
to preach the gospel, Luke ix. 2 ; 
to heal. Matt. x. 1, Luke ix. 2 ; 
to cast out devils. Matt x. 1. 
gave them power. Matt. x. 1, Luke ix. 1, 
to take maintenance. Matt x. 10 ; 
to shake off the dust for a witness. Matt it. 14 ; 
so He sent them. Matt x. 5, Luke ix. 2 ; 
they went and preached, Luke ix. 6 ; 
they returned, and made relation 

what they had -j * !• Mark vi. 30. 

III. After this, when the harvest grew so great as that the 
twelve sufficed not all, Luke x. 1, 2, He took unto Him other 
seventy, as the seventy palm trees. Num. xxxiii. 9; the 
fathers of families, Gen. xlvi ; the elders, Num. xi. 

352 A summary view of tlie government 

These He 

declared^ Luke x. 1 ; 

sent by two and two into every city and plaee> whither 

He himself would come, t^. 

gave them power, as to the apostles, to 

take maintenance, Luke x. 7 ; 

shake off the dust, Luke x. 1 1 ; 

heal the sick, \ ^ . 

, > Luke X. 9 ; 

preach, . . . | 

tread upon serpents and scorpions, and over all 

the power of the enemy, Luke x. 19. 

These two orders (as me thinketh) St. Paul, Eph. iii. 5, 

doth comprehend under the name of apostles and prophets ; 

by the seventy, understanding prophets; as usually next to 

the apostles he placeth prophets ever, 1 Cor. xii. 28, Eph. 

iv. 11. None of the fathers ever doubted that these two were 

two several orders or sorts, nor that the apostles were superior 

to the seventy. It appeareth also, that [the apostles] had in 

them power to forbid to preach, Luke ix. 49 ; and that Matthias 

was exalted from the other order to the apostleship. 

This was then the order while Christ was upon the earth, 
Christ himself; 

the twelve, whose successors were bishops ; 
the seventy, whose successors were priests ; 
the faithful people or disciples, of whom five hundred 

and more are mentioned in 1 Cor. xv. 6, and one 

hundred and twenty in Acts i. 15. 


Albeit Christ saith the people were as sheep without a 
shepherd. Matt ix. 38, yet He termeth His apostles harvest- 
men, not shepherds ; for while He was in person on earth. 
Himself only was the shepherd, and they but arietes gregis ; but 
at His departure He maketh them shepherds, John xxi. 15, 
as they likewise at theirs, 1 Pet. v. 2, Acts xx. 28. 


And first, of their name. 
Shelichoy which is the Syrian name, was the title of certain 

both of the Old afid New Testament 353 

legates or commissioners sent from the high priest to visit 
the Jews and their synagogues which were dispersed in other 
countries, with authority to redress things amiss. 

a7r6<rro\o^ among the Greeks, were officers of great credit, 
as by Herodotus^ and Demosthenes^ appeareth. 

Secondly, of their form, what it is. 
not to have been with Christ all His time. Acts i. 21 ; so 

were others more ; 
not to be sent immediately of Christ, Gal. i. 1 ; so were 

the seventy, Luke x. ; 
not to be limited to no one place. Matt, xxviii. 19 ; so were 

others, Luke xxiv. 33, 50 ; and St. James went no whither ; 
not to be inspired of God, so that they did not err ; so were 

Mark and Luke ; 
not to plant churches ; so did Philip the evangelist, Acts viii. 5 ; 
not to work signs and miracles ; so did Stephen, Acts vi. 8, 

and Philip, Acts viii. 6 ; 

But over and above these, and with these, that eminent 
authority or jurisdiction which they had over all, not only 
jointly together but every one by himself, 

_v «. i_ J • f ordination. Acts vi. 6, 

1) of imposmg hands m ^ ^ . a . — i*, lo 

^ r o (connrmation. Acts vm. 17, 18 ; 

2) of commanding, (the word of the bench. Acts iv. 18, and 

V. 28,) 1 Thess. iv. 11, 2 Thess. iii. 6, 12, Philem.8, 
Col. iv. 10, 1 Cor. xiv. 37, 2 Pet. iii. 2, Titus i. 5, 
1 Cor. vii. 6, 17, and xi. 34, and xvi. 1 ; 

3) of countermanding, Luke ix. 49, Acts xv. 24, 1 Tim. 

ii. 12 ; 

4) of censuring, 1 Cor. iv. 21, 2 Cor. xiii. 10, Gal. v. 12, 

1 Tim. i. 20, 1 Cor. v. 5, 11, 2 Thess. iii. 14, Matt. 

xvi. 19, with xviii. 18, and John xx. 23. 

In this power it is, that the bishops succeed the apostles, 

Iren.* lib. iii. cap. 3; Tertul. De prascript.^ ; Cyprian.* Ad 

Florent. iii. 9 ; Epiphan." H^eres. xxvii., * Romse fuerunt primi 

tr [Clio 21, Terps. 88.] ^ [cap. xxxii. p. 213.] 

•» [De Cor. vol. L p. 262. Cont » [Ep. Ixvi. p. 165 sqq.] 

Everg. et Mnesib. voL ii. p. 1146.] «> [Adv. Haer. lib. i. torn. 2. p. 107.] 
* [p. 175.] 

354 A summary view of the government 

Petrus et Paulus, apostoli lidem ac episcopi ;' Chrysost." in 
Act. Horn, iii., ^Jacobus episcopus Hierosolymitanus;* Hieron.** 
Epist. 85, et 54, Ad Marcellam^ et De scriptor. ecclesuut.^ in 
Petro et Jacobo; Ambros.^ in 1 Cor. xii. 28, de angelis, et in 
Eph. iv.', 'apostoli angeli sunt.' 


At the beginning, the whole weight of the church's affairs 
lay upon the apostles, 

the distribution as well of the sacrament, Acts ii. 42, as 
of the oblations. Acts iv. 35 ; 

the ordination. Acts vi. 6 ; 

the government, Acts v. 3. 

[But] upon occasion of the Greeks' complaint, whose widows 
were not duly regarded in the daily ministration, (which was 
as well of the sacrament as of the oblations, otherwise the 
apostles would not have left out [the mention of] the sacra- 
ment in Acts vi. 4,) they transferred that part upon the seven 
[deacons], whom they had ordained for distribution [of the 
sacrament], not for consecration. Acts vi., 1 Tim. iii. 12, 13. 

Justin. J[po/. i.' ; IgadXxxx&^y Ad Heronem ; Tertvl.^ De Bap- 
tismo; Cyprian.* De lapgisy et lib. iii. epist 9; Chrysost^ 
Hom. 83 in Matth. Hieron.' ep. 48, ad Sabinianum, et contra 
Lucifer, Ambros.* Offic. lib. i. cap. 41 ; Gregor.'' iv. 88 ; Con- 
cil. Nicsen.^ i. can. 14. 


They grew upon occasion of the scattering of the disciples 
by means of the persecution after the death of St Stephen, 

n [vol. ix. p. 26.] « [p. 132, et ep. iii. ad Rogatian. 
" [Ep. ci. *'ad Evangelum," ed. p. 5.] 

Ben., et ep. xxvii. vol. iv. par. 2. coll. ^ [voL vii p. 789.] 

803 et 65,^ « [Ep. xciii. vol. iv. par. 2. col. 760, 

■ "ut sup. col. 101.] et 299—303.] 

Vol. iL append, col. 153.] ■ [vol. ii. col. 54 F.] 

vid- ibid. col. 241.] b [vid. append, ad Gregor. Epist 

§ 65 sqq. p. 83.] vol. ii. col. 1288.] 

;vol. ii. p. 108 sqq.] <^ [vol. ii. coL 690.] 
'^p. 230. cap. xvii.] 



both of the Old mid Ktw Teslament. 

Acts xi. 19; of which number St, Philip is reckoned. Acts 
xxi, 8, and divers others. Acts xi. 19, of whom Eusebius* 
makcth mention, lib. iii. cap. 37, and lib, v. cap. 10. Upon 
these was transferred that part of the apostles' function which 
consifited in preaching from place to place. 

When the churches were in some sort planted by the 
preaching of the apostles, prophets, and eTangelists, that 
they might he continually watered, and have a standing 
attendance, the apostles ordained priests by imposition of 
hands in every church, Acts xiv. 23, and xi. 30, and xxi. 18. 

And they made choice of the word irpea-ffw, rather than 
of the word yepav more in use with the Greeks, because 
it includeth an embassy, and that chiefly of reconciliation, 
which is the irpea^ela expressed by St. Paul, in 2 Cor. t. 20, 
with Luke xiv. 32. 

Last of all, that the churches thus planted and watered 
might so continue, the apostles ordained overseers to have a 
general care over the churches instead of themselves who 
first had the same ; which is called IviaKei^K, Acts xv. 36, 
and containeth in it, as a strengthening or establishing that 
which is already well. Acts xiv. 22, and xv. 41, Rev. iii. 2; 
so a rectifying or redressing if ought he defective or amiss. 
Tit. i. 5. These are called, Acts xx. 28, wctpD'BK in the 
Syrian, that is, episcopi; by St. John, Rev, i. 20, the 'angels 
of the churches.' [These were set over others, both to rule 
and teach,] 1 Tim, v. 17, 1 Pet. v. 2, Upon these was 
transferred the chief part of the apostolic function, the over- 
sight of the church ; and power of commanding, correcting, 
and ordaining. 

The occasion which caused the apostles to appoint bishops 
[besides the pattern in the time of the law] secmcth to have 
been schisms, such as were in the churches of 
Rome, Rom. xvi, 17, 
Corinth, 1 Cor. i. 11, [and iii. 3, 4.] 
' [U, K,,pp. 13:1.^2:1.1 

^^F 356 

mmari/ viejo of the government 

Galalia, Gal. v. 12, 

Epiiesiis, Epb. iv. 2, 3, 

Philippi, Phil. iv. 2, 

Colossse, ColoBS. iii. 13, 

Thessalonica,'2 Thess. iii. 11, 

The HcbrewB, Heb. xiii. 9, James iii. 
for which St. Cyprian^, St. Hierome', and all the fathers^ 
take the respect to one governor to be an especial remedy; 
[for which also see] Calvin*, Instil, lib. iv. cap. 4. § 2. 

This power even in the apostles' time was necessary ; for 
God charf^eth not His church with superBuoua burdens; 
yet had they such graces (as power of healing, doing signs, 
sundry languages, &c.,) that they of all other might seem best 
able to want il, for by these graces they purchased both 
admiration and terror sufhcient for crediting their bare word 
in the whole church. If necessary then in their times that 
were so furnished, much more in the ages ensuing, when all 
those graces ceased, and no means but it to keep things m 
order ; so that were it not apparent to have been in the apo- ■! 
etles', yet the necessity of the times following, destitute of I 
these helps, might enforce iL 

Seeing then (jod hath no less care for the propagation and I 
continuance of His church than fur llie flrst settling i 
planting of it, Eph. iv, 13, it must needs follow that this 
power was not personal in the apostles, as tied to them only, 
but a power given to the church ; and in them for their times 
resident, but not ending with them, as temporary, hui 
mon to the ages after and continuing, to whom it was more , 
needful than to them, to repress schism and to remedy 
other abuses. 

So that the very same power at this day remaineth i 
church, and shall to the world's end. 

1. Albeit the commission were general over all nations^ 
which was given to the twelve, yet was that generality only 
by permission, not express mandatory; else should they have 
sinned that went not through all nations. Therefore howso- 

• rEp.iiLli»i. pp.6, 

' [Ep, ci. id Emnjf., ■ 


Go1. 802 Bq.] 

both of the Old and New Testament. 357 

ever the commission was to all nations, yet was it left to 
their discretion how and in what sort they would dispose 
themselves^ as the Holy Ghost should direct them : so that the 
partition, Gal. ii. 9, betwixt St Peter and St Paul, was law- 
ful and good, and no ways derogatory to lie, prtedicatCy [* go, 
teach all nations.*] 

Further, the ecclesiastical history doth testify that they 
parted the coasts and countries of the world among them by 
common advice, and so severed themselves, 

Peter, to Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia ; 

John, to Asia, Parthia ; 

Andrew, to Scythia, [Pontus] Euxinus, and Byzantium ; 

Philip, to upper Asia, and to Hierapolis; 

Thomas, to India, Persia, and the magi; 

Bartholomew, to Armenia, Lycaonia, India citerior ; 

Matthew, to Ethiopia; 

Simeon, to Mesopotamia, Persia, Egypt, Africa, Britany ; 

Thaddseus, to Arabia, Idumea, Mesopotamia; 

Matthias, to Ethiopia. 

2. Again, albeit their preaching was for the most ambula- 
tory, yet do the same histories witness that, having settled 
religion, and brought the church to some stay, toward their 
end they betook themselves to residence in some one place, 
divers of them, as, 

St James at Jerusalem, Euseb> lib. ii. cap. 1 ; Epiphan.^ 
jfifer. Ixvi. Hierome*'. 

St John at Ephesus, Euseb.* lib. iii. cap. 23; Tertullian", 
lib. iv. contra Marcion, Hierome"*. 

St. Peter, first at Antioch, and after at Rome. 

Which places were more especially accounted their sees, 
and the churches themselves after a more especial manner 
were called apostolic, sedes apostolorum^ Aug.® Epist. xlii, 
ecclesioB apostoliccB^ TertuUianP. 

3. Thirdly, it is also plain that the apostles chose unto 
them as helpers {awipyov^) divers who were companions 

i» [H. E., p.44.] "» [p. 415D.] 

» [vol. i. p. 636.J ■ fvoL iv. par. 2. coL 105.] 

" [vol. iv. par. 2. col. 101.] ** [Ep. ccxxxii vol. ii. coL 843.] 

' [ H. E. , p. 1 1 2. ] P [vid. De prascr. bar., cap. xx, sq.] 


r pii, 

[ Ap 

A summary mew of the gooemment 

with them in their journeys, ministered unto them, and sup- 
plied their absence in divers churches when they themselves 
were occasioned to depart ; such were, 
Apollos, Acts xis. 1, 1 Cor. 

ill. 6. 
Aquila, Rom. xvi. 3. 
ArchippuB, Phitem. 2, Col. iv. 

Aristarchus, Acts sx. 4. 
Clemens, Phil. iv. 3. 
Crescens, 2 Tim. iv. 10. 
Demetrius, 3 John 12. 
Epapbras, Cot. iv. 12. i. 7, 

Philem. 24. 
Epaphroditus, Phil. ii. 23. 
Eprenetus, Rom. xvi. 5. 
ErastUB, Acts xix. 22. 
Gains, Acts xx. 4. 
Jesus Justus, Col. iv. 11. 
Of whom, Euscbius' 
tertium Joannis; 

John Mark, Acts xiii. 5, 

XV. 37, Philem. 24. 
Lucas, Philem. 24, CoL 

iv. 14. 
Secundus, Acts xx. 4, 
Silvanus, 1 Pet. v. 12, 

1 Thcss. i. 1, 2 Thess. i. 1. 
Sopater, Acts xx. 4. 
Sostlienes, 1 Cor. i. 1. 
7, Stephanas, 1 Cor. xvi, 15. 
TimotheuH, Acts xix. 22, and 

XX. 4. 
Titus, 2 Cor. viii. 23. 
Trophimus, Acts xx. 4, 
Tychicua, Acta xx. 4. 
Urbanus, Rom. xvi. 9. 
Hist. lib. iii. cap. 4 ; Euthymius, in 
Isidorus', De patrib. and Dorothei* 

To two of these, Timothy and Titus, the one at Ephesus, 
the other at Crete (Euseb.' lib. iii. cap. 4.), the apostles im- 
parted their own commission while they yet lived, even the 
chief authority they bad; 

to appoint priests, I'it. i. 5, and Hieron." in eum locum; 
to ordain them by imposition of hands, 1 Tim. v. 22, 

2 Tim. ii. 2 ; 
to keep safe and preserve the depositum, 1 Tim. vi. 14, 

go, 2Tim. i. 14; 
to command not to teach other things, 1 Tim. i. 3, Tit. 

iii. 9, 2Tim. ii. 16; 
to receive accusations, 1 Tim. v. 19, 21 ; 
to redress or correct things amiss. Tit. i, 5 ; 

■ [p.SO»t 

. IS7 sq.].] 

'[p. 81.] 

■ ivoi.iv.coL-na.] 

both of the Old and New Testament 359 

to reject young widows, 1 Tim. v. 11 ; 

[to censure heretics and disordered persons, Tit i. 11, 
and] iii. 10, 1 Tim vi. 5, 2 Tim. iii. 5. 

And these, after the apostles deceased, succeeded them in 
their charge of government which was ordinary, successive 
and perpetual, (their extraordinary gifts of miracles and 
tongues ceasing with them ;) [so] Irenaeus*, lib. iii. cap. 3, 
quos et successores relinquebanty suum ipsorum locum magisterii 

[op the promiscuous use op their names.] 

These were they whom posterity called bishops; but in 
the beginning regard was not had to distinction of names ; 
the authority and power was ever distinct, the name not 
restrained, either in this, or other. 

1 . The apostles were called 

priests or seniors, 1 Pet. v. 1 ; 
deacons or ministers, 1 Cor. iii. 5; 
teachers or doctors, 1 Tim. ii. 7 ; 
bishops or overseers, Acts i. 20 ; 
prophets. Acts xiii. 1, Rev. xxii. 9 ; 
evangelists, 1 Cor. ix. 16. 

The name of apostle was enlarged, and made common to 
more than the twelve ; 

to Barnabas, Acts xiv. 4, 14 ; 

Andronicus, Rom. xvL 7 ; 

Epaphroditus, Phil. ii. 25 ; 

Titus and others, 2 Cor. viii. 23 ; 

Timothy, Hieron. in Cant Euseb. Chron. 

2. The priests were called 

prophets, 1 Cor. xiv. 32 ; 
bishops, Phil. i. 1, Tit. i. 7 ; 
so Chrysostomy, in Phil. Horn. i. [^Q^id hoc? an unius 
civitatis multi erant episcopi f nequaquam, sed presbyteros 
isto nomine appellavit; tunc enim nomina adhuc erant 

X [p. 175.] ' [vol. xLp. 195.] 

A >o, 

<•/ the 'jorerniufiit 

Hierome", Hie episcopos preshyteros intelUgimus, non enita 
in una urbe plures episcopi ease potuiasent. 

Theodoret", Non fieri quidem polerat vl mutti ephcopi 
ement wuus civitatis pastures, quo fit ut essent preBbyteri 
guos vocavit episcopos; and in 1 Tim. iii.'', Eosdem 
olim vacabant epiacopoa et presbyteros ; eos autem gui 
nunc vocantur episcopi, nominahant apostolos. 

(EcumeniuB'', Non quod in una civitale multi esscnl epi~ 
acopi, tfc. ; 
fur in the apostles' absence in churclics new planted, tlie 

oversight was tn them, till the a^wstles ordained and 

sent ihein a blahop, cither by reason of some BchiBm or 

for other causes. 

3. The bishopa, as the ecclesiastical history rccounleth 
them, were called 

apostles, Phil. ii. 35; 

evangelists, 2 Tim. iv. 3 ; 

diaconi, 1 Tim. iv. G ; 

priests, 1 Tim. v. 17; 
[for it is plain by the epistle of Irenseus to Victor, in] Euse- 
bius'', lib. V, cap. 20, that they at the beginning were called 
priests, that in very truth and propriety of s[>eech were 
bishops; and by Theodoret", in 1 Tim. iii., that they which 
were bishops were at the first called apostles. 

The name hvioKo-n-oi, saith Siiidas', was given [by the Athe- 
nians to them which were sent to oversee the cities that were 
under their jurisdiction, ol vap 'Affijvaioiv els rat wnjuoovt 
•TToXets eTn<7Ki\(raa-ffai ra -nap kitdtTrQi,s vefL-rrofievoi, iiriiTKO- 
TTot KOI (f>ij\aK£9 eVaXotJi'To. Suid. in CTriVjeoTrof.] 

The name 'episcopus' was given among the Romans to him, 
qui prceerat pani et venalibus ad mctum qitotidianum, ff.8 De 
manerib. et honorib. Cicero'', ad Atticum, lib. vii. epist. 11. 
Villi me Pompeiua ease, quern tola hac Cavtpania el maritima 
ora habeat episcopnm. 

' [vid. in Til. L B. vol. i- 
« fin Phil L iixit., vol. ii 
!• [Ihid. col. 852.1 
• [In Phil-i. I.] 
' [H. E., p 238.] 

' [vtil. fii. p.»i62.] 

' [toL 13U0.] 

< [Corp. jur. ci.. DiB-*l 

cup. IS. |7.cn1. I7JI.5.J 

^ (vd.viii. p.-m.,] 

both of the Old and New Testament, 361 

The name in Hebrew DnpB, Gen. xli. 34, seemeth to have 
relation to the second use, for they were such as had charge 
of the grain laying up and selling under Joseph. 



The party, who in the New testament is called * episcopus,' 
is in the Old called mpB, Ps. cix. 8, with Acts i. 20. 

In a house or family it is first affirmed of Joseph, Gen. 
xxxix. 4, who had the oversight and government of the rest 
of the servants; in a house there may be many servants, 
which have places of charge, but there is one that hath the 
charge of all, that is, aeconomuSf ' the steward.' So do the 
apostles term themselves, 1 Cor. iv. 1, and their office, 1 Cor. 
ix. 17, and their successors the bishops. Tit i. 7. Vid. Hilar.^ 
in Matt. xxiv. 45. 

In a flock, the pastor, Joh. xxi. 15, Acts xx. 28, Matt 

XXV. 32, 1 Pet V. 2, Eph. iv. 11. 
In a camp, the captain, Matt ii. 6, Heb. xiii. 7, 17, 24. 
In a ship, the govemour, 1 Cor. xi. 28, under whom 

others, Acts xiii. 5. 
In the commonwealth, they be such as are set over officers, 
to hasten them forward and see they do their duties, as 
in 2 Chron. xxxiv. 12. xxxi. 13 ; Neh. xi. 22. xiL 42* 
So that, what a steward is in a house, 

a pastor in a flock, 
a captain in a camp, 
a master in a ship, 
a surveyor in an office : 
that is a bishop in the ministry. 

Upon him lieth 

[to take care of the churches under him] , 2 Cor. xi. 28, 

Phil. ii. 20, 1 Pet v. 2, Concil. Antioch.^ can. 9; 
[and for that end to visit them,] Acts ix. 32. xv. 36 ; 
[and to be observant] of that which is well and orderly, 

[to confirm it,] Acts xv. 41, Rev. iiL 2; otherwise, 

[to redress it,] Tit i. 5. 

> [coL 734.] ^ [A.D. 341. vol ii. col. 1312.] 

362 A summary view of the government §y. 

To him was committed ; 

1. Authority of ordaining, Tit i. 5, and so of begetting 
fathers, Epiph. Hcbtcs, Ixxv.^; see Ambrose*, Theodoret", and 
CEcumenius" in 1 Tim. iii. ; Damasus^ ep. iii. ; Hieromei', 
ep. Ixxxv, Ad Evagr. ; Leo^, ep. Ixxxviii ; Concil. Ancyran. 
can. 12 (al. 13).'' For though St. Paul should mention a com- 
pany with him at the ordaining of Timothy, 1 Tim. iv. 14, yet 
it foiloweth not but that he only was the ordainer; no more 
than that Christ is the only judge, although the twelve shall 
sit with him on thrones, Luke xxii. 30. 

2. Authority of enjoining or forbidding, 1 Tim. i. 3 ; Ignat 
Ad Magnesian,'; Cyprian*, ep. iii. 9. 

3. Authority of holding courts and receiving accusations, 
1 Tim. V. 19, 1 Cor. v. 12, Rev. ii. 2. Aug." De apere 
monachor.y cap. 29. 

4. Authority of correcting, 1 Tim. i. 8, Tit. i. 5 ; Hieron.* 
Contra Lucifer, cap. iv. et ep. liii. Ad Riparium. Cyprian.^ 
ep. xxxviii. 3. Ad Rogatianum. 

5. Authority of appointing fasts, TertuUian' Adv. psychicos. 

^ [§ 4. p. 908.] • [capp. 2—7. voL ii. p. 17 sqq.] 

1 fyol. ii. append, col. 295.] * [Epp. 8, et 55 et 76. pp. 5, 110, 

Yvid. sup., p. 360.] 225 ; et passim.] 


vol. ii. p. 224 sqq.] " [vol. vi. col. 499.] 

p. 111.] * [vol. iv. par. 2. 

£p. ci. ad Evang., vol. iv. par. 2. xxxvii. ibid. col. 279.] 

col. 802 sq.] y [p. 5 sq.] 

"» [p. 158.] ■ [be jejun., cap. 13. p. 551.] 

' [A.D. 314. vol. ii. col. 518.] 










Ex pede Herades. 



Surely as darkness was before light, (for ' the evening and 
the morning,' saith the text, ^ made the first day/) and as out 
of chaos, that rudis indigestaque moles, were made all the clear 
firmaments, even ccelum crystallinum ; so evident it is that 
paganism covered all the face of the world, except the little 
land of Jewry, afore Christianity was admitted. And after the 
admission of christian religion in the western part of the 
world by the christian emperors, the northern people toge- 
ther with the empires almost every where abolished christian 
religion : but yet, as Augustinus Curio ^ notes, at length every 
one of these northern and heathen nations embraced christian 
religion, saving only the Saracens. My conceit and purpose 
to shew you is, that of the ecclesiastical government and 
policy observed in the british and english ancient pagans, as 
formerly having their commonwealth in frame and beautified 
with our common laws, they being converted unto Chris- 
tianity, many of the paganish ceremonies and usages, not 
contrary to the scripture, were still retained in their chris- 
tian policy; by means whereof tranquillity and peace was 
observed, and the alteration in the state less dangerous or 
sensible. For as in general Amobius^ is true, writing, nothing 
was innovated for christian religion in rerum naturd; and as 
the heathen oracle of Apollo Pythius answereth, the Athe- 

* [Printed from an edition bearing; 
date 1653, with a preface by Edward 
Leigh, informing us concerning the 
treatise, " that upon speech between 
bishop Andrewes and a gentleman his 
near neighbour about the ceremonies, 
the bishop awhile after, and a quarter 
of a year before his death, delivered 
this to him as a collection of his own 
about that subject, which he had not 

time, he said, to polish and lick over. 
Had the author," he proceeds, 'Mn- 
tended it to be published, it would no 
doubt have been more perfect, but I 
thought it worthy in regard of the 
author and argument, which few have 
so generally handled, to be published ;" 

* [Hist Saracen.] 

* [Adv. gent, lib. i. capp. 1, 2.] 

366 // U no disparagement 

nians asking liim what religion was principally to be embraced, 
namely, that which was by descent delivered as a custom of 
their Bocestors ; so in particular well writeth Dionysins Uali- 
camasscus, the least ceremonial points of the divine worship 
a nation, unless necessity compel them, will hardly alter. He 
instancoth it in the Egyptians, the Moors, the Gaula, the 
Scythians, the Indians ; nay, sir Thomas Smith in his Com- 
monwealth^ exprcsseth that our ancestors being heathens, 
when they agreed to receive christian religion, that which 
was established before, and concerned external policy, they 
held and kept still with that which was brought of new by 
their christian apostles and doctors. 

Because I remember Tully's' cognizance, namely, that it is 
a badge of a negligent and dissolute person not to regard 
what the most sort of the people may conceive of him, and 
that conceit is worthily the most heinous which may note 
any to plant by writing, or water by speaking, the cursed 
roots or seeds of self-springing paganism, I will first prove 
that this kind of birth of our ceremonies can be no dif^ace 
to our ecclesiastical ceremonies. 

Secondly, I will insinuate three observations to be remem- 
bered out of the particular proposition proved. 

Thirdly, I will point at some of the superfluous and wicked.' 
popish ceremonies drawn from the heathens. 

Fourthly and lastly, I will instance in many ecclesiastical 
ceremonies of the heathens, which are or may be used in our^ 
or in any other christian state. 

I. In the first place, allowing much of our ecclesiastical dis- 
cipline used in the time of our primitive church was borrowed 
from the heathen, yet that it can be no disparagement unto 
it, must needs be granted; for otherwise to imagine is the 
direct opinion of the heretics Manichaei, whose error in this 
point is solemnly refuted by St. Augustine writing against 
Faustus^ and by St. Jerome* writing against Vigilantius. 

That I may not threaten but persuade, — By the judicial law 

io ceremonies of the church 

of Mosea expressed in Dcut. xsi., "If a straDge woman be 
taken in balile, if her beauty please thee, her nails and hair 
being pared and shaven, and her garment of captivity being 
Inken away, ihou mayest lawfully take her to wife," by tbe 
morar of this law severally write Isidore" and Peter Blesensis', 
the eeremonies of the gentiles, the deformities thereof being 
taken away, may lawfully be used amongst the ehristians. 
Isidore" then expounding Deut. xvi,, "tbou shalt not plant 
trees near unto tbe altar," bis meaning is, one must not imitate 
the devotion nor the eeremonies of the gentiles. For the 
Israelites even by the direction of God made holy vessels, and 
placed tbem in the temple of God, of tbe gold and silver they 
robbed the Egyptians of. — And it is vulgarly known that the 
sayings of the heathen poets are used by the Holy Ghost in the 
New testament. — Again, we may see in Actsxvii. how St, Paul 
himself, when he was at Athens, the very altar of superstition 
whieh was dedicated unto an unknown god, and unto whieh 
bloody sacrifices were slain, by as much dexterity and wisdom 
as that time would permit, did make use thereof, and seem to 
transpose it to the worship of the true God. — And which is 
more, it is expressed by St. Paul, it is lawful for a christian, 
so it be without scandal, to eat those things which arc conse- 
crated unto idols. Honestly then writes Mr, Hooker', that 
which hath been ordained impiously at the first, may wear 
out that impiety by tract of time, as the names of our heathen 
months and days used throughout all Christendom without 
any scandal. And if the Spaniards well may glory of their 
Alphonsiis"", king of Arragon, qui per cluacam ingresstis subler 
miiros, won Naples, and from thence expelled Renate, dnke of 
Anjou, reasonably then out of former rags of the gentiles the 
glorious and fair garment of Christianity in times may be 
woven. And as Ephraim Syrus", a father that lived in 
St. Basil's time, writetb, if the money be taken out of the 
purse, yet the purse is not to be cast away ; so although tbe 
sacrifice and service of the gentiles be taken away, the out- 
ward ceremonies may remain. 

' [lQDeuU,«ii.ToLv.p,47a.] - [Bccchitclliu PtnonniU, " Dt 

' [EpiiL »iil p. lOsq.] diclU" Sic. " Alphonni," *to. Witeh. 

' [In DeuL, c»p. iJL vol. v. p. Wl.] 1685. p. I.S.] 

' [R. P., Book i». cli. !».(♦■ "ol- >■ " [I'' P^ni'-i Serm. ii. vol, i. p. 

p. .jHl.] 133 v.] 

to have been originally heathen. 

To conclude ; this pedigree of our ceremonies staineth not 
our christian policy, for that all the good orders of the heathens 
came hy tradition, or reading or seeing the ceremonies that 
God commanded among the Jews in the land of promise ; as it 
appearetb hy Joacphua against Appion", that the sect hf the 
Pythagorean philosophers translated much of the Jews' laws 
into their own sect. And as by EusebiusP, Augnstinei, Theo- 
doret', Justin Martyr', and others, Plato copied much out of 
Mosea' writings, (for Moses" writings were long afore the 
empire of the Persians,) so verily if it were for this place, it 
may be exemphfied that the succeeding ceremonies of the 
heathen were derived from the Jews' ceremonies; and no 
man can justly deny birt that we may use the ceremonies of 
the Jews, non ex vi, sal ex analogid mosaica hgis. And if ihb 
point fancy any man, let him read Alcuinus, De officiis divinis*; 
Amalarius, De nfficiis ecclesiasticis° ; Gratian, De con.'; but 
especially Mutius Pansa, in bis Osculum chrisliants et ethmccB 
philosophifB ; (I can commend Nicholaus Mount-Geor^usT in 
his book De mosaicojure enucteando, only for his endeavours.) 
You may observe out of Josephus" in the latter time of the 
Jews' government, that Herod their first king brought much 
of the roman-heathenish discipline into their policy, and in 
this respect that many of our christian ceremonies were 
formerly heathen, and afore that iised in the commonwealth 
of Jewry, wherein God was the lawgiver : they resemble the 
seventeen vessels which the heathen king Cyrus gave unto 
the Jews at the building of ihe temple of Jerusalem, after the 
captivity of Babylon, among which, as Esdras writes, there 
were vials of gold twenty-nine, of silver two thousand four 
hundred and ten ; for these were in the last use sacred, , 
being formerly heathen and profane, but most anciently boljhB 
and sanctified. m 

IL The first of the three observations that I am to insuiuate 

-app. 16, 39. 1 

o [vil Ub. 

pp. 1377. 89," 

» [CoDslanl 

HMfiect cuiat, DiB] 
r. p. 73B,] 

.im, e. g. Ad Grac 
-33. pp. a.j— 31. 

cBpp. 44, 5B, 60. pp. 70 A. 78 C, 79 B. 

<■ [possinu eol. 1009 »qq.] 

" [pasiiin. coL 305 iqq.J 

' [Lb. De oonteeriUone, DUl. i 
cap. 2. ool. 2049.] 

' [vid. " Li« of edd." tt^ end o 
thi. vol.] 

" " t. Jud., lib. If. cap. 8. voI.LJ 



Much that u called pophh 3G9 

upon the particnlar to be proved, is the amplciiess of the com- 
mon law, admitting no common law within their land but as 
parcel and incorporated into the general laws and policies of 
this land, seeinp; most of our ecclesiastical law was before there 
was any popish canon laws observed by the inhabitants, as the 
civil ordinance of the magistrate in the ages most remote ; bnt 
of these hereafter in particular. 

Secondly, note, if much of the christian policy and dis- 
cipline was in practice when the state of this land was heathen, 
the lay catholics are much mistaken in their petition, where 
they write, wc have all our feasts and ceremonies from Augus- 
tine the monk. And let ihcm not play Suffenus's* part, in 
delivering there is not the least ceremony or circumstance 
which hath been added to the solemn iKation or majesty of 
God's service, hut the year is known when, and the po|)e by 
whom it was ordained; but these foi^et what their father 
Bellarmine" confesseth, that all christian ceremonies were not 
invented by the pope. 

Thirdly, this will sufficiently convict the opinion of them 
whom Nazianzen' ingeniously calls new pharisees, to he but 
ceremonious, that will not conform themselves to any cere- 
monies used in the time of popery, seeing we must and ought 
to obey the cecleBiastical discipline established by the laws of 
the land, for coming to church, for having prayers, or preach- 
ing, or music in our churches, or such like, although (as shall 
be proved) these ceremonies and customs were used in the 
time of pagans, and at their sacrifices. Genebrard, by whom 
it is verified that much learning and railing may be accidents 
in one subject, writes, that in the year 1560 in England arose 
a new sect of puritans, so called because they will not pray 
in the churches that were the catholics', nor wear a surplice; 
(sure I am that many that wear the liveries of this name are 
otherwise minded.) And I learn out of Dubravius'', that the 
Thaboritea of Prague held that the clergy should not be doc- 
tors of divinity, or quote the fathers in their sermons, or wear 
any other than their ordinary garments ; but yet for them all, 
quant honeatd volunlale miseri errant. It is confessed cere- 

• fCalull. Cum. xxiL] "^ [OmL xxivii. c:.p, 9. vol i. p. 

*> [De Sacrun. in gen,, lib. iL e»[i. 651.] 
29 «qq. vol. ili. col. 2fil »qq.] '' [Hiit Doiem., lib, iivi. inil.] 

was anterior io papery. 

monies of themselves are thiDga indifferent, as being neitliel 
expressly commanded or forbidden by the word of God ; and 
ahhoitgh among the Jews their kings would not permit liber- 
ties in eeremoniea to the subjects, christian kings may: but 
yet when they are enacted in a christian state, and made 
the laws of the land, they must be obeyed of necessity as unto 
a thing not indifferent. For well write the canonists, an act 
indifferent, when it ia commanded ia a necessary act, otherwise 
idle is the command ; and it appeareth by Josephns that the 
Athenians made a severe law against those that spake against 
the outward ceremonies established by law or custom ; this 
also may appear out of Livy, and ont of Dion , Who knoweth 
not that the king, the Caeaar of the country, must obey the 
law of the land ? what a presumption is it then for a private 
man to exempt and privilege himself from obeying the laws 
of the land I Truly writes a learned common lawyer', the 
laws of men not contrary to the law of God ought to be ■ 
kept even of the clergy in the law of the soul. And Mutius' • 
notes, that Charles the great in Saxony gave equal authority 
to his magistrates {scabinis) to put to death those which con- 
temned and derided the ceremonies ecclesiastical, as thoee 
which sacrificed to heathen gods: lor Lodovicua Sotomajor 
well writes in his cummeiit upon the Canticles, godlincsa 
being as the soul, yet eeremoniea are as the body of christiau* 

III. But I am to point at aome of the superfluous and 
wicked ceremonies of the papists borrowed from the heathen. 

Of so large and near affinity ia the divine worship of the 
heathens and papists in the temples, that Lodovicus VivesB con- 
fesseth there cannot any difference be shewn, unless the papists 
have changed the names and titles ; so that (with Chemnitius'') 
to the followers ofthe see of Rome we may object what Faustus' 
did to the ehriatians, "ye turn idols into martyrs and saints, 
whom ye worship with correspondent vows." And I can hardly 
imagine how plentiful the tears of Petrus Chrysologus and 


■ [St. Gcmnin, Salem and ByiancE 
aMtloiK, r>p. 3.] 

' [Eume 

. Concil. TrWenl. id 

" De iinagiiii 

u.." p. 676. col. i] 


1 [Aug, CO 

nl. Fau>t. Man.] 

« Lvid.Ch«miil.ini,ot. sc^O 

Snperfluont and wicked ceremonies 


Silvaniis would run, if tliey were alive and viewed the anti- 
christian see ; for that in their times some of the superSuoiis 
heatheD ceremoniea began to abound in tlie christian churches, 
whereupon they complained, although the gentiles' circensia 
were celehrated in the honour of Christ, yet the church 
being out of that cradle, the particular usage of the gentiles 
in this kind was not to be Imitated. I commend therefore 
the intent of that emperor, who for reverence of the sign 
caused (as Sozomenus' reporteth) ^/iiream to he erected loco 
cmcia; and I reverence the opinion of the makers of an ancient 
statute in Henry the third's time', namely that De pittoribus, 
which punishcth a butcher that buyeih ficsh of Jews to sell the 
same to christians. And generally, that the heathen thought 
their ceremonies would drive away the christians. Abbas 
Urspergensis", a German, and Didacus Covarruvias', a 
Spaniard, wrote that Helena, a Briton, and mother of Con- 
Btantine, the first christian emperor, horn in this island, going 
to Jerusalem, found in the place where Christ was crucified 
the idol of "Venus placed. 

But to instance ; the popish purgatory in scope and being 
agreeth with the heathen purgatory, mentioned in Plato" 
and Virgil". — ^The papistical manner of consecrating churches 
and church-yards fully imitateth the ceremonies of the 
pagans when they consecrated their temples and temple- 
couris or yards, described hy Alexander ah Alesandro"; 
in Spain, by Gregorius Lopus, at the beginning of the con- 
secration of a church they must make three crosses in the 
last part thereof; their sprinkling of holy water is mentioned 
in the sixth satire of Juvenal ■*, and Sozomcnus calleth it a 
heathenish ceremouy; in particular, that it was always used 
at the sanctifying of the capitol, appeareth by Alexander ab 
Aleicandro. — Their having of nuns and women for societies or 
colleges was used amongst the heathen, as I gather out of 
Plutarch 1 ; and that the whole swarm of friars or monks wna 
first fledged amongst the heathen, at large appeareth by 

■ fVar. nwL, lib. i*. cap. IS. ti 
p. 436. col. 2.] 

- [e. g. De rep,, lib. x. rh*d,] 

372 of the papish borrowed from the heathen, 

learned Hospinian^ — The papists' placing of imageB in their 
temples, and every image to have his several priest; their 
priests to have shaven crowns, to be unmarried; to have 
frankincense offerings, fasts and feasts, to have candles in 
ihem, and to carry them up and down, in every respect is 
heathenish; and to do no wrong, Chemnitius' in particniar 
proveth this by variety of authors. — The placing of lights in 
churches at some time is not altogether an heathenish cere- 
mony (although it appear by Seneca the gentiles' had it; 
Siiidas", in the word \afiTricf, thinketh they were first used in 
Athenian temples), for the ancient fathers used a kind of light 
in the primitive church, which made St. Augustine to write, 
" they promise to the churches, one oil, another way to solace 
themselves for the night-light;" but their burning of tapers 
in their churches at noon-day is altogether a pagan custom, 
as Rhenanus" well observes in his comment upon TertuUian. 
And I take it their burning of torches at funerals is merely a 
superfluous ceremony of the gentiles, as appeareth by Virgil" 
and his commentator Servius writing upon the funeral of Pallans, 
lucel via lon^ 
Online BinimKrum. et Istc diicrimiait Bgros. 

Jerome" writing of the death of Blesilla describeth the 
funeral pomp of the cbtistians. — The papists' kissing of 
their hands as a kind of worship in their churches agreelh in 
intent with the heathenish custom (although Prudontius and 
Optatus make mention of kissing of hands in the primitive 
church), and this Cfelius Rbodiginus (11,) notes out of Plinyi 
and Apuleius". Lucian' calls the worshipping by laying the 
finger to the mouth to be the sacrifice of poor men, as having 
nothing else to offer. — The learned chief justice of France, 
Erissonius'', whom one calls Varro Gallia, particularly writeth 
why the papists purposely imitate the heathens in turning on 
the left hand at their right sacrifices, — M. Perkins notcth out 

' [De monseb., lib. i. cep. 10—12. 

- [^n. xi. 1*.!.] 

' [En. xxii.BJF>uUni.,vol.iv. par. 

pp. 20-27.] 

■ [Ei«n™ Concil. Tri<knL \a c.p. 


' [Lib. xi. op. 1113. Tol. ii. p. 445.] 

<■ [vid. Hieron. in EuLlib. tvL «p. 

' [Melun., lJb.iv. p. 132.] 

S7. vol. iii. col. lis. LacUnt.lib. vi. 

• [DesKt-if.. ™p.xii.v<.Liii. p.86. 

up. S. Ammlan. MarcelL, lib. xxiL 

cf. Dc BftlL, cap. ivii. ToL v. p. 130. et 


DenioBth. enconi., op. dii. voL U. ji. 

(71 use of images, torches, postures, ^r. 373 

of Ruffiniis that pro tkorairihus Serapidis Constaniine caused 
the sign of the cross to he erected in pillars and houses. Sozo- 
menua'^ writeth, Constantiac pro la/ioro postiil siffnum crucis; 
and hence he would have this a superfluous ceremony of this 
kind, bnt unto thia I cnnnot ss yet subscribe.— Likewise where 
Julius Pacius wittily notes that the whole corps of the canon 
law or ccclesiaatical discipline imitateth the feature and struc- 
ture of the corps of the civil laws, generally hemp; heathen ; 
tor the common law-book called Decretum anawereth the 
Pandects, the Decretal the Codex ; for as in the Codex there 
are the imperial, so in the Decretals there are the pontifical 
constitutions ; and us the answers of wise men, that is, law- 
yers, are reported in the Digest, so the sentences of the authors 
are registered in their Decretum ; all this I condemn not as 
an idle correspondence : but to leave this point of our divines, 
I spare to prove out of Calvin their prayer for the dead as an 
idle imitation of the heathen; that their worshipping the rehcs 
of their saints and martyrs is mere gentiltsm, the ancient bait 
of Satan. And therefore generally to conclude, I conceive the 
Jesuits, (the golden staves and mattocks of the see of Rome, 
whose name answerelh Heraclitus's" greek name for a bow, 
TO fi€v ovofia ^10!, TO hk fpyov Odvarof, that is, " thy name," 
saith Heraclitus, "a bow, is life, but thy work is death,") in 
office resemble the heathen priests of the Indians, called 
brachmans, mentioned by Osorius' ; he saith, " these heathen 
clergy-priests also study philosophy and the mathematical 
arts, insomuch that by their learning and counterfeit holiness 
they continue all their life-time the singular contrivers of all 
fraud and villany ;" for my warrant I apjKial to the catastrophe 
of many houses of nobility of this realm, acted by the Jesuits. 

IV. Now according to my mtun design I have to instance 
in many ecclesiastical ceremonies of the heathen which are 
or may be lawfully used in ours or any other christian state. 

For the general, in the civil law-book called Digests, which 
contains the writings of the old lawyers which were heathens, 
you may read many precepts, superstitious rather than reli- 

374 ReligUius ceremonies of the heathen, 

gious, of tbeir hcachen sacrificcB and church discipline; anJ^ 
yet when the emperors of Rome began after to bo christians, 
you may perceive by the civil Inw-bouka called Codex how in 
many points the emperors retain them ; but further to exem- m 
plify this is a matter fruitless, I stand not hereupon. ^ 

But more particularly ; the cercmunies un this behalf to be 
recited I shall refer unto the heathen churches, — the heathen 
Jiamines or ministers, — the heathen people, 

1. That the healbens afore the christians had their temples 
to resort unto, where they were to worship their paynim gods, 
no man will deny, (though Diogenes in his cynic mood 
held temples imneceasary, by affirming the whole world was 
the godly and holy temple of the gods, where he would pray ; 
and this was also the opinion of Zcnon ', and also of our ances- 
tors the Saxons, as appeareth by Abbas Urspergensis*; the 
Scythians, by Herodotus'", erected temples or churches to none 
of the gods but only unto Mars.) But although Ciemena 
Alexandrinus' note that in the beginning superstition was the 
parent of all pagan temples, they being formerly, saith he, 
the sepulchres for men ; yet Isidore^ well notes out of Tran- 
quillus, that when the people heathen began to be civil, their 
temples were built, and altered fairer both within and with- 
out. — Moreover the very name of the heathen assemblies 
among the Athenians and the cities of Asia, was ecclenia, 
which retaineth the name of the churches among the chris- 
tians at this day; Onuphrius Panvinius" writeth, the church, 
ecchsia, signifieth a congregation; and it is called basiUcan, 
or temple, after the manner of the gentiles. — And as we have 
bells in our churches, so had the pagans in theirs ; by Sueto- 
nius, the emi>eror Octavius Augustus was the first who in the 
highest place of the temple of Jupiter capltoline hanged 
bells. That at the ringing of their bells the heathens were 
wont to meet at their assemblies, as at baths and otherwise, is 
plain by Martial', who writeth, 

Redde piUm, lonal sb Ihcrannim, tudere pergis ! | 

J [vid. Li!, Gvrald.. Synl. j 
i. p. 432.] 
" [p. IIS.] 
' [Epigr, lil>. liv. 183.] 

which may lawfully be used by cfirhlians, 375 

But yel you may see by a part of the canon law onlled the 
Clementines", that the Saracens in their sleeplcB have no 
bells. — For the fabric or structure of the temples, whether 
the christian temples were square, and the heathens all 
round, with Dr. Humphrey, as no diversity, I leave it to 
be enquired of the curious: ouly I note out of Socrates", 
the ancient and apostolical churches of the christians in 
Antiochia in Syria, were built round; and out of Gyraldus*, 
that the temple of Vesta was like unto a ball, the temple 
of the Sun and Bacchus is round ; and that Stukius in his 
comment upon Arrianus", notes, the temple of Mercury was 
square, and of cubic %ure. — As we have no images in our 
temples, so likewise was it used of many heathens : among 
the Romans, their holy and ancient king Noma by a law 
banished imagesor idols out of their temples; Tacitus" reports 
the Germans likewise would not represent the goda by images ; 
and Strabo'' and Herodotus" shew how the Persians for their 
guds neither made altars nor images; and Eusebius' writes, 
the people called Seres by a special law forbad the worship- 
ping of images. 

To wade a little further; the gentiles having their temples 
and churches for their poetical gods, Christianity being 
received by consent of the emperors and civil magistrates, it 
is to be seen whether those ethnic churches were all demo- 
lished, and new ones built of the christians. That many of 
the heathen churches were utterly ruinated, many historians 
and fathers witness; among others, St. Jerome", writing against 
Jovinian, telleth of the destruction of the famous temples of 
Jupiter capitoline; and in his comment upon the Galatians 
his words are these, vacua idolonim lentpla qualiuntur ; and 
in the Theodosian codex' you may see a particular rescript 
made by the emperor Theodosius the younger, that the 
paynim temples in the east should be plucked down, they 

■ [ComUi juris csnon., voL ii. col. ■ [Lib. xf.prap. fin. vol. ii. p. 106*.] 

loss.] ' [Clio. rap. 131. voL i. p. 112.] 

" [vid. H. P„. lib. <•. cap. 32. p. 297. ' [Prap. ev»ng., lib. vL c»p. 10. p. 

cf. Euneb. Til Conit., lib. iu. c.p. fiO. 27+ D.] 

Wiliirid Slttbo, De reb, eccl. c»p. 4.] ■ [»ol. U. p«r, 2. coL 228 fin.] 

* [Hill, deor,, Sjnt. It, toI. L p. • [vid. lib. xvi. (it i. iip. II- Socr. 

14T.1 H. E , Ub. t. oip. Ifi. p. 281. cum toco. 

f (p. 7fi,] piralL in So»om, el TheodoreL] 

respecting 1 . the churcheg, 


being (it to be the dens of devils or unclean spirits ; and their 
subversion of the irlol's temples is the reafion that by the 
canon and common law " Jmjt adificationis is a special cause that 
giveth the patronage or advowson of the chnrch unto a lay 
patron. But yet without controversy) when kingdoms and 
states turned from idolatry or paganism to Christianity, and 
that in short time (so powerful was the Holy Ghost), many of 
the heathen temples were not overthrown, but of necessity, 
after some ceremonies accomplished, were used for christian 
prayers and assemblies ; by means whereof the alteration iq 
the state was not so great, the temporal world with Demo- 
critus being not to be new made ex atonm, and men sooner 
and easier embraced public christian religion : and this is the 
reason that by the common law of England a man may be 
saitl to be patron of a christian church although he never 
built it, if he only endow the church with revenues. And as 
in foreign countries the emperor Honorius" about the year 400 
made a law' restraining the heat of the christians against the 
walls and stones of the gentiles' temples (the words of the 
rescript are, " as we forbid their sacrifices, so we will the orna- 
ment of their public works be kept"), and the first christian 
emperor Constantine' made a law against them which pluck 
down the tombs and monuments of the superstitious heathens, 
and those laws methinks in foreign countries gave some wai> 
rant for retaining heathen ceremonies ; so in our country of 
England it ia notorious by the epistles of pope Gregory * him- 
self, who sent our Augustine the monk, that although pope 
Gregory in his epistle to the king of England wrote, that 
ancient pagan temples in England might wholly be destroyed, 
yet afterwards the same pope better advising, that somewhat 
was to be yielded unto them that were weak in faith, as the 
apostles did, he wrileth a peculiar epistle to Mellitus, one of 
the first apostles or bishops of the Englishmen, and expressly 
willeth that the temples of the idols in England be not 
destroyed, but that they be hallowed and sanctified, and 
turned into oratories for christians. And as in general for 

- [Corpus jur. 
Greg., lib- iii. tit 
col. sei).] 

• [Coa. Theod 


a Binghao 

« (Epp., I 

manj/ of which were originaJhj 


other countries this appeiu^th by Theodoret'', so now it is & 
worlt of some difficulty to shew you in particular what chris- 
tian church at this day standing was anciently the temple of 
such an heathen god. In Rome by full ample authority it is 
plain, as by Beda in his several books, by Ado'', by Paulus 
Diacoiius'', and others, that Pantheon, the temple in Rome for 
all the heathen gods, was given by Phocas the emperor, about 
the fifth year of his reign, unto pope Boniface the fourth, and 
by the said pope dedicated to the honour of Our lady, and of 
all martyrs; it is now called the round church of Our lady, 
and the shape and antiquity thereof ic portrayed lively in the 
first inscription of Janus Gruterus's' Ancient Inscriptions, 
whose works may please a man that deligbtelh in this point: 
Dion' writes, in the reign of the emperor Tilus, when Rome 
burnt by the apace of three days, that the temple Pantheon was 
burnt ; but Euacbius* saith. In the thirteenth year of Trajan, 
Pantheon was burnt with a ihunderboll, howsoever it was 
re-edified by the heathen emperors. It is evident by Beda*" 
that we had a pantheon in England; it stood in a town in 
Yorkshire, now called Godmanham; this temple among our 
ancestors, the pagan Saxons, was called Godman ding ham, and 
was totally burnt by the people of Northumberland, when 
at the preaching of Paulinus king Edwin of an idolater 
became a christian ; Beda wrilcs, the heathen person, or 
fiamen Coifi was the first qui injecta lanced profanavit et 
cum omnibns sejitis suis succendit, ' burnt,' the very walls of the 
church-yard. Pope Gregory writetb in his Dialogues' that 
pope Benedict translated the church of Apollo into the 
oratory of St. Martin's; and cardinal Bellarmine' shewetb 
that at this day the church of St. Cosmo and Damiano in 
Rome was the material heathen temples of Castor and 
Pollux; and Ado" wriletb. In the year 425, pope Sixtus 
turned the temple of god Bacchus in Rome into the church 
of Our lady. But for England, (to omit out of Xiphilin' the 

■> [Qmc. afleut. cural. Dies, viii, ad 'i— 4. pp. 238 sqq.] 
fin. TOl. iT. p. 923.] ' ''■ " 

[CbniD. «[. Ti. p. 800 b.l 

[De gwt L«.gob., lib. iv. wp. 37. 

1 [Lib. a cp. 8. col. 2S0.] 
1 [De.«n«.be.t.,lib.L«ip.20. 
ii. col. 913.] 
» rCbroM. «L ri. p. 7M b.] 

' fp. tea fin.] 

f&'i.t.rom., lib. li.l.p. 7Bfl.] 
[»ii Pnep. ersng., lib. »i. Mpp. 

378 heathen temples, hallowed for christian use : 

abridger that nncicatly the Britons worshipped commonly in ' 
the church of god Victory,) as many learned men"" have rcaaoa 
to conjecture Si. Paul's church in London to have been the 
heathen temple of Uiana, for that the adjacent and skirt- 
buildings unto the church are called the chambers of Diana, 
as also that in Edward the first's time (as our chronicler* 
report) in Paul's church-yard were digged up an innumerable 
number of ox-heads, which the learned know were anciently 
the sacrifices unto Diana: so certain ! am that St. Peter's 
church, now called Westminster abbey, was anciently the 
temple of Apollo; for so it appeareth by one of the charters" 
of king Edgar made to Westminster abbey, and this is also 
recited in Sulcardus's book, an author that lived near William 
the conqueror's time. And in the leger book of St. Alban's ", it 
is written in the life of St, Eadmcrus, the ninth abbot of St. 
Alban's, who lived in the time of our king Edward the martyr, 
that in digging for a fonndation about St. Alban's abbey was 
found a book written in the british tongue, and of that the 
first part discoursed of Sl Alban, the second part treated of 
the idolatry of the citizens of Sl Alban's, Verulamii, unto the 
Sun and unto Mercury ; hence I conceive probably the ancient 
churches of St. Alban's were dedicated to the service of the 
Sun and Mercury their gods. 

To proceed, as lawfully the civil and supreme magistrates 
gave the temples of the heathens to the christians, as well St. 
Augustine P notes in one epistle, that the christian emperors 
did pass over to the true catholics the churches and revenues 
which were given by donalists to error and schism ; yet before 
the heathen temples were consecrated and purged, the chris- 
tians would not use any christian service in them; and this 
well appeareth out of Niccphorus, lib. vii. cap. 46'', who reports 
Constantine the great, the first christian emperor, that in the 
wars he might have a christian church to say & christian 
service in, he built hiin a church that might be carried upt 
and down after his camp, fieTatpopijriiii iKtcki^a-iav, ecclesiamm 
poTtabilem; as one calls ships portatiles domon. 

[Cunden,Middl.. vol 

p. 33*. J 

' Ep. c 

xx^T. De corr 



«,i. S. VQl. 

.cQl. G57G.] 

'Maith. Par,, p. 69*,] 

. [vol. i. 

, 515-] 

2. the mmistei-a ; their lilies : 379 

Nuw how the christtao bishops did hullow and sanctify 
the heathen churches, particularly may be seen out of Maria- 
nus Scotus', Rhcgino', aud Sigisbert' in the year 607, by Ado 
and others, when they speak of tbe dedication of Pantheon 
by Soniface the founh; (note, at this day consecration of 
churches is only reserved unto the bishops; and anciently 
there was more than one bishop present at the consecration 
of a church, for Turpinua tclleth, to the consecration of a 
church-yard in Bourdeaux there were seven bishops present.) 
And that our yew-trees in church-yards was the planting of 
the heathens, even Verstegan understands. Volateran" reports, 
that abont the year 484 pope FcUk the third made a canon 
that Icmplea should only be consecrated by bishops, and that 
this ceremony of consecrating and hallowing of churches, 
and dedicating of them, was anciently used by the heathens, 
both by words and by hand, is plain by Livy, Ovid", Tibullus, 
and CiceroT in many places. Livy* writeth, Horatius Pul- 
villus did dedicate the temple of Jupiter capitoUne. 

2. In this second place, I am to produce some of the cere- 
monies or policies observed among the heathen Jlaminea, or 
ministers, which are likewise In practice at this day among tbe 
christian provinces. 

That the heathens had their ministers or priests nothing 
is more plain ; and the priests of our ancestors the british 
heathens and the Goths were the drutds, as at large write 
Caesar' and Tacitus''. And the names of our bishops, 
epUcopus and pontifex, were used among the heathen. For 
thai he was called episcopus, that is, 'overseer' of others, 
and looked unto the poor, and had care of their diet, is 
plain by the words of Arcadius" the civil lawyer in the 
Digests, and (as Ouuphrius'' and others note) by Cicero' in 
his epistles, where be writes, Pompey would have him to be 
bishop of the cities of Asia; and it appeareth by the body of 

ol. 1. pp, 9I,408.J 
[Dc bell. gall., lib. tl cap. 13«q<i. 
, . 18.] 

'Anthropol., lib. xxiL col. GGS.] ' [Ann., lib. id v. cip. SO. vol. ii. p. 

[Fut i. 2911. ii. ST. iiL *29. vat. 171. Hi.l., lib. iv. eip. d4. vol. il 
pp-SO. 78, 191.«tpi ' 
[e.B, De l^B. ii. 
14ti. Pro doiD- 4^ >qq- * 

. pp. 30. 78. 191, et |»Him.] 26!.] 

' [e.g, De l^g. ii. II. Tol iii. p. ' rvid. »qp.. p. SCOnol. g.] 

■S. Pro dnm. ^S (qq. ml. y. p. 3B4.J ' [p. lOB.] 

• [vld. (Dp., p 360. not. h.] 

ihtnr degrees o/ri 

the common law, the oflRce of the primate came from the hea- 
then. Now for pontijex, it is confessed by every one that the 
christians took that name from the heathen ministers, and so 
Sozomenus deriveth it ; Rhenaiiua' and others note the word 
'diocese,' and the jurisdiction in this kind came from the hea- 

Now as among the christian ministers worthily and of 
necessity there arc degrees of the clergy, and one subordinate 
to another, so likewise was it when our ancestors were pagans, 
for they had their pontifex and pontifei maximus, their ^/fti- 
tnines and areki/tamines, as is plcun by Gratian's^ rhapsody; 
and as every particular god had h\s ^amen, his minister, so, 
as Genius'" notes,^ame« d/o/is, Jupiter's priest, was thechiefest 
among the rest. Beda' writes, Coifi was the chJefest heathen 
priest in the kingdom of king Edwin. Some of our country 
chroniclers that lived almost four hundred years ago ( Piolemeus 
Luccensis, who wrote the lives of the popes of Rome, writes 
in the life of pope Eleuthcrius how the three protoflamineg 
were converted into so many archbishoprics) tell you how 
many fltimines and arckiflamines there were among the Bri- 
tons, and into what bishoprics and archbishoprics they were 
afterwards translated ; but no wise man will believe their pai^ 
ticular, seeing they report actions done a thousand years 
before their time, having no former author or atithority to 
warrant it. And the heathen priests had some under them 
which were not priests, and yet to serve in the temples ; they 
were called camiUi, as appeareth by Plutarch' and Dionysiua" ; 
and these are in the nature of our deacons. 

The correspondent power of our clergy to that of the hea- 
then would best appear by opening of the nature of the heathen 
pontificea. To omit Livy, Plutarch, Alciat, Alexander ab 
Alexandro, Peter Perkins in his comment upon the rules of 
the common law writeth, the heathens assigned a peculiar juris- 
diction to their pontijices, namely, to look into the public and 
private ceremonies of their religion, to defend and interpret 

' [Descripl. lUyr. provinc, n. 
■ tPir.LDislt.xju.ljuix.toll 
101). 413 sq.] 
^ [Lib, I. cap. IS. vol. i. p. 3- 
"~' ol-h-I 

[vid. >up, p. 37S Hi 


' [Aniiij. rom., lib. ii. lap, 25. rol. 
i. p. 90. f(. MacTob. Saluni.,lib. lii.c&p. 
S. p. t3a, VuTO, De ling. Ut, lib. ii. p, 


. fin. 1 

iheir powers and duties ; 38 1 

their holy myateriefl, to deliver with what altars, to which 
gods, with what sacrifices, upon what days, at which teniptes 
prayers and otFerings should be, to see that every one resorted 
to church, and no new ceremonies to be admitted, that vows 
be performed, funerals decently bestowed, oaths and faith 
fulfilled, holy days proclaimed, the gods pleased. And Wolf- 
gangus Lazius' particularly notelh out of heathen authors, 
some the chief of their clergy and pimtifices were to be skil- 
ful, especially in their common or ecclesiastical law ; to judge 
of marriages, of sanctuaries; to consecrate churches, and places 
of burial ; that our clergy bath in like manner most of their 
particulars, every man must acknowledge. 

But to add unto these last recited authors concerning the 
holy days observed by the christians and heathen, Thucy- 
dides" notes, it is a matter of necessity to have holy days; 
that the christians begin their day from midnight, saith Cen- 
sorinus", it is common with the gentiles; and that our clergy 
foretell and declare the holy days to the people, the like was 
done by the pontifices of Rome, witnesseth Plutarch" in Numd. 
The heathens icall the days wbich are no holy days, profesti 
dies. Yea, that the holy days in the gentiles' calendar lose 
only their'oame, having upon the same days christian festivi- 
ties appointed, (for the apostles made no laws concerning 
holy days,) is known by TheodoretP, who writeth that the 
heathen holy days of Jupiter, Mars, and the rest of the hea- 
then gods, were ordained among the christians' holy days for 
Peter, Paul, and other saints, Gregorius Nyssenusi, in the 
life of Gregory for his great actions surnamed Thaumatur- 
gus, rcporteth that il was this Gregory that first made the 
particular conversion of the heathen into christian holy days. 
And aa among the christians the day of the martyr's or 
saint's death is the holy day, dies martyrii, dies natalis, so was 
it among the heathens; for by Plutarch in Camillo', the 
Romans observe Romulus's death-day for his holy day. 

Moreover, as among the christians, before a man can be 
admitted into the ministry, there is enquiry made by the 

1 [Lib. Ui. CTi^ 11. p. SSI.] ■■ [Gr»c. «flecL cunt. 

» [Lib. ii. op, as. vol. L p. 265.] prop. flu. rol W. p. «2a.] 

» [c»p. iiiii »q. pp. 12t, 128.] "^ [»ol. iiJ. eoL S7*-] 

. fvoU p. 262.f ' [•<•'■ '• W- '3^. «"-] 

(fieir ordination, and privileffes ; 

superior clergy of his ability and worthiness, and certain 
times and eoleninities observed at the ordinance of the 
minister ; so likewise was it amoriftst the inBdels otir ancestors; 
for as some of the recited authors mention, the heathen 
pontiles were to be skilftd in their profession and clei^:y 
discipline; so further it appearetb by Alexander ab Alex- 
andre', that if a man were a cripple, or lame in any 
part of his body, he could not be a pontifej:; therefore 
Marcus Sei^ius being lame, he was not euiFered to be a 
pmitifex ; BO Dionysins Haliearnasaeus ' observes, Metellus 
being a priest, and losing his eyes, he was put out of his 
priesthood; so Gellius notes", their vestals were rejected 
if they wanted wit or beauty.— The time appointed for their 
ordination or initiation, as Apuleitis' writeth, was called diet 
tiatalis sacrorum. — The ceremonies that were used when the 
heathen ministers were made, are in part described by 
Erasmus* in his book called Lingua, where he writes their 
afflatus and exornsmos; nay as amongst our clergy impositioQ 
of hands is almost essential to the oSice of a minister, so you 
may see how Livyf, treating of the ordination of Numa to be 
pontifex, delivered, upon Numa's head hands were laid ah 
an^tre sacerdote. Julius Pollux', in his Onomasticon, dis- 
co urseth of the manner of the ministers ordaining and 
ordained. — As at the making or electing of a christian minister 
no simony is to be used, so is it plain by Dionysius Halicar- 
nasseus no reward was to be given for the making of heathen 
priests. — And as the minister under the gospwl may be deposed 
or resign, so, that the heathen may be degraded I have 
already shewed; that he might resign is shewed you by 
Cicero in his Brutus, where augitres might resign their sacrr- 
dotium; and Livy' writes, their vestals after they were thirty 
years old might give over their order. — And as long as our 
ministers continue of the clergy, we know they have many 
privileges above the laity; so likewise that the heathen 
ministers had, is plentifully to be proved out of Aiistode'', out 

' [Lib. vi. op, 11. fin. vol. a. p. ' [Lib. i. cap. 18. vol i. p. 27.] 
611.] ■ fLil).L cap. l.vol. i. pp.4— 36.] 

' [M. Alio. Sense CoDtrav., lib. W. * [vid. Alex. >b Alex., lib. t. cap. 

canti. 2. p. 55.'] 12. vol ii. p. 110. et not. Tinq.] 

t/teir apparel in divine tervice, 

of CiPsar', ont of Plutarch'' in Cantillo: not unpoliticly there- 
fore (loth cardinal Baronius^ in one of his tomes, 
the ai^iiment of the scriptures to prove the pope's supremacy 
are but straws, at large maintain the su)M;riorities and pre- 
etniiiencies of the bishop of Rome to be due uoto him, inso- 
much as he noteth at the converBion of the emperor of Rome 
from paganism unto Christianity, the privilcpes of the heathen 
pontifex maximns were at last transferred by the emperor unto 
the pope of Rome. 

Again, look into the manner of the government and 
behaviour of the heathenish priests or sacrificera in their 
profane churches, and you shall see their good orders are 
not refused by the christian clergy; for yon may learn by 
Valerius' and Philostratus", that it is common to the chris- 
tians with the gentiles to use a white garment upon their 
bodies in their charges. Because the Egyptians brought no 
kind of woollen garment into the temple, Gyraldus'' in his 
Syntagma notes that they were called linii/eTi ,■ more parti- 
cularly the priests of the heathen egyptian god Isis wore 
linen surplices, as witnesseth Nicolaus Leonicenus', and 
Apuleins" in his Golden Ass; Alexander ah Alexandro' re- 
ports, the priests of Arabia were clad in linen garments, 
having mitres on their heads; and generally that other 
heathen priests did so, may appear by Virgil, who writeth, 

ronumquE ignemqiic TerebBnl 

Serviiis"" in his comment calleth the surplice a pure religious 

To proceed, as our ministers are bare-headed in tbe saying 
of service, so generally was it used amongst the heathen 
priests, asappcareth by Macrobius"; and that god iEsculapius 
was worshipped bare-headed, Plautus" may witness, 
Qui> hie e«l qui operlo cspile .^scuJupiuin 

' [«.g. Do bell. Rail,, lib. vi. cip. 

13. p. ISI.etpiiiim.] 

<■ [e.s. vol. i. pp. S3I, 543, 563, ct 

' [In A.D. 312. vol. iii. p. 91 uq.] 
' [Lib. i cap. i. Bxempl. IS, fol. 9.] 
• [vid. Til- Apollon., lib. vui, p. 387. 

«vii. vol.Lp.5l4.] 
i.C«p.2l.p. 145.] 
xi. p. 370.] 
Lib. ii cap. 8. voL i. p. 323.1 

384 and exclusion of unjilting persotu ; 

Brissoitiiisi' notes the manner of the heatlien priests being 
covered to sacrifice, operto capile, came first from the Romans; 
so is the opinion of SerTiusi, writing upon the second of the 
jEneids; and this is formerly noted by Polydore Vei^il' out 
of Plutarch; but (saving favour) I take it all Saturn's priests, 
tbongh Romans, were uncovered at their lime of service of 
sacrifice (for so I learn out of Plutarch*) because he was the 
god of time, and discovereth and layeth open concealed truth. 
And I remember out of Alexander ah Alcxandro' that all the 
]>riesla of Hercules, Honor, Ops, did sacrifice bare-headed ; he 
saith that j^neas" was the first that invented any priest should 
sacrifice covered, or with a veil upon his face, lest their eara 
and eyes might withdraw them from doing their office ; hence 
Varro's' etymology of Jiamen is justified, namely, that in 
Italy he was so called, guia capite velato eroL 

Again, as the christian ministers are not to suffer profane 
or excommunicate persons to come into our churches or 
sacraments, so likewise would not the heathen clergymen. 
For as in general appeareth by Theodoret and Sozomenus 
that the gentiles would not admit christians to their service 
unless they renounced their religion, and appeased their 
demons airoTpo-traUivs, ' the drivers away of evil,' which also 
Julian" commanded; Athenffius' notes, Demophon would not 
admit Orestes ad Clioum featiivi, because he was an imsanc- 
tified person; so in particular at their Eleusine' and other 
sacrifices the heathen priests cried eviis exai oinis aXirpos; 
which words were used by Callimachus" in his hymn, and by 
Lucian*!; these words exclude especially three sorts of persons, 
atheists, christians, and epicures. Vives notes out of Servius 
the words of Virgil's verse, procul o procul cste profam, were 
taken from the heathen pontifieea; which is also further 
evident out of Alexander ab Alesandro'^, who writeth, when 
the people came to sacrifice, the pnntiffx or flaou-n asked 
them, Ti'r Trjhi; the people answered ■jroWoi Kal ayaOol, 'many 

' [Lib. Ip. 3fi.] 
' fvid. ad JEn. iii. 
' [Lib. W. cap. 13. p. 
' [QuoHt rom^ voL i 

iLp. 81.] 

■ [QuoHt rom^ voL viL p. 81.] 
' [Lib. iL ctp. 32. vol I p. 467. 

■ rSer*. ia Virg. JEu., iii. 407.] 

< [Doling, tit, lib. iv. p. 22 fin.] 

» [So^om., lib. V. cap. fl. p. 186.1 
' [Lib. X. cap. *8. vol. ii. p. 9680 

■ [viJ. not-d. in£] 

■ [Hymn, in Apoll., lin. 2. p. 9.] 

■' [vid. De wcrif. ad &n., vol iii. p. 

< [Lib. iv. cap. 17. vol. i. p. 1080.] 

Iheir jyreaching ; music, andhymm: 385 

nnd good men.' Suetonius''* saying to this purpose is familiar 
concerning Nero, the crier using in their temples at sacri- 
ficing limes to cr; that wicked and ungodly persons must not 
presume to offer sacrifice. 

Moreover as we use to preach in our churches, so the very 
heathen priests, enlightened only hy natural reason, made 
moral exhortations unto the people; for Diodorus Siculus" 
writing that among the Epyptians when the king did offer 
sacrifice with his ball, the priest out of holy hooks, after 
he had prayed for the health and prosperity of the king 
and state, delivered the counsels and actions of excellent 
men, by which the king was warned to use bis authority 
and command godly and justly, according to the example 
of others; he did further entreat, saith Diodorus, of their 
piety towards their Gotl and religion. And for that 
purpose I gather out of Valerius Maximus, that the people 
which were to approach to the heathenish altar were com- 
manded by the priests to lay aside out of their mind all 
former hatred and malice, or else not to approach. 

Likewise the heathen pricsta had music in their temples in 
the time of service; wherefore for the general, to omit Livy' 
and Valerius Maximus, in particular Suetonius' notes, it is a 
wonder in Tiberius C»esar for offering sacrifice unto the gods 
without music. Now as the christians use in their churches 
particular psalms, hymns, and prayers for set and festival days; 
this Gyratdus" shewoth in some part, that upon chief and 
special days the heathen had their particular verses, prayers, 
and hymns ; but more particularly Julius Pollux', writing -trepX 
apav iBuiKoiv, namely, the special psalms, if I may so speak, 
and to what gods they were due. It is worth the remember- 
ing how the papists, if a bishop or abbot be canonized and 
die, they have a glorious and special antiphoneme, which 
begins ecce sacerdos magiius, but if the emperor or king be 
canonized, his antiphoneme is but the ordinary one for a 
father; this last I learn out of a treatise called Salem^ and 

a [N«., op, 34. vol. iL p. I2i.] 3S.] 

• [Lih. i. c»p, 70. vol L p. 81.] ' [Lib. L cip. 1. fin. .dI L p. 26.1 

' (Lib.ix.aip. SO. ToL L p. 531.] i ["Addition, of Sdem nnd By- 

t [Tib, ap. Luc. Tol. i. p. 319.] i.nce," ch. i. fol. IS.] 

» [De po*t- Wrt. Did. i. voi. iL p. 

perambulations: and power of ea-communivation : 

Aod as for the boundiiifr of the meres of parishes, 
our clei^-pricsts on their rogaliun-week go on procession ; 
so likewise did the heathen; their perambulations for this 
purpose were called ambart-alia'^.— And it appeareth hy Livy ' 
that the Iieathen clergy might not be present at the sentence 
of death; and Josephua"* notes that pontifex maximus might 
Dot behold a dead body ; and at this day that this is and hath 
been the custom of our clergy is full apparent. 

To conclude this particular with the nature of the coercive 
power used by the heathen priests. Julius Cfesar" at large 
deliverelh of the heathen clergy of this island and of France, 
namely the druids: if any private or public person would 
not stand to their decrees and orders, they used to forbid him 
their sacrifices, which, aaith Csesar, among them is a most 
grievous punishment, for the party so interdicted is not only 
accounted a detested person, and men are to shun his com- 
pany, but neither shall he be capable of any honour, or shall 
sue for his own right ; hence by good probability came the 
excommunication used by the british clei^y anciently, and 
continued by our engUsh clergy at this day, seeing the 
punishment and effect thereof is so lively described, as if 
Cipsar had been an author of our age. For our excommimi- 
cation, whether it be hominis or canonis, (the former may be 
clavig ecchma errans, saith our register, the latter not,} doth 
not only bar the excommunicated person from entering into 
the church at service time, and intimate a man not in osrulo 
communicare cum excommunicato, as it is in the canon laws, 
which is the reason Cyprian calls excommunicated persons 
abatenti", because men refrain their company ; but also it 
seems unto this day, bj the canon laws of this land au ex- 
communicate person cannot bring an action, or implead any 
other for his right, until he be absolved. I note out of 
Sophocles''' (Edipus, that they which killed king Laius were 
excommunicated, which took the same effect with the druids' 
excommunication ; and for this also, see Plato, in his ninth'' 

m [Antiq. Jud. 

' [(Eri. Tyr.,Iin. 222»q<i.l 
1 fcsp. ix. vol. vlii. p. 43(liq.] 

3. the jieople ; their turniny eastward 


and tenth book De legibus. Pope Innucent the fourth' 
calleth excommunication the sinew of ecclesiastical disciphne; 
the canonists account excommunication to be the keys of 
opening and shutting which Christ gave at His departure to 
His disciples: but the vulgar came not bj many hundred 
years by the travel, and employment, and mission of this good 
thunderbolt, it is become brutum or salmoneum fulmen. 

3. In the last place I am to speak of the religious ceremonies 
of the ethnic people in their churches, that they are answer- 
able to ours. It is evident by Tertullian', Clement', Apuleiua", 
and Scrrius* upon Vii^iJ, that the heathens in their churches 
at the time of their service, praying or sitting, looked into the 
east, but the Jews' in their churches, as appcareth by St. 
Jerome, praying, looked into the west; and yet we follow the 
gentiles' custom, and build our churches to that purpose as 
the heathens did; for Vitruvius' the heathen architect com- 
mandcth that the face of the temples be built in the west, that 
they which pray may have their faces looking into the easL 
St. Basil's* opinion then, that it is an apostolical tradition of 
the christians to pray looking into the east, is not absolutely 
current; Caslius notes Hermes Trismegistus" praying looking 
upon the south; the Jews looked upon the west'; the christians, 
saitli he, looked into the east, which they learned of Pytha- 
goras, as holding (with Ptolemy) the motion of the sun cometh 
from the east. I read in Athanasius" that the apostles appointed 
the christian churches to be built to the east, that in praying 
they might behold paradise ; but to quit Thomas Aquinas's* 
third reason why the christians in praying look into the east, 
I fancy the reason of our praying into the east set down in the 
particular describer of the city of Jerusalem'; "the christians in 
Europe," saith he, " at their prayers looking into the east, be- 
hold the country where Christ was conversant on earth, and 

' [vid. Concil. ieg,,voL KiviiL pp. 
399, 408, 451, 467 iqq.] 

■ ApoL, up. ■ai. p. 16 B.] 

< Strom., lib. lii. vaL ii. p. 8JS.] 

• Mcum., lib. iL p. 6£.] 

■ I'ln^n. Kii. 172.] 

■ [Lib. i». cap. 6. p. 70,] 

• [De Spir, Sanct., up. iivii. ( 66. 
p. S4 E.] 

» [A«lep, id an. fol. 6 b.] 

' [Bona, PMlmod., cap. vi i 7. p 

' [Quxitl. ad Antiochum, xxx'ii 
Tol. ii. p. 276.] 

• [SpnL, lib. iiL diBi. 9. qua-it. I 
■It. 3. fin—Zda 2dn qusuL B4. art. i 

> [Adrichom.. p. 120.] 

and holding up of hands in prayer ; 

in so beholding may behold the face of Christ upon the croes 
looking npon them." 

Yea the heathens in their prayers not only looked as the 
christians, and praying held up their hands toward heaTeQ, 
as LivyK eheweth Camillua praying, and Virgil's'' 

Icndi^na id sidcro palnias, 

intimateth, but also in some points prayed as we do; to 
omit their joint order and decency of prayer out of Plu- 
tarch', ne Cah/donii $uis tragcedia renm^etur. And Jambli- 
chus'', the scholar of Porphyry, as in general he writcth of the 
force of prayer, so in particular he concludes, all their sacrifices 
and religion are better joined and perfected by vows and 
prayers. Yea the wisest of the heathens, as Marsilius Ficinua 
notes upon Plato's' Alcibiades, prayed devoutly and in spirit, 
Jlagrantid animi, offering up tbcir vows without any characters, 
which were invented to stir up their affection by Oqdiens" and 
Zoroaster. — And Alexander ah Alexandro" writes, the heathen 
man which prayed first did confess himself a sinner ; that (I 
observe out of the apothegm of the heathen Lacedffimoman ) to 
God, and not to the priests, which the heathen ponHfex there 
confessed. — And that in their prayers Alexander ah Alexan- 
dro° notes, they thanked the gods for benc6ts received, and 
desired aversions of evils : yea, the heathens used to pray in 
their churches for the afflicted in body and mind, as the 
christians do; for it appeareth by Luciano, if any were hurt, 
he would sacrifice to the gods to be relieved; and by 
Plutarch, not only sacrificea were used among the hea- 
then for the health of Pompey, but also cities celebrated 
holy days in their temples for receiving great benefits of 
their gods, as tfae health of Pompey. — And the prayer of 
Arrianus'' (the scholar of Epictetus, as Lucian' notes) when he 
would call upon the gods, was in these words, levpte i\iT}vov, 
'Lord, have mercy .'^ And as I read Arrianus's book called 

i. p. 3H.] 

tiim animi relinqu*ntea."] 
■" [vid. ubi BUD.] 

" [Lib. iv. cap. 17. ToL L p. 1079.] 
° [Ubiaup.. pp. 1098, int.] 
" [De aacrit, vol. ill, p. 7* iqq.] 
1 [Caniiniint.iiiEpict.,lib.ii. Cap. T. 

p. 1*2.] 

' [Alex., rap. 2. vol. T, p. fl2.] 

special mpplications and tha>iksgiving» ; 389 

Pcriplus", a phrase of his is, "but now, God willing;" and 
that si Dens voluerit ought to be the prayer of the christians 
appeareth by James iii. — And if the hcathon prayers were 
not conformable for the present state, the heathen magistrates 
caused them to be amended ; and this I learn out of Valerius', 
that Scipio Africanus, the public prayer being that the gods 
would make better and more ample the state of Rome, he 
said, they are already great enough, and devised the form 
of prayer to be, that the gods would continue and pteserve 
the state of Rome. — Again, as the christian magistrates afore 
they used to consult of the greatest aifairs used to resort to 
divine service, so that this was an express law to be observed 
by the roman senators, is noted by Suetonius in Auffusto^; 
nay, that before every small exercise or recreation, their 
unchristian men would call unto their gods, I learn out of 
Hesychius", who suith that when they went to play at dice they 
would call upon their god Mercury in these words, ayaffot 
&alfi.a>v, 'good god;' (but generally the heathen prayers in their 
churches were very long, for our Saviour teacheth us, when 
we pray, "Do not make long prayers, as the heathens do ;" for 
this last see Pererius in his note upon Genesis.) — And if we 
have not seasonable weather we use particular devotion ; to 
this purpose you may gather out of Dionystua UalicaraasseusT 
that the gentiles proclaimed and kept solemn feasts for the 
pacifying of their paynim gods. 

In this place it were not improper to shew how among the 
infidels, as well as the christians, the civil magistrate, espe- 
cially the king, the politic father of the people, made laws to 
be observed by the heathenish clergy ; therefore a common 
lawyer in his treatise of Salem and Byzance' may well note 
that our king Lucius, buried at Winton, had as much prero- 
gative over his flantines, or ministers, being christians, as hea- 
then ; and this also appeareth by Aristotle in his Polities', by 
Virgil'', by Strabo'^ : but this I reserve for another place. 

And (to omit Wolfgangus Lazius's'' discovery of Lent to have 

■ Lib.iv.cap. 3fi8. fol. 131] 

• [Lib. viL mpp. 8, 9. vol. ii. p 

u ap.3fi. vol. Lp. 1S6.1 

1328, ».] 

- In t«. -EpM.- col 1*38.] 

■• [eg. ^,vil.86.760«iq 

t B.g.Antiq.rani.,lib.»iL«p. n. 

viii. 179, lii. 189, et J.] 

L p.%57.]^ 

" [vid. lib.i». p. lO+I.eld.] 

■ [•' Addition! of S. and B." oh. ii. 

- (Lib. ri.c.p.5. p.881.] 

^H 30O 

^^H^ been 

and payinent of tithes andfirat-frviti. 

been practised as a policy among the heathen) I shall conclude 
this particular with the duty of heathen people observed towards 
their priests in relieving of them, and paying them tithes, as 
parishioners do to their pastors ; but much of this which I or 
any other can write tn this kind, is already quoted in some of 
the canonists' writings, so covetous men are in advancing 
their own particular. As the ancient elect people of God afore 
the law given in mount Sinai paid tithes to their priests, as 
Gen. xiv., Abraham paid tithes to the greater priest Melchi- 
zcdec ; (hut where it is said in Lev. xxvii. 32, the tenth sheep 
shall go under the rod, a rabbin writes that in those daja 
the tenth sheep was marked with ochre, as they use tithing 
at this day by putting sheep out of the fold, this I take to be 
rabbinical, and full of conceit,) so the very heathen prieatB 
have by the consent of their people or parishioners always 
a relief, yea and that with a tenth part of their revenues. 
Therefore for the first-fruits Pliny' writeth, "the Romans 
were not wont to taste of their fruits or vines afore the hea- 
then priestshadaacrificed with them;" and Porphyry confesseth 
that from all antiquity the first-fruits of the earth were dedi- 
cated unto their gods. In particular, Euripides' the tragedian 
saith, that Diana had the first-fruits of every thing that the 
earth could yield : and Suidas", in verba epfiaiav, writeth, The 
travellers in the highway did use to offer imto the idol of 
Mercury, that guideth thera in their ways, the first-fruits of 
the earth; and Herodotus'' discourseth of the image of Del- 
phos, which was made for receiving of primitioi terra of the 
Grecians, who overcame Xerxes; Natalis Comes' sheweth 
out of Aristophanes and Euripides the several first-fruits 
which were due to their several gods. But in express terms 
the tenth of their substance was offered unto the heathen 
gods, and consequently unto the heathen priests ; for so it 
appeareth by Livy", Camillus gave the tenth of their com 
unto A[X)Ilo and the Ephesian Diana : but above all other 
gods, they were given to Hercules ; for not only by Plutarch ', 
many men offered the tenth of their substance to Hercides, 



In Ingm. MslHgr.. >ol. 

ff 121 .,.) 

Heathens Bomelimes imitated christians. 

but by Cicero, Id his Natura deorum, tithes were due unto 
Hercules ; nay, ao commonly was the tenth part offered unto 
Hercules, that Hercutes's part and the tenth part were all one 
in signification : for Plautus" writes. 

good reason then I note TertuUian" had to speak of tithes 
that were properly due unto Hercules, Lastly, Dionysius 
Halicarnasseua" notelh that Jupiter and Apollo sent barren- 
ness upon the face of the earth, because men intermitted and 
neglected the paying of their tithes. Hence then it is more 
than colourable that the heathen Britons, our ancestors before 
the time of Julius Csesar, paid tithes to their priests and 
druida; whether the tenth part or the eighth, quota pars, I 
have not to define, as holding with a canon lawyeri" in his 
treatise, Tithes and maintenance is due by the law of God 
and man, but notquota pars, namely the tenth part, unless in 
places accustomed to pay it. 

Thus having chalked out the paths the christians tread in, 
having been formerly beaten by the gentiles, but first made 
(as I told you) by the Jews, in whose steps the gentiles tread, 
although awry; by this my instant and last place they may per- 
ceive that even since the time of the gospel, and that Christianity 
was admitted into the world, the heathens in some things also 
began to imitate the christians: but It was diaboUed instiga- 
tione, as the ordinary phrase in indictments is. A touch of this 
given by Erasmus; Tertulliani in his time complaineth of 
the devils in heathens imitating christian baptism; tinget et 
ipse, saith Tertulltan, Jidela suos ; and after his time you 
may perceive Sozomenus'' ; but especially by Gregory Nazian- 
zen', in his oration against Julian, the damnable politic; 
Julian the emperor thought it the best way to extirpate Chris- 
tianity, that the heathen in all points of service and adoration 
should correspond with the christian service ; but it could not 
be effected, say they, because the christians by faith inwardly 

» [True., •«. U. ic. 7. lin. II.] Opusc. p. 155.] 

° [Apol.. capp. xiT. xixii. pp. 14, ^ [De prB!H-r.her.,cap. xl.p. 2IS B. 

rid et Do tapL, c»p. ». p. 226 A.] 
i. c»p. 23. vol. ' [H. E., lib. >. tip. 16. p. 208.1 

• fOriL it. c*p. Ill H). foL 1, p. 
irifl on tilhei. 138,9.] 

■ [Antin. 
1. p. IB «].') 


392 Practical refieciion on the whole subject. 

and in spirit worshipped God. Amobius^ notes, because the 
christians' God was not visible, the heathens call the chris- 
tians atheists. 

Out of this precedent discourse the travelling bee, that is, 
the honest subject of this realm, with me will reason thus : if 
our forefathers, which were enlightened only by natural reason, 
would have so good orders in their temples at their worship- 
ping of false and superstitious gods, what great care should 
christians have for enjoining and observing of comely and 
godly ordinances in the worshipping of the true and ever- 
living God ! 

^ [vid. lib. vi. passim, et al.] 















185, 249 





• •• 



• • 





64, 148, 244 














• •• 







































198, 249 























• • 






64, 178 











198, 221 























• • 




xxxviiL 20. 





65, 248 














































18, 19. 


















































■ • 






• • 












11, 16. 


• • • 































99. 135 








• •• 


















194. 347 




• •• 















































202, 67 










• • 



18. 25. 





• •• 







18 sqq. 





28, 29, 



• • « 




24, 30, 


341, 7 


171, 257 


16, 28. 

















14, 15. 




















35 sq. 



















199, 340. 50 
























• •• 



15, 18. 















■ • • 










• •• 















































































10 &C. 20, 7. 




, 120, 47 









• •• 
























• • 












• •• 
















• •• 

















































































• • • 




• • 


























• • 






142, 260 
















































































77, 223 




10, 25. 

































• • 




• •• 




• •• 

































• • 































• • • 





97, 121 















« • • 


























33, 9, 44. 



346, 7, 8 











5, 6 &c. 




17, 8, 22, 7. 


















• •• 




• ■* 


4, 5, 6. 





8, 4, 6, 20. 






















18, 14 &c. 20, 6, 9. 


• •• 






















• •• 






























11 &C. 



13, 14. 


14, 9, 22. 












• • 




• • 




12, 42. 




22, 42. 









8y 5, 6. 


• •• 































8, 18. 


• • 



77, 150 









• • 






• •• 















12, 3, &c. 











13, 14. 
















8, 9, 10. 



















• • 




• •• 






























270, 80 


• •• 











• • 






























• • • 




• • • 














• •• 





















































































IXZZT. 4. 


IzzzTuL 9. 




88 iq. 












4v 7, 10 &0. 
















181, 209 






ZS, 72, 157 












11, 12. 













107, 87 

• •* 



















108, 66 

























10, 187 










99, 108 



78, 241 











164, 299 



















18 sqq. 































• • 
















15, 16. 
































• •• 














• • 





• •• 

































17, 18. 
















106, 240 
78, 278 

xxTiii. 20. 











• • 


• •• 


























xxxu. 2. 
xxxTiiL 1. 



xL 18. 


• • 






• • 







76, 241 







76, 272 

182, 212 











































18, 21. 











• • 






• •• 
























• • 






• • 















• •• 



















• •• 







































4 ^^ 


29, 30. 



• • 
























2, 20. 



194, 255 

























• •• 














































• • 



' w 
















103, 71 

• •• 


























• • 








• • 




138, 4, 7, 200 





219, 86 








m m 













1, 5, 10, 14. 



16, 17. 

























• •• 






4 M 



228, 63, 7 


• • 








75, 850 







• •■ 

15. 185, 

284, 44 









• •• 






126, 358 















• • 























• •• 




S7 8qq. 

6, 73, 169 





















































































• • 





















• •• 







126, 353 
























236, 59 

















• • 

















• •• 


































• • 





12, 162 


5, 162 




























• • 










• •• 



7, 109 







• •• 











11, 138 






























159, 86 








• • 





6, 17,8. 


• ■ • 



220, 70 













11 sqq., 13. 













22 sqq. 














• • 






• ■ • 









5, 156, 91 























358, 61 

























• •• 









19 sq. 






























126. 353 






352, 61 



























359, 60 





• •• 


























a • • 



124, 351 

























352, 5, 61 






























xxriL 31. 

sxTiii. 4. 



L 4. 296 

9. 148 

18. 278 
18 Bqq. 62, 8 

19. 29 

20. 21,67 
24. 235 
32. 77, 274 

S. 14. 64 

1& 265 

18. 9 
22. 256 
29. 265 
36. 72 

SL 3. 182 

V. 1. 301 

3, 4. 97 

5, 10. 109 
▼L 16. 112 

17. 7 

viL 5. 283 

7. 282 
14. 76 
24. 121, 204, 82 

viii. 15. 88 

24. 84, 94 

26. 98 

29. 296 
38. 303 

BL 11. 109 

22. 212 

XL 2. 295, 6 

20. 302 

33L 294 

xSL 3. 70 

6. 7 
14. 171 
15,8. 170 

19. 147, 215, 28 
xiii. 2. 156, 273 

4. 77,176,9,80,221 

8. 73 

13. 239 

14. 226 
sir. 4. 219, 22, 68 
XT. 8. 351 

16. 161 

30. 102 











3, 5, 9. 





















16 sqq. 
















5, 11. 



11, 127, 241 


















9, 12, 14. 









185, 244 


















95, 204, 36, 303 
















133. 5, 77 
















10, 11. 






• • 













4, 26, 83, 4a 










98, 105 





































15 sqq. 









<» ^r ^^ 




















• •• 












• • 









852, 61 





265, 276 








88, 9, 141 

























• •• 






















19 Bq. 











178, 9, 84 


































































19. lU 

1, 238, 47 







193, 362 













173, 247, 61 


245, 359 








198, 355, 60 









19, 21, 2. 

140, 97, 276 




77, 193 


















70, 264 




257, 359 
















14, 20. 









59, 127 







11. 180, 

269, 353 



88, 302 









164, 276 

• • 


2, 16. 





197, 212, 68 



• •• 







58, 197 













6, 12, 4. 

240, 356 











858, 62 


353,5,8,61, 2 









• • 



175, 82 














197, 276 










9. 76, 

186, 241 








198, 860, 2 






139, 89, 256 





12, 13. 


• •• 







196, 358 









58, 197 




• •• 




















• • • 











352, 5, 61 
















299, 302 

• • 




2 ST. 


• •• 






















• • 



















• * 






;, 95, 302 

1 ST. 


18 sqq., 26. 









• •• 




• • 









17, 24. 






' w 



















8 ST. 




• • • 



































• • 












• • 




• •• 





179, 184 


















11 sqq. 



• • 



























182, 359 



Aaron and his family, their rank, &c., 

Abfyu UrtpergentU, vid. Cowad. 

Abel, vid. C<dtu 

Abraham, was taught the law first, and 
afterwards the gospel, 62 ; his teach- 
ing of religion to his family, 8; 
whether guilty of falsehood concern- 
ing his wife, 280; for quietness 
Yielded his right, 229; how far 
known to the heathen, 48. 

Absalom, could discern between good 
and evil, 30. 

Abydenus, a witness to the general truth 
of our religion, 49. 

Accessary, we must not be accessary to 
sin, 76 ; how we may be so in unlaw- 
ful thin^ ib, : in lawful things, 78. 

Accuser, Tid. Plaint^, 

Action at law, whether allowable, 229. 

Adam, what his hiding himself shewed, 

Ado, mentions the pantheon and the 
temple of Bacchus being turned into 
christian churches, 877. 

Adrichomius, his description of Jeru- 
salem; reason for the christians in 
Europe looking eastward in their 
prayers, 387. 

Adversity, why conmion to good and 
wicked, 210. 

Adultery, comes from the heait, 281 ; 
reasons against it, 238 ; what leads 
to it, 235 sq. ; how to be avoided, 
236 ; various fonns of it, 243 sq. 

Advocate or lawyer, may be a false wit- 
ness, 273. 

^neas, alleged to be the first who in- 
vented that priests should be covered, 

jEschines, cont Timarch. 4, not £ 

^schylut, his Perse quoted, 30. 

JEsctdapius, priests bare-headed in 
worshipping him, 388. 

Affiicted in body or mind, prayed for by 
heathens, 888. 

Affliction, its cause, 114; beginning, 

115, and ends, 116 sq.; instruments 
of it, 115. 

Ahimaaz, willing to carry evil tidings, 

Alban*s, St records of its former reli- 
gion, 378. 

Akiat, quoted for the power of the 
heathen chief priests, 380. 

Alcoran, contains doctrines false, car- 
nal, and immoral, 42. 

Alcuinus, of the history of religious 
ceremonies, 368. 

Alexander, went when there was not 
another world for him to conquer, 
17 ; his flatterers said that he was a 
god, 22 ; his interview with Leo the 
egyptian priest, 40 ; with the Jew- 
ish high priest, 49. 

Alexander ab Alexandre, describes the 
heathen consecration of temples, 871, 
the heathen chief priests; Uieir 
power, 880, and qualifications, 382 ; 
garments of Uie priests of Arabia, 
383 ; custom of the priests at sacri- 
fice, 384 ; their perambulations, 886, 
not k ; heathen confessions, prayers, 
and thanksjrivings, 388. 

Alienation, di Jnrent methods of, 250. 

Allurements to incontinence, 2iO sq. 

Amalarius, of the history of religious 
ceremonies, 868. 

Ambrosius, St, speaks of Ninus, 41 ; of 
Pilate's letter to Tiberius, 54; inter- 
prets ' carnal and spiritual ' of faith 
and love, 108 ; is against images, 130, 
against niggardliness, 258, against 
reli^ous security, 304 ; number of 
Christ's members foreknown of God, 
and cannot be lessened, 298 ; quoted 
for the power of the apostles, 854, 
and their authority of ordaining, 
362 ; and the office of deacons, 854. 

AmnUanus MarcelUnut, quoted for the 
use of lights in heathen temples, 372. 

Amos, received divine gifts, though a 
herdsman, 58. 

Amram and his family, their rank, 340. 

Anabaptists, say that we must not 
swear at all, 148, and that ev^ry 



Mnff in the Old tcitaiiient ii gone 

by. 3*9. 
^ndrmliui, holds thit Mtnordinnry 

gifl« in the church require yet to he 

Bpproved hy the hiahop, 6S. 
Atidreai Maarui, notes unlruthg in the 

Alcann, 41. 
jtudreieeM, Bp. bow he regarded mya- 


uicouDt of. ai4i han Co be 
. 22S ; what i( ia compounded of, 

ib. 1 ainful uiger, 31S: leida lo 

sneering, IflO; Ihe first motion lo 

minder, 214. 
,4Hiiiiic>aIi«i, ■ part of thatikigiving, 

Anncer, meaning of it in the ninth 

commandment, 266. 
Antimmia, how we should act in, 79 ; 

Aniiqaili/ of our religion, 47. 
ApliaHmt of phyiiciani, answer to 

jipim, puDiahment of his atlieitm, 31. 
Apalla, temples of, succeeded by chria- 

tisii churchca, 377, 9. 
Apvlhniui, could bring up the image of 

heathen godi but not of Chriat, 56. 
Apaltat, was catechised, S : a helper of 

(he a 

1 Chri. 

o'clve, 359. 

Apmllfi, credible witnesseg of Ihe 
goapel, 52; theic hialory and catii- 
misaion, 351; form of goifemment 
□□der tbem, 352 ; their snthority 
■nd juriadiction, SSS; succeeded by 
bishops, ib.i allied lohave ocdDred 
christian churches to be built toward 

the en 

^ 387. 

AtiElarchwi, a helper of the apoitle*, 

Ariniippui, his argument from a tri- 
angle, 27. 

ArittBlle, held Ihe young (o be Dot lit 
hearers of moral inatruclion, 4: yet 
would have children taught ™tue, 
ib.; said he had 'owls' eyea' in 
looking to heavenly things, 16) says 
Ihe sea ia higher thin the eaitb, 34 ; 
beara witness to the unity of Ood. 
39; said lohave had conference with 
an Egyptian, 4H ; shews privilege* 
of heaiheo priests, 333 ; but that 
tbey were under the civil magis- 
trate. 339. 

Arnabiut, is against ima^s, 130; sayi 
that nothing was imiavaled for chrii- 
lian religion 'in rerum nslurS,' 3S9t 
that the heathens called the chiic' 
tians alheista, and why, 3!t3. 

ArrioH, bia religious expressions, 3S8. 

Arroie, a false witneai compared lo, 

AthaHaiiui, witnesses to the corruption 
of the heathen gods, 40; falselj 
alleged by papials in favour of 
ituages, 130; says the apostles 
appointed churches to be turned to 
the east, and why, 387. 

Alheitm, account of, 23; how it arose, 
24; its grounda diBproved, S3; ita 
doctrines diaproved, 26—33. 

Alheisli, how it cometh that there are, 
29 ; dratlis of, 31 ; christiBiu why 
called atheists by the heathen, S92. 

Albruitut, quoted, 67, 384. 

Alhem. careful in inatracting youth, 4. 



ire, ib. 

„ of, among the 
Greeks, 353. 

Appartl, may he audi as to minitter 
to incontinence, 232, 41. 

Apsltiui, apeaka of kissing of handa in 
worahip. 372; ordination of heathen 
priests, 382 ; linen dreas of Ihe 
priests of Isis, 383; liealhcua looked 
eastward in prayer, 387. 

Aquimu, SL Thou 
scripture, 58 : ol preuestini 
2&7; why Christiana in pn 
look into the eaat, 387. 

Arabia, dresa of prieala in, 383. 

Aral-u, quoted in Acta iviL 29. 

Areadiiii, of the word 'episcopus, 

f, St„ says why children reqairw 
diaclpline, 6 ; that we arecreated fbr 
God and can rest only in Him, 18 ; 
bow Ihe polytheism of the heathen 
may be excused, 39; eonfutea the 
Jews who say that Christ lieth yet 
hid, 46 1 mentions the interview 
between Alexander and the high- 
prit'st, 49 ; meaus of interpreting 
scripture, B8, 9; how far he regarda 
authority of the fathers, GO; his 
division of the conmiandments, lA.j 
says how men's hearia grew darkened, 
6T; where our aesrch after trulh 
should stop, 70 r we must not by 
silence allow another's ain, 7B ; 
ofTencc a leas evil than the lou of 
truth, ib. 1 coiumcnds intercea^o. 



102, thankfulness, 103, and the love 
of God, our friends, and our enemies, 
108 ; connection of fasting and 
prayer, 107; interprets 'carnal and 
spiritual' of faith and love, 108 ; love 
forms our conduct, 112; four signs 
of true religion, 119; says image 
worship was adopted to please the* 
gentiles, 129 ; is the only ancient 
authority for the distinction between 
9ov\tta and Xxtrptla, 131 ; had no 
g^eat knowledge of greek or hebrew, 
1*6. ; says the angels teach us not to 
worship them, 132 ; we should avoid 
a proneness to swear, 150 ; and not 
revel on the sabbath, 160 ; why we 
should bury the dead, 163; giving 
to the poor is good merchandise, 164; 
inward charity above outward, ib. 
why fallen, man needs to fast, 165 
the true lover is the true valuer, 170 ; 
who is our neighbour, 171 ; we are 
not to love his sin, 172; the true 
manner of love, 173; right use of 
power, 181 ; anger should be tem- 
perate, 218 ; suicide in no case law- 
ful, 219; why a man is permitted 
to wear a sword, 224; account of 
temperance, 237 ; he exposes men's 
excuses for not giving alms, 262; 
we must not listen to slander, 269 ; 
account of the harmless lie, 279, and 
the inconsiderate lie, ib. ; nothing to 
be done against the truth, 280 ; we 
must not be hasty to judse others, 
281; nor even think evil, 283; — 
contrasts predestination with repro- 
bation, 290 ; denies that sin and 
damnation necessarily flow from pre- 
destination, 291 ; our predestination 
and our perseverance uncertain to us 
in this life, 292, 305 ; grace in what 
sense given to all, 293; our salva- 
tion in what sense put in our own 
power, 294; how he regarded mys- 
teries, ib. ; justification precedes elec- 
tion, 296 ; predestination is of good 
works only, 297 ; connection of God's 
knowledge with predestination, 298 ; 
of grace with man's free will, 300 ; 
alleges 1 Cor.x. 12 against security, 
302, which he entirely disallows, in 
many passages, 304. — Speaks of the 
apostolic see, 357 ; of the bishop's 
authority of holding courts, 362.— 
Maintains against the manichees 
that church ceremonies might law- 
fully be borrowed from the heathen, 
366; says that Plato copied much 
from Moses, 368 ; speaks of the oil 
for church lights, 372 ; the emperors 
gave back the churches from the 
donatists to the catholics, 378. 

Augustine the monk, not all our feasts 
and ceremonies are from, 369. 

Augu»tinu» Curio, says that all northern 
and heathen nations but the Saracens 
embraced Christianity, 365. 

Augustus, why he gave up the title of 
' dominus orbis terrarum,' 53. 

Aulus GelliuSf quoted, 65, not. r; 
mentions the rank of ' flamen dialis,' 
380, and the qualifications of the 
vestals, 382. 

Authority of God, 72 ; how expressed, 

Autotheistn, one of the four errors of 
Satan, 22. 


Babylas, the martyr, burned at Antioch, 

Bacchus, temple of, in Rome, turned 
into the church of Our lady, 377. 

Bethurim, woman of, her false state- 
ment, 279. 

Bait of sin, 285. 

Balnearii fures, 256. 

Baptism, christian, imitated by the 
devil, 391. 

Barbarian, all wisdom left to, 48. 

Barcosba, a Jewish impostor, 45. 

Baronius, says the privileges of the 
* pontifex maximus ' were trans- 
ferred to the pope, 383. 

Barret, censure of the censure of, 
301 sqq. 

Barter, a kind of exchange, 250. 

Basil, St, his account of the writings of 
the fathers, 59 ; mentions the variety 
of practice in baptism, 61 ; interprets 
'carnal and spiritual' of faith and 
love, 108; alleged by the papists in 
favour of images, 130; thinks it is 
an apostolical tradition to pray to- 
wards the east, 387. 

Basilicon, a word borrowed from the 
gentiles, 374. 

Bastard, might not enter into the con- 
gregation of the Lord, 235. 

Beasts, worship of, 41 ; whether they 
may be killed, 217. 

Bede, witnesses that heathen temples 
were turned into churches, 377 ; 
among others, the pantheon at God- 
manham, ib. ; that there was a chief 
heathen priest, 380. 

Belief, account of, 21; is the way to 
come to God, 19, and the only way, 
21 ; is not a sign of lightness, 20. 

BeUarmine, confesseth that not all 
church ceremonies were invented by 
the pope, 369 ; shews that certain 
churches in Rome were originally 
heathen temples, 377. 


Belli, used b; chrulinni in churcbes. 
by beatbena in temples and rise- 
where, 37t: not lued by tbe Saia- 
eena, 37 S. 

Ben^aaar, duliei of, 207 ) how to be 
regarded, 208. 

Bemtfl, duliea of the recaTcr of, 208 ; 
should be confeired freely, 254. 

£en>8rd,St.,ipe*luof 'humiliaUH, noii 
humilei,' 92; of fajlh, hope, and 
charily, Bt; benefit* of thankigi'inz, 
104; nien the* carnal imd ipiritual' 

» raitb 

I lov 

hath wrought, ib.; why wa should 
love Goa, lOB, not e; why Christ 
claimelhourhtart, 121; why a false 
witneaa ia like a hammor, &r., 270 ; 
ia apainal religious eecurity, SOS, 
uid quotes thereto I Cor. x. 12, 

Beroni, a witness to the jtencral truth 
of our religion, 49. 

BtlkUham, doea not now remain, 46. 

Biyerlinet, quoted, of the number 

Bna, cnDfeeaeth the fathers to bo 
■gunsl him in the doctrine of pre- 
deitinalion, 2D6. 

SiiAop, ansme of Christ, 351. 

SuA<ipi,tt)eirdiirerenltitles,3flOi what 
thay may he compared to, 361 ; what 
they acswer to in the Old testament, 
(*. ; in what power they succeed the 
Bpoatlea, 353; called angela of the 
church, 3SA ; occaiioa of their ap- 
poiamienl, ii. ; their chaise, 36], 
Mid authority, 362. 

Blmmii (Petrus), of the law touching 
tbe female captive, 367. 

Bodg, excellency of, 205. 

AoRo, De divini paalmodia. quoted, of 
the Jowa praying toward the east, 

Booki, eiil, sn alluiement to inconti- 
nency, 242. 

Bow, Heraclitus" play on the word, 

Sracb>Kn<,theirpTactices,S73i Jesuits 
Eom pored to them, ib. 

heathen posture in prayer, 372 ; 
heathens were coveted at sacrilicc, 

AriicjlMr, quoted concerning Pythagoras, 

39, not. t. 
Buyhig, a form of permutation, 250. 

OHw, quoted, 3S7. 
C»iar (AugDstus), more belated than 
Cato, IDS I the first who hung bells 

of Jupiter Capiloliofi 
blamed for sacrificing 

Coin, where he learned tbe practice of 
■acriScinfi, 8 \ why he killed his 
brother, 213. 

Callimaekw, quoted, 384. 

CaUinn of a mioister, lawful or 
lawful, 193. 

Cabiin, Whiuker with Calvin. 
Lambeth divines with St- Augiuliae, 
291: benefit of blshop'a antbarilj, 
356: calls papists' prayer tor tha 
dead an idlcimitatioD of the heathen, 

di^nce, 36. 
Caadtn, of St. Paul's cburoh, 378, 

CamilH, under offlcers lu hcalhea tnn- 

ples, 380. 
CimUlia, gave title to Apollo : 

DiauB, S»0. 
Cmriflnj. teaches the gospel beGire tha 

law. 62. 
Cmim latr, followed the structure of Ui« 

civil. 373. 
Cat'i'cl, sanctified with apriikkling i 

holy water. 371. 
Caplhr. fereiaie, how treated under iIm 

moaaic law, 307. 
Carriagt, Htting, of the body, why e 

Carihaglnlimt, had th«i religion fron 
Phmnida, 48. 

Cateclusing, diSera from pioacMng, 6. 

CaUchitmi of Sl Cyril, 3. 

CatechutM, houses of, 9. 

Cale, killed himself, 218. 

CiTRKH-JnNj, says that gei 
Christiana, began the day from mid- 
night, 3- 

Cephatuit in his old a| 

night h 


•orid, : 

I, rules for religious ci . . 
Dies, 127 ; are the body of chrialiui 
religion, 370 ! many heathen ceremo- 
nies retained in the christian church, 
itiS: nations do not readily alter 
their ceremonies, 366 ; not all onr 
ceremonies are ftom Augustine tbe 
monk, or from the pope, 369 ; liberty 
in ceremonies msy be allowed in 
christian states, 370 1 luperflaotu 
and wicked ceremoniei of tha fiapiata 
borrowed from tlie heathen, sft. ; 
sabbath not a ceremony. 1S4^ 
iHfy, of faith, 202; coDcemingJ 




forgiveneu and sftlvation, ib. 801 
ChtUdees, wisdom remtined with them 

alone, 48. 
CkarBmom, oonyerted to Judaism, 53. 
Chalddius, converted to Judaism, 53. 
Chance, how described by philosophers, 
36 ; beginning of things not from 
chance, 27; providence not from 
chance, 36 ; chance-medley is pro- 
vidence, ib. 
Charge, God's charge, the ten com- 
mandments, 73. 
Charity, how related to faith and hope, 

ChemiUHui,tay% that much of the romish 

ceremonial is heathenish, 370, 2. 
Children, ought to be instructed, 4 sq. ; 
Christ would have them come to 
Him, 5. 
-^— sins visited on, 141 ; this how 
explained by schoolmen, ib, ; what 
the right explanation of it, 142. 
Christ, is the Shiloh or Messias, 44; 
errors of the Jews respecting Him, 
43 ; His various titles, 351 ; at 
twelve years old submitted Himself 
to be catechised, 5 ; His actions 
our instruction, ib,,' would have 
children come to Him, ib, ; allowed 
their hosannasy t^. ; said to have been 
enrolled among the priests, 45. 
Chrittiamty, arguments for the truth of, 

52 — 7 ; vid. Progreet, 
Chrysostom, St., teachers need to have 
knowledge, 36 ; honour pud to God 
should be according to His com- 
mand, 124; heathens' account of 
their image-worship, 132 ; against 
slackness in worship of God, 137; 
comment on St Paul's midnight 
audience, 138; on the fifth com- 
mandment, 175; God hath given 
body to soul, not soul to body, 231 ; 
the butter and the oil of insidious 
langpiage, 276; against judging 
another's heart, 281 ; against secu- 
rity, 304 ; bishops successors of apo- 
stles, 354; of the deacon's office, t6.; 
name of presbyter and bishop once 
common, 359. 
Church, one of the alleged means of 

interpreting the scriptures, 57, 61. 
Churches, form of, among Jews and 

christians, 387. 
Churchyard, form of consecrating, 327 ; 
yew trees in, said to have been 
planted by the heathen, 379. 
Cicero, says youth may have its nm, 4; 
elsewhere, that it is to be kept under 
restraint, ib, ; would have us not 
careless of what is thought of us, 
366; mentions Simonides' saying 

concerning the knowledge of God, 
16, not. p ; gives an account of the 
heathen gods, 40 ; speaks of conse- 
crating temples, 379 ; augurs might 
resign their office, 382 ; tithes due to 
Hercules, 391 ; quoted for the word 
* episcopus,' 360, 379. 
Circensia, celebrated in honour of 

Christ, 371. 
Civil law, structure of it fi^lowed by 

the canon law, 373. 
-^^- magistrate, made laws fioar the 

clergy, 389. 
Claudius, how convinced that he was 

not a god, 22. 
Clay, Christ's use of, shewed provi- 
dence not to be by nature, 36. 
Clemens, a helper of the apostles, 358. 
Clement of Alexandria, wrote a preface 
to his Pedagogy, 3 ; is against images, 
130 ; witnesses that the christians 
prayed toward the east, 387. 
Chck, some compared providence to, 35. 
Cedex, in the civil, answers to De- 
cretals in the canon law, 373 ; fur- 
nishes evidence of heathen cere- 
monies retained in the church, 374. 

Theodosianus, vid. Thmtdosian, 

Coercwe power of priests, 386. 

Coifi, chief priest of king Edwin, 377, 

Colleges, reason of founding, 204. 
Came to Christ, none can, unless it be 

given him of the Fadier, 293, 300. 
Cemet, said by Pliny to have been at 

the birth of Christ, 53. 
Commandment, first, 81 sqq. 

second, 123 sqq. 
third, 143 sqq. 
fourth, 152 sqq. 
fifth, 174 sqq. 
sixth, 213 sqq. 
seventh, 230 sqq. 
eighth, 247 sqq. 
ninth, 264 sqq. 
tenth, 281 sqq. 
Commutndments, ten, division of, 60, 73 
sqq. ; how fkr known to Jews before 
the law, 64, and to gentiles, 65. 
Common law, its ampleness, 369. 
Commons, inclosure of, condemned, 256. 
Commonwealths, came from die Chal- 
deans, 27. 
Company, lewd, one of the allurements 

to incontinence, 241. 
Concealing part of the truth, when 

lawful, 273. 
Concubine, 246. 

Concupiscence, not all concupiscence 
evil, 230 ; two sorts of it, 283 ; work- 
ing of evil concupiscence, 284. 
Corfirence, one of Uie means of profit- 
ing by the word, 162. 


Ci'ufcrencc of places, one of the meaai 

of inteqircting acripture, 58. 
Ci>i|Am<m, apKnofthuikagiiiiig. \0S; 

pr»eli«ed by the hojilhen before 

pray Gi, 388. 
C™/««, duty of miniBten to, I9J. 
CoHTod, abbot of Auenbcrg, says Ibe 

SaioDi beld templvg la be necdlcsa, 

CmicuBcrr, a kind of witness, 265; 
prOTes bsing of ■ God. 30. 

Conucraliim, foiui of; for a chutcb, 
SOB. and cburcliyftrd, 327 ; reserved 
to bishops, 370 \ papiidoal manner 

pactable church, 40 : c 


Omilanlme, hu 

378 i rid. Cri 
Cmlemplatiim, ii happineia according 

(d the ptalonista, It, but not truly 

80, 16. 
CimtHU, a duty, 251 ; a part of Ebnnka- 

gifing, i04. 
CoHlract, vthat is required in. 254 sq. 
Coalradiclory, all religions but oura are 

BO. 50. 
Corpus juris foticnu'^i, referred to for tbe 

Clementine*, 375 1 aodfor'jua aidi- 

flcationis,' 876. 
cMlU, referred to for the 

word 'episoopus,' 360. 
Cmm, Si., and Damiam, church of, la 

Rome, was a heathen leinple, 377. 
CauiKiU, alleged by papists for ioterpre- 

tatioD of BCripture, .57, 60; council 

of Aiicyra, quoted for bishops' poirer 

of ordaining, 362 ; of Basli 

: the relati 

of Carthage, quoti 
disnustal of people, 139 ; of Con- 
ttanco, (sixth general council). Ho- 

ned Chcri 

Batle. I 

61; ofCon 

icii of 

; of EnhesuB, 
iizcs inose who divide Christ, 132 ; 
• of Nice, (first), speaks of deacons, 
384; of Nice (second), in favour of 
images, 130 ; of Trent, leaches the 
gospel before the law, 62. 
Csunl hia cattle, he is a poor man who 

can, 17. 
Coanttr/eU, all other religions hut oiun 


Cattnlng, to be avnide 

Cn^mla, gluttony, feeds 

sai, 8. 

CreatioH, vid. Fglhagarat, Trmils. 
CreictHi, a helper of the ajwstles, S5i. 
Cripple, might not be " pontifei,' 882. 
Craisi, ancient records began in time 
of. 47. 

punishment, 3f)l; sign of it used by 
him as a alandard, 373 ; emblem of 
olemal life among the Egyptiana, 63. 

/prion, St, gives an account of tha 
heathen gods, 40: held that tfal 
same form of government sboulil 
scrvein Old and New testament. 350; 
bishops successors of apo«tle«, 353 ; 
office of deacon, 354 ; bisbopa' »U- 
thoril)', 362; a remedy fiir ichiiim, 
350: calls excommunicated petroni 

sea, 3i how it eoti' 

to his Calecbesi 
eludes, 12. 
'yruj, prophecy of. 28 : knew 
soldiers' names, 37, not r. 

Damaiceat, John, shews that the world 
had a beginning, 26. 

Damiam. pope, subscribed to heresy, 
01 J falsely alleged by the papists in 
favour of images, 130; quoted Tot 
bishops' authority of ordaining, 363. 

Damaao, vid. Cduhd. 

allutemeDl to con- 

t, 242. 
vid. Ruler. 

;on- Dmid, form of government under, 843 ; 
and inEtructed his children, Di made a 

of the ravens, 35 ; his course in re- 
viewing Ood's benefits. 106. 

Day. b^an from midnight, among 
christians and gentiles, 381. 

Deaconi, their office, 3S4i 'cMnilU* 
compared to them. 380. 

Dead, papists' prayer for, asSd by Cal- 
vin to be an idle imitation of Ilw 
healben, 373. 

Dtalk, saint's day of, is hii holy day, 
38^1 ; priests must not be preteDt U 
' of, 386. 


Decretal of canon law answers 10 Codex 

of civil, 373. 
Detrclum of canon law answers to 

Pandecti of dvil, 373. 
Drfmdant may be a false witnesa, 373. 
Degreti of rank under Moses, 340 sq, j 

among priests, heatheu and chtu- 

t helper 



Demetriut quoted, 117. 

Demosthenes, racDtions Solon's law, not 

to steal, 65 ; uses the word ' apostle,' 

Deprecation, a form of prayer, 100. 
Desire, lawful and unJa^ul, 251 sq. ; 

is never satisfied but in God, 17. 
Desperation, origin of^ 96, 
Devil, vid. Satan. 
Diaconus, a title of Christ, 351. 
Diagoras, his atheism, its cause, 25, 

and consequence, 31. 
Dialect of scripture, should be known, 

Diana, St Paul's church in London 

was the temple of, 378; first-fruits 

offered to her, 390. 
Dice, vid. Mercury. 
Didacus Covarruvias, quoted concerning 

Helena at Jerusalem, 871. 
Difference of words, urged by papists in 

defence of image- worship, 181. 
Diodorus Siculus, quoted concerning 

Diagoras, 25 ; origin of laws and 

commonwealth, 27 ; Orpheus, 47 ; 

the egyptian law, * swear not,' 65, and 

their moral teaching, 385. 
Diogenes, being sick, abjured his 

atheism, 30. 

■ Laertius, quoted, 31, not g, 

Dionysius, Plato's epistle to, 39. 

■ of Halicamassus, says nations 
are slow to alter ceremonies, 366; 
speaks of * camilli,' 380 ; of Metel- 
lus losing his priesthood, 882; no 
reward might be taken for making 
priests, ib. ; feasts for pacifying the 
gods, 389; payment of tithes to 
them, 391. 

Discipline, belongs to the eternal sub- 
stance of religion, 126 ; behaviour 
in, 136 ; one of the ways of hallow- 
ing the sabbath, 163. 

Discretion, vid. Servant. 

Divine service, rules of behaviour in, 

Divorce, in what case lawful, 245. 

Doctor, a name of Christ, 351. 

Doctrine, ministers must have a care 
of, 196. 

Doeg, how he offended against the 
ninth commandment, 276. 

Donatists, their churches given to the 
catholics, 378. 

Dorotheus, speaks of the apostles' 
helpers, 358. 

Doubtful commandment, solution of, 

AouKfia, distinguished from \arptla by 
the papists, 131. 

Drink, excess in, an incentive to in- 
continence, 238. 

Druids, priests of the Britons and 
Goths, 379; their coercive power, 

Dubravius, quoted concerning the Tha- 
borites of Prague, 369. 

Dugdale, quoted concerning Westmin- 
ster abbey, 378. 


Earthquake at Christ's death, an evi- 
dence of the truth of the gospel, 54. 

East, heathen temples turned toward, 
387 ; so also christian churches, ib. ; 
this said to be an appointment of 
the apostles, ib, 

Ecclesia, word taken fh>m the heathen, 

Eclipse at death of Christ, an evidence 
of the truth of the Gospel, 54. 

Egyptians, forbade swearing, 65 ; 
brought no woollen garment into 
their temples, 383. vid. Cross. 

El,, on the door at Delphi, 66. 

Elders, seventy, answer to the seventy 
disciples sent out by Christ, 357. 

Elect, use of the word in the Lambeth 
articles, 291, 5; whether faith can 
perish in the elect, 299. 

EUction, what it is, 297 ; how related 
to predestination and love, 295, 7 ; 
supposes a difference between per- 
sons, 296. 

Eleusinian sacrifices, exclusion of pro- 
fane at, 384. 

Elisha, mocked by the children, 5 ; 
curses them, ib. 

Elizabeth (Queen), censures Abp. 
Whitgift concerning the Lambeth 
articles, 389. 

End of our journey is, to come to 
God, 14, 8. 

of the law, 71. 

England, her ancient religion, 378 ; 
had a pantheon, 377 ; retained many 
heathen ceremonies in her church, 
365 sq. ; a pope's sa3dng concerning 
her, 229 ; pope Gregoiys decisions 
respecting her, 376. 

Envying, shews wrong desire, 252. 

Epanetus, a helper of the apostles, 358. 

Epaphras, a helper of the apostles, 358. 

Epaphroditus, a helper of the apostles, 

Ephraim, Syrus, shews that heathen 
ceremonies may be retained, 367. 

'Eiri^oX^ and iwtkovKii, 257. 

Epicure, holds pleasure to be happi- 
ness, 14; demes that there is a pro- 
vidence, 32, or that God will reward 
or punish, 13, 82, 7. 

Epicurus, quoted, 25. 



£;iinciiidr-i, bade the AlbeDiina ucri- 
fice 1o the unknown god, 40. 

Epiphanim, inentioni heretics who had 
imsgei, 120 ; he tore one down. 
130; hishopi' power, 353, and nu- 
thori^ of anUining, 362 ; same apo- 
stles had fixed reaidence, S£7. 

MaKOTBt and ' episcopus,' meaning of 
among the heathen, 360, 79. 

Epilenui of divines, what Ihpy answer 
to, 7. 



Elan, pastime his trade, 10 1 conld dis- 
cern between good and evil, 30. 

£aaU, exeellme; of, 206. 

Enripidet. quoted, 66, 390. 

Euthhu ad Conelantiam : of the glory 
which Chriil now hath, 132. 

. hi* Chronicle, quoted for Tral- 

lianui' ChroDicle, and the mention 
therein of the earthquake at Christ's 
death, 64; use of the word 'ipusde,' 

■ Ecclesiailical Hislory, quoted 

for HcgeBippiu, 9, not m ; Pilale"8 
letter to Tiberius, 54; account of 
Origen, 66 i image of Christ set up, 
19U; mentions ' evsD);eliats,' i&&; 
some apoitles had Sxed residence, 
e. g. St. James, SS7, and SL John, 
ib.: mentions apostles' helpers, 36S; 
Titus biihop of Crete, ib.; bishops 
called priests, 360; Plato copied 
much from Moses, 36S ; form of 
churches, 376, not. n. 

Evangeiiesl Preparatjon ; »<J- 

connt of the l^eathen gods, 40 1 
quoted, of Orpheus, 48, not, mi of 
the plaWniat Amelius, ib., not. a; 
Ariatolle had conference with an 
Egyptian, ib. ,■ the Soiea had no 
images, 376; pantheon burned. 377. 

BiutalluMM, quoted, 373, noL d. 

E^ikymiMi, quoted, 368. 

SnagUui, a name of Christ, 361. 

a^rngtlUtt, Iheit office, 3S4; crEdible 
witnesses of [he gospel, 64. 

EM, why permitted in the world, 33. 

KiaitfU, minirter should be. 194. 
L Flaatn. 
cation, how spoken of by 
pope Innocent the fourth, 3H7, and 
by the canonists, iJ>. ,- practised by 
heathens as well as christians, 
384, 6. 

KrAffrMJioa, • part of thanksgiiing, Fk 

L ibiy 

n the BtM 

and Nehomiah, forn 

Fahlei, heathen, 
began, 47. 

Failh, kinds and mean* of, 86 sq. ; _ 
the way to come toOod, 19: wbctfaat^ 
a true and justifying flutfa can I 
quenched, 291. 

Failhfulnttt, fid. Stnmt, 

Fain, meaning of it, 366. 

worship, forbidden it 

commandment, 82. 

Cbrists, appearance sf, how a 

evidence thai Jetus was the tm 
Christ. 46. 

Falling, why needful to us, 165 ; !• tlu 
wings of prayer, 106 ; reason* af 
public fast, 166, and of urinate, 166t 
fasting must he inward as well 
outward, 167. 

Falier, meaning of, 176 ; duties of m 
father, 186. 

Falhen, reconcile apparent contradic- 
tions in our religion, 60; alleged by 
the papists for Interpretation of scrip. 
ture, 69 ; and in favotu of images, 
130; both irgumenli answered, 60, 

of families, seventy, compared d 

to the seventy disciples, 361. 

Ftar, its object, 87 ; is of two kindi 
88 ; means to beget fear in oix 
hearts, S9 ; due Irom inferion. 177. 

Ftslering, of coiicupiscenoe, 23$ ( o 
JDclination lo slander, 268. 

Firn-born of God, an altar to, 63, 

caose, argument for a God, St. 

fruiiB paid lo heathen gt»da, 1 


Etiaaim, one of the mles of the int 

pretationofthelaw, 76. 
Exakiel, did not envy Daniel, 203. 

etymology of, 884 ; > 
flamines' like in many of thtnr 
ceremonies to christian priesti, 379; 
in Iheir degrees of rank, 380; their 
powets and duties, SSI ; eireiuii- 
alsnces of their ordination, 382 1 
their privileges, ib. ; their appald in 
divine sertice, 383; t 
of unfitting persons, 384; their 
cihortations, 885; use of mt _ 

divine service, ib. ; and of hymn^'S 
ib.; Iheir penmbitlations, 386; andfl 

Irry, is against the ninth < 

mindment, 277 ; U of two sorts, 

may be committed against ourtelTe^l 

278. ■ 

Flood, before the flood, the word w>4 I 



taught by tradition, 8, and after the 
flood till Abraham's time, ib. 

Foreknowledge, 295 ; whether Ood's 
good will to us includes foreknow- 
ledge, 296 ; predestination cannot be 
without it, 297f sq. 

Foreiightf whether the efficient cause 
of predestination, 290. 

Forgwenes* of others required in those 
who pray, 105. 

FomiaUion, 246. 

Foundation of our catechising, IS. 

Fountairuj twelve, answer to the tweWe 
apostles, 351. 

Frame of Uie world, vid. World. 

Free-will, whether it is in a man's free 
will to be saved, 294. 

Frenchmen, had their druids from the 
Romans, 48. 

FHart and monks, had their origin 
among the heathen, 371. 

Fulgenthu, quoted concerning predesti- 
nation, 291, and grace, 293. 

Funeral, chtistian, described by St. 
Jerome, 372 ; papists' burning of 
torches at funerals a superfluous 
ceremony of the gentiles, ib. 


Gaiui, one of the helpers of the apo- 
stles, 358. 
GakUinue (Petms), quoted concerning 

the interpretation of Daniel's seventy 

weeks, 44, not. g. 
Qdlen, forced to acknowledge God, 

28 ; was against Christianity, 54. 
Oallaws, erected in place of the cross by 

Constantine, 371. 
Oalonitet, a Jewish impostor, 45. 
Garment of heathen and christian 

priests, 383. 
Gelliut, vid. Aulut Gellius. 
Gentiles had in a manner the ten com- 
mandments, 65; and other moral 

rules, 66, sq. 
German* would not represent the gods 

by images, 375. 
Gershon and his family, their place and 

rank, 342. 
Gesture, may be incentive to evil 

desire, 232, 41. 
Getting ; wrong getting, 253 ; right 

getting, 257. 
Ohry, given to God, 143; His glory 

the end of all, 103, 43. 
Gluttony, an incentive to incontinence, 

God, name of, vid. Name of God, 
Godmanham, in Yorkshire, a pantheon 

stood in, 377. 

Gods, gredan and roman, traced to 
Egypt, 40. 

Golden Verses of Pythagoras, their pur- 
pose, 4, and doctrine, 18. 

Golgotha, contains sculls of all sixes, 5. 

Good and evil, distinction of^ proTes 
the being of a God, 80. 

Gospel, credit of, 52 ; is one of the two 
parts of religion, 62; should be 
taught after the law, ib, 

(hveriment, civil, why instituted, 175 ; 
form of in Old testament under 
Moses, 339 sqq.; under Joshua, 
342 ; under David, 343 ; under Ne- 
hemiah, 346; may be of the same 
form in Old and New testament, 349, 
sq. ; form of church government in 
New testament, in the time of Christ, 
351 ; and of the apostles, 352. 

Grace sufficient for salvation whether 
given to all, 293, 300. 

— of God, may not be bought and 
sold, 254. 

Gratian, of the origin of church cere- 
monies, 368 ; degrees in heathen 
priesthood, 380. 

Grecian gods, vid. Gods, 

Grecians, have their religion from Ce- 
crops, 48. 

Greek faith, 50. 

Gregory the great, of intercession, 103 ; 
love shewn by obedience, 112; justice 
must have its source in pieW, 169 ; 
mentions deacons, 354 ; of heathen 
temples turned into churches, 376, 7. 

•^^— Nazianzen, two forms of unjust 
getting, 257 ; speaks of the < new 
Pharisees,' 869 ; heathens' imitation 
of christians, 391. 

Nyssen, says that Gregory 

Thaumaturgus fljrst changed heathen 
into christian holydays, 381. 

Thaumaturgus, vid. prsced. 

Chruter (Janus), account of pantheon 
changed into the church of Our lady, 

Gyraldus (Lilius), quoted concerning 
the heathen temples, 374, nott £ and 

i', 375; priests' dress, 388, and 
lymns, 385. 


Halting between two opinions, a sin 

against the flrst commandment, 12. 
Ham, the first atheist, 24 ; led men to 

false worship, 40 ; could yet discern 

between g^ood and evil, 30. 
Haman, a false witness, 272. 
Hammer, false witness compared to, 

Hands, kissing of, in worship, 372, 



Left hand. ' ' mnliag, one kiud '( 

llarduin, CoancilB, quoted, 60, not. e. 193. 

Hatred, (aTbiiiea.iH: avBMiia.ib 
Halzadak, Rabbi, 43. 
Bfod, imcoTering, a mnrk ar reapec 

177: pnctiie^ in diiirn? lervic 

A«uli or tribes, 339. 
ffronr. duly of. 189. 
Hearing, a duly of the catechised, 1 1 

how to be performed, 11, 12. Homiciiie. muii 

Heart, need* lo he prepared before i/meffy of Ihe 

receiving instruction, 10, 11; ia 68. 

reached by our religion alone, 51, 

282; real founUinofiin.of adultery, 

Heathea, confessed man's union with 

Ood to be true felicity, 18; their 

reli(p< ■ ■' ■ °" ■' ■" 

1 chiiBtJan piao- J 

Hiili/-dat/i, heathen ai 

tices respecting, 381. 
Holi/ water, upriokling of by heatboUtl 

■lid pspisM, 371. ■ 

Homer, in hii lime there was religionf 1 

but no laws, 23. 1 
quoted, of honouring twreaUi 

a hereto. 39; their god*, 
ib., miraclee and oracles, 41 1 their 
Gcremoniei, how far retained in 
chriatianity, 365 aq, i some impro- 
perly, by the papists, 370 sq., some 
lawfully and innocently, 373 >q. i 
itnilaled christians in some things, 

Hebrfui child, spoken of by the oracle 
of Delphi, 5*. "id. Jugnstine. 

Hedge of the law, the two ^sl com- 
mandments so called, 7. 

Hegtiippui, lesliAes to the good eStcts 

Hetptri of Bpoatles, 8fi7 aq. 

Heraelilia, could not sound the know- 
ledge of God, Iti; plays en the 
greek name for a bow, 373. 

Hercvbt, (ithes paid lo, 3il0 aq. 

nermei Triimegistus. Egyptians' ac- 
count of the heathen gods, 40 ; en- 
joins praying towarda Ihe south, 

i/tred Agrippa, his miserable death, 6(i. 

Antipas, rebuked by John the 

biplisl, 5 1. 

Ihe Great, in him the aocptre 

departed botti Judah, 44 1 brought 
much of rom an -heathenish disci - 
piine into the Jewish polity, 368. 

Htradona, bcgius his story with Crte- 
lus, 47 r confirms the scriptuto his- 
tory, 49 i answer made to Cambyses, 
377 1 uses the word ' apostle,' S5Z -, 
SoylhiaDS had no temples, aive to 
Mars, 374 ; Persians had neither 
altars nor images, SIS. 

Hfiiod, gires an account of heathen 
gods. 10. 

Hayebiui, quoted, 380. 

Hieroae, vld. Jentae. 

High places, meaning of. 2+7. 

< of Ihe goepel, 

Ifonarjiu, condemned in general eoua- 
cil, 61 ; checked deslructiau ofbea- 
Ihen temples, 376. 

HmHmT, meaning of, 1 TS ; due trota 
inferiors, 176! Ihe polidcun'a hj 
piaeis, 14, but not the true, 15. 

Heok of sin, 286. 

HoahcT, that heathen ordinance* maj 1 
be retained, 367. ■ 

Hvpr, its origin, 84, 93, fVuil, 84, t 
94, rules, ib., nature, 93, means, 96, 
and signs, 97 ; how related to Uth 
and chirity, 94. 

Haanna of children, allawed of 


ia by, 62. 
HamiUly, natnre and advantages of, 

"" that it comprehcndelh, 91; ■ 

and churches, 375- 
Htuband, duties of, 185 sq. 
Huttim, Dr. Mallhew, Abp. of Yori^ 

his doctrine concerning predeititia- 

lion, 297. 
Hgmta of christians and heslhena Ibi 

particular days, 385. 

Jacob, in what sense the elder son 
Isaac, 2SD| his two wires, 244; b 
prophecy of Ihe sceptic departuiB' I 
from Judah, 44. 1 

laddua, Alexander's interriew with, 4ft. ] 

lamUichwi, confesselh that uiiia __ 
man with God ia true felidlj, IS ; | 
of Phcrecydes' athdsm. 31, not g; 
commends prafer. 388. 

Idlneii, must not keep us Irom Itie 
house of God, 10; is againcl dio 
eighth commandmeul, '263; and a 
feeder of lu^l, 239. 



JialMsy. un atlributc of Ogd, IW. 
^rricAo, prophecy of the building of, 28. 

/eromiT,St.,quoWd,ofNinin,*liof Li- 
beriuB, 61; is ngiinsl imiges, 130: 
derive! apoilolical tradition from Old 
teatameni, 350 i bishop* luceeed apo- 
Btki, 354 ; (bar authority, 36i, a 
remedy for icbiini, SSG ; aomo apo- 
nles had fixed leaidence, 3S7 ; T^ua 
blEbop of Crete, 358: naiue of ' apo- 
■tle' giien to alhen beiide the 
twelve, 3E9; pneits called biihopa, 
360 r office of deacon, 354; refutn 
the error that no heathen ceremony 
may be retained, 380 ; witncuea to 
the heatbena' iiae of lighta in [em- 
plea. 372; recorda deatruotion of 
heathen templea, 375 ; Je"a looked 
WMtward tn prayer, 387. 

Julrr; Ue, 278. 

•fiiHif. compared to braebniani of India, 
373 ; uaeful inBtrumenU of Rome. 
ib, ; but hurtful to England, ib. 

Jinis (Jmtu)),B helper of the apostlei, 

Jtlkrv, hia conatitution, 310. 

Jeait, their three errors leipecting 
Chiiat, 43; refuted, 43, 46 ; had 
the tea connnaudmcnlB in cITecI be- 
fore the law, fi4; ancient euglish 
JB reapecting them, 371 1 looked 

authority, 362. 

I^orauct, whether excutable. 85. 

Ignorant, alleged to want the need of 
an image in woralup, 132. 

/fflt^ei.vorship of, forbidden, 133; his- 
tory of it, 129; papista" argument* 
for it, 130— 2i rejected by Numa, 
by Germans, by Pereiaua, and by 
the Secea, 375. 

Iniuaim of christians by the hei 

Imper/ttl, all religions but 

/ncanufJDn, vid. Trinily. 

iHCtil, 24G. 

ImUffertitce to character, censured, 366. 

Irferhr, dutiea of, 176—9. 

InililHla of lawyera, compared to epi- 
tomes of divines, 7. 

Jnttgrilg, how comprehended in the 
flrat comroandineni, 120; means to 
it, 121; and signs of it, )5. 

hlerceuion, what it ii, 102 ; excellence 
of it, 103. 

Inltrpntatien of aeripti 

the main question between Rome 

InttoduclioH, vid. Prrjact. 

IntHKatiim, part of the eternal rabitsBce 
of religion, 125. 

Job, how aluidered by the devil, 33. 

John baptist, his words to Herod, SI ; 
hia testimony to Christ, 203. 

Mark, $, helper of the apeatles, 


/onaj, shcwB drawing of lota to be 
guided by providence, 86. 

Jmatlan. R., 43. 

Joifph, why hated by his brethren, 213. 

Jotepkiu, of the jewiah calechlsta, 9 ; 
■theism of Ham, 24, and of Apion, 
with hia puniahmenl, 3! : account 
of the heathen gods, 40 ; the hea- 
thens adjure by Abraham, 48 ; speaks 
of Manelho, 49, not. h; Alexander's 
interview with the Jewish high-prieat, 
4a i judge* in the Jewish citiea, 340; 
pythagoreana borrowed much frum 
the Jews, 368 i as Jews did IVom 
Bjimans, ib. ; alhenisn law against 
speaking evil of ceremonies, 370 ; 
' pontifex maximus' might not behold 
& dead body, 386. 

Joihwi, form of government under, 34Z 

/rwifli, prophecy of the Wrth of, 28. 

gainst imagea, 130; aome 
bad ibem, 129; says who 
^apoa _ea 

epitomes of 
liaiah, leaches first ibo law, then the 
gospel, 62. 

' of the apwtles' help- 

?tsiiiinE heathen cere- 

I in the church. 367; of the 

' I heathen templea. 



Juilice, oijc nf tbe thrse great datiei, 
as I ahauld Sow fram pieC;, 161) i 
mn; not be bought uid iold, 254. 

JuKJa Martyr, meatinnt Pilate's leltei 
lo TibeiiuB, 54; deacon's office, 334; 
copied much IVoid Mo»e>, 


lal, quoted. o( tl 


JCwMv thyielf, 

Delphi, 66. 
XxMcJei^*, two sUgu of, 04; ruJci 

oonceniHig it, 80. 
Koballiilti, Ihoir rank and charge. 342. 
ILipit iki^or, iu>ed hy Arriaa, 388. 

Lrufanliw, hia argument agahiBl poly- 
theiam, 38; ii igaiDal imogeB. ISO; 
plea of the beathena for image wor- 
•liip. 131 1 lEghlB in beathen tem- 
ple*, 372, not. iL 

Zo^riiu., .id. aiogfmr,. 

Lambtlh srticira, 289 sq, 

LofuffrA, the firat who ia recorded to 
have had Vna wivea, 344, 

bangii«gt, hard, whether to be aosnered, 

Xanptla, vid. 3«v\(1b. 

Lawt not before religion, 23 ; said to 
have come from the Jews, 27 ; one 
of the two partaoC religion, 62^ what 

written in hevta of men, both Sewa, 
64, and gentilei, 6£ ; why it needed 
lo be written, 67 ; how it giew 
darker and darker, ib.; whether it 
can be ftilflUed by men. 68. 

of Motes, preparation for it, 

68 sq. 

Canon. imit»tee the atructure of 

the civil, 373. vid. Dtirtlum, De- 

Civil, vid. prsced. 

Lauifiil, lid. Dtiire. 

laiBgiair, what required in, 74. 

Lau/gert, vid. .Ydponifr, iKtlilula. 

i,aui»(WoUgangU!i). qiislificalions of 
heathen prieata, 381; i Lent ob- 
aerved by the lieaihen. S8!l. 

Lrro, quoted, 65, not, r. 

Le/l hand, why papitts turn lo, in 
Mcriflcing. 372. 



a the door at 

Length of liealhirii prayera, 389. 

Lenl, practised bb a policv among thit 

heathen. 38a 
i«D. as cKyplian prieai 

voofercDce with, 40. 

the Great, quoted, at the aab- 

batb. 160; againat aecurity, 301, 4; 
jewiah cualomi retained in llie 
church, 3S0; biabop's authority nf 
ordaining, 302. 

LtmicesHi (Nicolaue), linen dreaa of 

Levilfi. tlieir offlce and degieea of 

rank, 340—8. 
LibnniiiM, was aguntt chrislianity, S4i 

afterwards coDferted, 56. 
Libtriui. pope, aubgcribed to ariMUBit, 

Lie. 266, 70 ; hamiteu lit, 279. 
Lift, of deattoying, of be*«t, 217, or of 

man, 218— Zfi. 
everlaating, the croae the mgtt at 

among the ancient Egyptians, £3. 

long, whether alway* gi»el> lo 

dutiful children, 210i why promi*«d 
to them, 211 ; why pttn ta tha 
wicked. 2)2. 

Lighhtm, faith not a sign of, 20. 

Liglili, in templea and churehea, 372. 

LiUuM Ggraidiu, vid. Oyraldia. 

LitnUatiim, one of the nilei of interpre- 
tation, 78 ; rulBB for it, 79. 

Livy, eilabllahed ceremnnie* might not 
he spoken agBuiat,37D: ofUie power 
of heathen prieata. 88V; appoiut^ 
teatals afler thirty years of age nugbt 
retire, ih. : muaic in heathen temple 
service. 38S ; perambuUtiont, 386 ; 
Camillua prayed with liandi raind, 
388, and gave tithee, 390. 

Loti, drawing of. in case of Jmus, 
■hews providence not to be by 
chance, .36. 

LoiK to God, ita origin, 84, and froit, 
ib.; ii above faith and hope, lOS; 
why we should love God, lOB; bow 
much we thould love Him, liOi 
means, it,., signn. HI. and idbcta of 
Ihialove, 112 >q. 

Id our noigbbour, 169, manner of 

of it, 173, muBt flow from love ta 
God, 169, 74, 

LuoH, a helper of the apoatlea, 3A8. 

Lacian, was igunal; chriitianity, £4 ; 
origin of hia athoiam, 2£ i hi* miBcr- 
able death, 31; of heatbvn prayers 
and Kacriflcoa, 388; of wonhip^g 
by laying the finger to the mauth, 
373; of excluding the profone, 384 i 
mentiona Arriao. 38a 


Wlieviilg <hc 

r. EN Git A 

miacnblc death. )1. 
JVacmftjw, mcnlioni ' camilli,' 380, not. 

k ; heithcn primlB birchcaded in 

■ervicc. 38-1. 
Hagiilrale. why needful, ITJ.DB, hi> 

office, ITS, 99, and qualiflcalioua. ib.i 

irhsther be may take away life, 221 


vid. AUaria. 


wimess to tb 




would c™« 



by fBilh. 19 




39 ; would n 

Ot L-U 


. INDEX. 421 

Ifinrf, exoatlency of, 203 tqq. 
MMiIer, cbriili&n, 192 *q. j Ihiea evil 

kinds of niBiiter, 193: ane good 

kind, 194 ; hia duties, 194—7. 

heathen, vid. Flanfo. 

Miraclei, of heathen goda, 41 ; miracln 

of our Teligion, S2 ; miracles wrought 

by prayer, 9». 
Mitliridalci, knew his BOldierB* namei, 


ai'c law, 368. 

Mouki, rid. Friari. 

Vonlhi, healhea nanus of, lawfully 
used in Christendom, 3GT. 

tfMFi, did Dot Ude the fuilU of hia 
own faiDily. 51 ; teaches, first the 
law, then the gotpel, ti'2 i intercede* 
for the Isrselites, IDS ; form of 
government under, 339 sq. j nd. 

R-ofNiM, 43. 

iiurder, the word vhj inade choict of 
in the sixth commandmeot, 213; 
proceeds out of the heart, 228. 

Muijc in heathen Umplen, 385. 

Maiiui, quoted, of Charlei Ihe greW, 

63 itq. 
Mmtlealing, 256. 
Maretlthmi, turned to chtiilianity by 

tJie aibyUine verKS, 5». 
MarioKui Sconia, of hallowing- temples 

to be chtiatian churches, 379. 
Slarlial, menlioni use of bella, 374. 
Uartm, St., oratory of. made out of Ihe 

temple of Apollo, 377. 
MoMlir, duty of, 188. 
Jfa/rrnony, nilei of, 244. 

HI of Paris, gives biitory of St. 

Alban'a, 378, n 

r, 33£. 

It be true, 2 £5. 

Naih, God's word likened to, 11. 
Home of God, 72 : not lo be lakoi in 

vain, 143 sq. 
A'oii jiedim, 341. 
HataUt Comii, Snl-fruiCa dtu to the 

gods, 390. 
JVnlurp, the beginning of ihinga oat by 

Datui«, 37 \ providence not by natun^ 


tiar, vid, SBlrr. 

iland of, destroyed for the 

atheism of Diagoru, 31. 
UtH, origin of the worship of. 40. 
JffnanAT.saysweihould not covetifiS. 
Xrrarl and his famil}', their place and 

rank, 340—2. 
UtrchoHiiuu, a form of exuhatige, 360. 
KtrcHTy, called on in pUfing at dice, 

389 1 first-ftuite oHered to him by 

tnvellen, SSO ; vid. Sim. 
Jfcrry, works of, fitting for the iBbbath, 

Melapkgtirw, vid. Trmlls. 
Mttrtlm, loainE bis light was put out 

of the priesthood. 382. 
UkM, btr false stalemenl in behalf of 

Uavid, 279. 
MiiiiiriiiBi in Egypt, whether guilty of 

falsehood, 379, 80. 

NefAiflJsu, 34«, T, 8, Sa 

may he like that in the old, 349, 
NieijAenii, failuie of Dneles,fi4: Co 
Btsntine'a pottablc (' 


vid. Itot 

MoHgtergiui, vid. Moi^torgiali 
Nktmraltu, quoted concerning adul- 
tery, 85. 
Nlgganititita, is a kind of theft upon 

one's self, 258. 
JVfHu, set up an image of bia father, 

Nolary, ot regiilm, may be a (Us* 

wiuieM, 272. 
KufHi, rejected images from icmpln. 

37B; WIS ordainrd li> be 'pontifi'X 
with Uying on of hands, 382. 
Nuaibtr of elect, Tid. Elect. 

Oalh, when to be used, U6 : how to be 
UKd, lb. ; how il nuketh for God's 
glory, 1+7; ia allowed and com- 
inoDded of God, ib. : and used by 

it, 113 1 ■ duty of inferiors, 178; 

reaaoni for it, ih. 
fEcumtTilui, of election, 290; prIetU 

called biahopB, 360 ; highopa' autlio- 

rity of oidaining, 3S2. 
Old agt, maket mea apprehensive ol 

another world, 3D r honour due lo it, 

— leitamnil, fonn of goveraniBnt in, 
339 sqq. 

Oh» govenior, respect to, an especial 
remedy for ichiam, 3SG. 

Oauphriiu PatuHnim, of the wutda ' ec- 
clesia,' 37*. and ' epiicopua,' 379. 

Oraclt al Delphi, answer of coiii;em- 
ing Christ, £4; OTaulei of heathen 
podi, 37, 41 i fell at Chiiafs com- 
ing, £4; chrialian oracles, 52. 

OrOtr of the world, sbewa it not la be 
by chance, 27. 

Ordination, vid. f faiws. 

Oreilti, why not admitted to sacred 
rite*, 384. 

Origen, of the heathen goda, 40 ; sayi the 
heathene knew the name of Abra- 
ham, 48 ; mention a Alexander's 
meeting with the high pricat, 49, 
not I ; it against images, 1 30. 

Original of the ■criptnre: to be looked 
(0, £9. 

Orpheus, how long after Moies, 47 ; 
saya all wisdom was left with the 
Chaldeans, 48. 

'OptoTBiiia, duly of a preacher, 196. 

Oiirii, gave occasion to image worsliip, 

Overal, of the justified falling into sin, 

Oeid, mentious consecration of templea, 

OuiV$ eyes, Aristotle said that he had, 

Oi-htads sacrificed tu Diana, 378. 

Palm trees, the serenly, answer to Hm 

seventy disciples, 3S1. 
Pan, snid to have died, St. 
PamUcli, vid. Decrelutii. 
Panaa (Mutiua), connecb'oii of heathen 

PanlhtOH in Rome, given for a chiuch, 
377, 9; pantheon in England, 377- 

Papitti, their difference from ua, 57 ; 
their means of interpreting scrip- 
ture, 39 ; their ceremonies borrowed 
Irom the heathen, 370 Iqq. 

Parablr of Jothim not a falsehood, !S0. 

Paradite, no idleness in, 253. 

PauoMT, children to be taught the 
moaning of, 4. 

Patlime moat not keep us from the 
houK of God, 10. 
"to'iTilt." cc O , 

Patriarch, 339; the twelve patriareht 
answer to the twelve sposllea, 351. 

Palritiui, liU ' History of Couneila,' 
&c, quoted, GO, not. e. 

Paul, St., hia arguments agunst the 
way of the heathen, 38 ; St. PkuI'b 
church in London, conjectured to 
have been a temple of Diana, 378. 

PoHUtlHI, 55. 

Pauiui DiaconuB, pantheon turned into 
a chriatian church, 377. 

Paast, origin of. 251. 

Paynm ceremonies retained in Chris- 
tianity, 365. 

Ptaee, temple of Bacchus why called 
temple of peace, 49. 

Pedagogy of Ctemeua Alexandrinut 

People, heathen, their religious cere- 
monies, 387. 

Perambalalia^, vid. Flamen. 

Pererita, on Genesis, of the heathen's 
long prayers, 3B9. 

Perfection, not given by the law, Tl, 

PfrA-Hu (Peter), his Comment on the 
rules of the Common Law, quoted, 

Permalahm, difierent forma of; 250. 

Perpelailg, is not in the heathen wa}n 
of happiness, 17 ; is in coming to 
God, 18. 

Peraeulori of Christiana, miserable end 
of, 56. 

Peritoeratite, enjoined in the first com- 
mandment, 121 1 means to and ^n> 
of it, 1 22 ; the righteous not certun 
of their own peneverance, 292, 305. 

Ptier, sl, charged by Christ to feed Hia 
lamba, 5 ; hia enquiry conceminK 
John, 269. 





Imraoh, m*de > acoff of the Jews' 


children going with them, 3. 

ib., aa 

Anri««, new, 369. 


ktrecuilri, hii impiety and miierable 

381 1 

end, SI. 


PUega, Trallianui. vid. Trallian. 

PhoeyUdu, would have children taughl, 
4i hji venes ttanilated fromMoaei, 

Pkylarch of the [>taelite^ 339. 

Phjfiiciaiu, aphorism* of, answer lo epi- 
tomes ofdivinei, 7. 

Picturti, wanton, ineeDtiveit lo lust, 

Phly, S3, tid. Jiallfe. 

Plaialif at acruaer, may be a faUp 
witaeu, 272. 

PlanU, their nature, evidence ofa par- 
ticular providence, 35. 

Piata, confeiieth that man'i union with 
God is hia tiuo felicity, 18; old age 
mahea men hare leligioua feara, 30 : 
meani differently by 'god' and 
'gods,'39; refer* all wiadom to the 
' barbarian,' 48 ; said to have had 
hii wisdom from the Egyptians, ib. ; 
hie remarki on concupiscence, 231 ; 

PlaulHi, i^SFulapius worshipped bare- 
headed. 383. 
PIraiure, the epicure'* happineaB, 14, 



e, IS. 

PlfTopheria, of faith, 292, and hope, 299. 

Plmy. wrote lo prove things had a be- 
ginning, 27 ; his wonder al woika of 
naliue, 28; apeaha of the alar al 
Christ's birth, 53; earth cannot 
move of ilaeir, S4) of kissing hinda 
in warahip,3T2: of payment of Gial- 
fruila, 300. 

Plolinui, ai^ea for a providence (rom 
the roota of plants, 35; was against 
Christianity, 54 1 could raise up 
images of heathen gods, but not of 
Christ, 5G. 

Philarch, drew aul a course of leaching 
for children, i; Gonfeuelh that 
man'a union with Ood li hi* true 
felicity, 18 i aays how Osiris gave 
Dccaaion to idolatry, 41 ; thews date 
" " ' '"j failure of oraolet, 

fi4i his siini: 
should do the i 


I thai ■> 


. as Of nuns, among 
the heathen, 371; apeaks of'camilli,' 
heathen priests, their power, 
ID d privileges, 383! they gave 
of holy days lo the people, 
Saturn's priests uncovered, 
heathens' joint order and de- 
cency of prayer, 388; sacrillces and 
holy days fbr health of Pompey, ib. ; 
lilhes pud lo Ueiculcs, 390. 

PtlHielat, place* happiness in honour. 

Felyiert ffrgU, priests had the head 
covered in sacrifice, 384. 

Pelygainy, whether ever lawful, 243. 

Polylhfiim, one of the four errors of 
SaUn, 22. 

Penti/cx, a word known lo Ihe heathen, 
370, and borrowed from them by 
chrialions, 380 ; power of ponlifcx, 
ib,! duties, 381, 2, and qualifica- 
tions, 382; Numa appointed pon- 
lifex,jA. ; ' Ponlifei maximu*' might 
not behold a dead body, 386 ; vid. 

Pwr. how lo be regarded by ua, 261 ; 
giving to them ia as the aowing of 
aeed, 262. and tbelt (Vom them worse 
than from others, 256. 

Popt, one of Ihe papials' means of in- 
terpreting scripture, Ji7, 61 ; not all 
chrialian ceremonies invented by Ihe 
pope, 369 ; privileges of ' pontifei 
maximus' transferred to the pope. 

Popish ceremonies borrowed from the 
heathen, 370—3. 

Porphyry, said that faiih shewed credu- 
lity, 20; csuae of hi* stbeism, 25; 
saya that Ihe heathen declared the 
form and fashion of their gods, 39; 

NinuB, 41; wa* against Christianity, 
S4; aaid il was a pity SL Paul 
ahould be a chriatian, 6S : first- 
fruits dedicated to the goda, 3B0. 

Porltrt appointed by David, 845. 

PoUillai. apeaka of an altar set up ' to 
the Gral-born of Cod,' 53. 

Poiturti in divine worship, 133—6, 

PuKW, right use of, ISI. 

Prayer, the fruit of hope, 97 ; maketh 
for God'a glory, 98 ; workelh mira. 
cles in the elements, 99 ; encounge- 
nienl lo it, it. ; what is conluoed in 
it,IOOi why ilmayfail.lOfrmeana 
Ioit,10G; one of the part* of divine 
worship, 134; of behaviour in it, 
133; isuneofthe waya ofsancti^- 
ing the sabbath. ISl ; one of the 
means fbr interpreting scripture, 58; 
how pnctiaed by the heathen, 38S, 9. 





»<■, iliffets fro 




w, 12S; how 

we idiould behave 




«. whit ii u 

101 ; degrees ot 

it, . 

fc.,- why not 

•Iwij* granted, 


its efficient cause. 


ii not Ihe 

■use of wn, 2U1 : 





1 dnctitae of tLe heathen- 

1 forel 

2tti: bow leUted [| 

and to lov 

ledge.SSS: thefutKTul oev 

of their own prgdesliufttiDn, 
Pnfaer to the citechum, 3. 
Preparalim for hearing tbe word, IDi 

for receiving MoBes' Uw, fiS sq. 
Prtittmfilia; ihould be avoided, !f5. 
Prtvarietile, meaning at, 212. 
Pri*. what it cot^^Bta in, Bl ; meani 

to it, 92. 
Prititt, under the law, 3'M ; under the 

)[«|kI, i&H 1 apostles called priests, 

359j priests how c»]led,ift.; heathen 

priestA. vid. FJamen. 
Frmctt of the tribes, answer lo tbe 

twelve apoattes, 3S1. 
PrlmU^a of the clccgj, and of haathen 

Prodigality, 'n against the eighth com- 

maudraent, 2i9. 
JVi/aagnrn, it againat the first com- 

mandRieni. 82. 
Progrru of Christianity an evidence of 

its truth, &i. 
Pnphrey. proves Ihe being of a God, 

28 ; and that Christ is Meaeias, 

49, 4 1 our prophecies come to pass, 

the heathen do not, 52. 
Prophet, a name of Christ, 361. 
ProfdteU, eonfirm one anolher, £t). 

Proiptr, sin and damnation do not flow 
from ptcdeatiDation, 291; all men 
receive a general help from Cod, 
293 1 the (aithnil never sure of their 
predeatinatitni and perseverance, 

Preiperily, why given to the wicked, 

PnHlUuHBH, 233, 47. 

Praaidenet, opinions cooceming, 32 ; 
abjections again«t considered, ib. ,- 
answered, S3 sq. : there is a general 
and particular piovideuee, 34 ; it is 
not by nature, 3±, or by chance, 36 ; 
it reachelh to every one, 37. 

P«B«Ani*n(, joined to the second com- 
Biandmenl, 14U; three kinds of it, 
142, vid. Bfteard. 

PuriHnH, their rules, df^. 

Pyrrho, nukes the diatinction of good 
and evil originate with man, 30. 

Pythagoriu, his Golden Verses for in" 
struction of the young, 4 i coofeas- 
eth man's union with God to be his 
true felicity, 1 8 ; that there n an 
infinite power, 3S ; his doctrine of 
the monad, SB i alleged to have had 
conference on mount Carmel, 46i 
creation the evidence of a Ood, 66. 

PylbaenrtiBu, borrowed much from 
Jews' laws, 36H. 

Bahab, whetiier guilty of falsehood, 

RaBk, disparity of. between Ihe loni of 

Levi, &c., 340 sqq. 
Rata abollt. 3311, 43. 
Bmrm, shew s providence, 86. 
Realm, »e cannot come lo God hy, 



t. 276. 

r the ninth oom- 

JUcriBrr of a 

Brgiilrar. vid. Stiary. 

Rtlhli, papists' worship of^ b n 

gentilism, 373. 
Religion, whst it i<, llBi chief errei* 

a before laws, 23. 


vid. Cl™«<w n 

Rrprohalion. asserted in Hit Lambeth 

articles, 290; in what sense ad- 

mitted by Bp, Andrewes, 296, 
Rrprotf, duty of the minister to, 197. 
RfKign, lawful for minitlers to, SB2. 
Retl, atuined only in Ood, \%\ rest « 

sabbath, 167 iq. 
RttlitnlioH, when allowed, and whm 

required, 26T. 
Rilailing, fotm of permulatiDn, 260. 
StPtl, llie sabbath not made for, ISO. 
Rnaiird and punishment, contained in 

God's law. 63, 4; known to the 

gentiles, ST 




Rewarder, whether Ood be a, 82. 

RheginOf mentions the turning the 
pantheon into a christian churchy 

Rhenamu, tapers in churches at noon- 
day, a heathen custom, 372 ; * dio- 
cese ' a heathen word, 880. 

Rhodigin (Cslius), savs there was an 
altar in Eg^rpt * virgini paritune,' 
54; kissing of hands in worship, 

Richest how given to us, 260. 

Right and propriety, origin of, 2i8. 

Riot^ not a fit employment for the 
sabbath, 160. 

itlce, we should rise up in the presence 
of a superior, 177. 

Roman gods, vid. Ood*» 

Romanists pervert the order of God*s 
law, 62. 

Romans had their religion from Greece, 

Ri^jffinuSf of Constantine putting up 
crosses, 373. 

Rulers, why appointed, 1 75 ; how they 

^ may govern rightly, 209; whether 
to be obeyed if wicked, 183; ex- 
amples of Nebuchadnezzar and 
Darius, ib. 


Sabhathf meaning of, 158; not a cere- 
mony, 154; why appointed to be 
kept, 156; how to be kept, 157 — 
64; means to sanctify it, 167; 
sabbath of fast, vid. Fast 

Sacraments, part of the eternal sub- 
stance of divine worship, 126 ; rules 
of behaviour in, 136; a way of 
sanctifying the sabbath, 163. 

Sacred admonitions of Solon, written 
for instruction of the young, 4. 

Sacrifice, rules for, 884, 5. 

Sacrilege, 255. 

Salem and Byzance, referred to, 870, 
885, 389. 

Salvation, vid. Certainty, 

Samuel, his intercession for the people, 
103; whether guilty of falsehood, 

Sanhallat broke the ninth command- 
ment, 275. 

Sanctonicanus, quoted by Porphyry for 
story of Ninus, 41. 

Saracens alone did not embrace chris* 
tianity, 365 ; have no bells in their 
steeples, 375. 

Satan, is a liar, 270; four errors of, 
22 ; his pride, 91 ; his temptation of 
Eve, 63, 91, 284—6; his sabbath. 

160 ; was worshipped b^ Jnliain, 28 1 
imitoteth christian baptism, 891. 

Satis/action, not in the heathen ways of 
happiness, 17, but only in coming to 
God, 18; a kind of punishment, 

Saul, his jealousy of David, 203. 

Sceptre, in Judah till what time, 44. 

Schism, bishops a remedy for, 355. 

Schoolmaster, the law is our, 71. 

Schools, ohristiaii, put down by Julian, 

Scape must be looked to, in interpret* 
ing scripture, 59. 

ScribiBs, said to have entered Christ's 
name among the priests, 45. 

Scripture, whether it is God's word| 
87 sq. ; rules for interpreting, &f 
sqq. ; must be searched, 7. 

ScuUi, vid. Oolgotha. 

Sea, said by Aristotle to be lugher than 
the earth, 84. 

Secundanus, turned to Christianity by 
the sibylline verses, 58. 

Secundus, a helper of the apostles, 858. 

Security in religion condemned, 801 

See, apost<^c, 357. 

Seed, almsgiving compared to the sow- 
ing of, 262. 

Se\f'looe, causes flattery, 277. 

SeWng, a form of permutation, 250. 

Seneca, L. AnnsDus, says none are zeally 
atheists, 29 ; would not have killed 
another, yet killed himself 218; 
shews that the gentiles had lights in 
their temples, 872; heathen priests 
must not be present at sentence of 
death, 886. 

• M. Annsms, quoted, 882, not t 

Semtmcherib, story of^ given by Herodo- 
tus, 49; inscription on his tomb, 

Sense of scripture, how to be ascer- 
tained, 57 sq. 

Sensuality, a cause of atheism, 25. 

Sermons of the heathen, 885. 

Servant, duties of; 188. 

Service^ divine, vid. Divine service. 

Seventy, court of the, 889 ; seventy dis- 
ciples, and to what they answer, 

i.^-^— weeks, prophecy of, an evidence 
against the Jews, 44. 

Severus, his use of the rule, ' iac quod 
vis pati,' 66. 

Shelicha, Syrian name of the apostles, 

Shepherd, good, good minister compared 
to, 193; the magistrate is a shep- 
herd, 199. 

Shikh, to come when the sceptre was 
departed from Judah, 44. 


Shima, big scoffing, 276. 

Sibyllint veraea, »uppoB«il history of. 

nim,'373; liistory of theword 'win- 

8; ooafcB that t^'i union witli 

tifei,' 380 : hemtbeus tried In maks 

God i> hie trae rdicily, IS; CDDtaiii 

the circumstBDMB of the birth of 

384. and imitated Christianity, 891. 

Christ, S3. 

Spartan theft. 50. 

Skknm, hu brought men la canfesi 

God. 30. 

iroin, 26 ; worship of God miut be 

Sigebtrl, of the pKDtbeiro turned into ft 

spiritual, 51. 

churcb, 379. 

Silence, ■ mark of rcipecl to superiori. 



Sland, a mark of respect 10 iuperiora 

Sibuniu, > helper af the apostles, 33S. 

tosund, 177. 

Si*™.. R., *3. 

SinuHildr,. said he could not itbiin the 

ecnpture, SS.uoLk. 59, 61. 

knowledKC of Cod by mediUtion, Iti. 

Slephanai, a helper of the apoirtlei, 8S8. 

Sitnimy, forbidden, 3S2. 

Slepkaaui, records NicostraCus'i safing 

Sinpliciai. confeaielh min's union with 

against adultery, 6fi. 

God to be hia true felicity, 18. 

Si. Germain, author of Salem and Bj- 

Sineerily, xhal il is. 120; meani to. 

lance. q. y. 

121, and signs of it, Jft. 

Stimmh, a cause of stheiim, 25. 

Silling in heating the word, ia lawful, 

Sixlui, pope, turned temple of Bacchus 

into a church, 377. 
Skill, of the Grst oitnesscs of the gos- 
pel, 62. 
SUep, not lawful at divine service, 137 ; 

too much sleep a feeder of lust, 239. 
Sluggiihneu, must not keep us from 

the house of God, 10. 
Smilh, Sir Thomas, says the Britons, 

receiiing Christianity, kept much of 

their old ceremonies, 36Q. 
Sobritty, one of the three great virtues, 

Socratei, said that he knew only Ibis, 

that he knew DOthiog, 16. 
the bitttotian, quoted in notes, 

pp. 9, 5J,£6, 37S. 
Soilcm, one of the sins of, idleness, 239. 
dl«lr»>iif». defended sin, 247: could yet 

recompense good for good, 30. 
SaloBum, found the vanity of all things 

save coming to God, IB. 
Solon, his Sacred admonitions for the 

instniclion of children. 4; his law, 

'Thou ahalt not steal," fiSi hia laws 

carried the mark of the author's 

mildness, 71- 
San, dudes of, 186. 

1 of ] 


Sailhma, a helper of the apostles, 3Gg. 
Soul, proves a Ood, 28 ; bath two parts, 

83 i murder of, 227. 
Stulh, some prayed towards. 387- 

up ' furcam Inco crucis,' 371, and 

date of Orpheus. 47 1 IMha- 
goras had conference in CarmeC 441 ; 
Persians had no altars or images, 
ST6: chriatian priests subject to the 
civil power. 389. 

(Walafrid). of the form of 

churches, 3711, not. n. 

Slrypt, his life of WhitgiR. quoted for 
Barret's case. 301, not. r. 

Subilann, eternal, of the irorship of 
God. 123. 

Sutlomui, Augustus hung bells in 
Jupiter's tetople, 374 i his Baying 
concerning Nero, 38a; woaden at 
Tiberius oBering sacrifice without 
music, ib, ; Romans went to the 
temple before deliberating of great 
matters, 389. 

SxiaJe unlawful, whether direct, 218, 
or indirect, 226. 

SiUilai, refeired to, for Diagoiaa, 29, 
not. a; Lucian, 31. not. k ; ' episco- 
pus,' 360: fiOfOriu, 372; tp/taisr, 
390; records that Christ's name wa« 
entered among the priests, 45. 

^HHoftbelaw, 72. 

Summary of doclrine, whether there 
may be. 6. 

Saa and Mercury, anaient lemplei at 
St Alban's dedicated to. 378. 

Superiori, duties of, 176, 9 sqq. ; 
whether to be honoured if wicked, 

Surplice, disused by the puritans, 369 ; 
used by heathen priests, 383. 

Sweariag, vid. Oalh. 

?.»..■./ 1<l«fl wirn^iB i-nmnfLivd tA. ^TD. 


; lervice foibidden, 


heath?!) lempUs turned into churcliei, 
377, uid hesthcn holy day* into 
chrialiBn feisis, 3B1 ; gentiles tried 
to chriatiuiB renounce tlidr 
relipion. 38*. 

Thtadotian cade, quoted for Thendo- 
liiu'i order to pluck do¥fii be*thon 
tempi™, 376. 

ThrepliUus, wac Fatecliiied, 9. 

S(i> and 8>al distitiffuiihed by Plato, 


I qoalifications, 190, i 

TemptraBci, rules of, 237, 8. 

Templt, Jews could not rebuild at 
Julian's command, 46 j second tem- 
ple, prophecjr of iJie glory of it, 44, 
and destruction of it, 4S, 0, are argu- 
ments against the Jews. 

Ttmplei, heathen, structure of, 375, 87 j 
aoQiD weri! destroyed, some turned 
into christian churches, 37j — 9 ; 
heathens resorted to the temples 
before consulting of imporluit 
matters, SH9. 

TtrluUian. shews bad character of hea- 
then gods, 40 ; says the lint things 
>relruii,47; mentions Pilate's letter 
to Tiberius, £4; his appeal to Sca- 
pula persecuting the christians. 56 \ 
against absurd prayera, ID6 ; against 
images, 130; bishops successors of 


n, 3£t : 

ctised by the I 

practised by the heathen, 3t<B. 
Thrfl, dcRncd, 348 ; comes from the 

heart, 263. 
TVWcrifu, speech of the covetous man, 

Theodorft, speaks of Julian suppressing 

his death, 31 ; priests called bishops, 
3(iO, aud bishops called priests, ib. ; 
bishop's aathorily of ordaining. 3S2 : 
Plato copied much from Mosea, 36S : 

had &ied residence, 
857, which were called thereupon 
kpoatolic sees, it. ; bishop's aulho- 
n(y of appointiDg fasts, S62; hea- 
thens looked eastward in worship, 
387 ; speaks of tithes due to Her- 
cules, 391 : of the derils iinilatiDg 
christian baptism, ib. 
TeilamtHl, vid. Old Icilamail and New 

TlkabarlM of Prague, their strange 
notions, 369. 

Tbiuiktriping, ■ form of prayer, 100; 
standeth in four things, 103 ; eioeU 
lency of, 104; signs of, 107 


Thnci/didtt, quoted concerning Melos, 

31 ; holy days needful, 381. 
Thunder, convinced Claudius thst he 

was not a God, 22. 
Tibullai, quoted for the conaecrating 

of temples, 379. 
Tinolhg, was catechised, 9 ; a helper 

of the apostles, 35S, and receiier of 

the apostolic commission, ib. 
Tirihathai of the Sen, 339. 
Tilhe, paid by heathens. 390, 1. 
Tille, lid. Flamn. 
Tilm, a helper of the apostles, 338, and 

receiver of the apostolic commissiotk, 

TengMT, how accouated of by David, 

Toreht,, vid. Funeral. 
Tormtnli, ancient christians put to, 55. 
TradiliiBi, the only way of teaching 

anciently, 8. 
Tratlinn^ iiis chronicle quoted, 34. 
Trtit, might not he planted near the 

altar, 367 ; expounded, ib. 
Triangle, evidence of a maker, 27. 
Trinity, creation and incarnation, the 

true metaphysics, SI \ found in our 

religion only, ib. 
Triimegiiliu, vid. lieraei. 
TraphitKia, a helper of the apostles, 

VrBHble, brings men to confess a God, 

!VhM. principles of in llie soul, eii- 

denceofa God, 29. 
TnU^, vid. Cicere. 
Turk, his religion false, 12. 
Tyekiau, a helper of the apostles, 358. 
Tyrant, vid. King. 

Vaia, (0 take in vain eiplained, 145. 

Falerim Maxiinus quoted, of Milhri- 
datea, 37; heathen priests wore white 
garments at sacrifice, 383, and had 
■nunc in their temple«,38S ! Sdpio** 
advice concerning prayer, 389. 


rarto, quoted foe ' eunilli,' S80 ,■ ety- 

WaUrag of eril dettre, 231, 40, 69. 

mology of flBmen,' 38*, 

»•««*, the worldlmg'» h.ppinew, 1*; 

Vaivt, imige o(, foond in the plue 

but not the tme, ib. 

■hers Chrisl wu crodfied, 371. 

FtrUcgm, yew-trees in our church- 

prayed for, 389. 

WtigUi, vid. Mtiumta. 

V^lam. Tid. SI. Alban-,. 

ff'cil, Jewa prayed towardi, 3ST. 

V«pa.ian, hi, treatment of the Jews. 


of.^pallo, 378. 

fiHalt, if they wanled wit or beauty 

Whilnker, profeuor of diriaity &t Cam- 

were rejected, 382 ; after thirty 

bridge, framer of the Lambetli irti- 

yesri of age miglit reaipi, ib. 

cles, 289. 

beth articlea, 2H9 ; vid. Slrypg. 

temple of, 378. 

Firgil, .pesks of ■ purgatory, 371 ; 

Wicked, Tid. Proiprrilg. 

atfunerali, 372; priest* wore 
linen ganneots, 383; eiclusioii of 
the profane, 384; haodt held up in 
prayec, 388 ; print! «u1)ject to the 
civil power, 38!), 
VirgtH, temple of Bacchus to stand till 
a virgin bare ■ child, 49; altar in 
Egypt ' to the rirgin that shall bear 

firlur, held by the stoics to 

ness, H, but wrongly, le. 
Filruvlui, would have temples face the 

west, 387, 
rivei (Ludovicus), affioity between 

heathen and popUh worship, 370 : 

practice of excluding the profane 

taken fVom the heathen, 384. 
Vlfioii, WM agunst Christianity, 5i. 
CiicirctimriiiiDii, meaning of, 283, 
Uiilif to he observed in divine worship, 

Unbwwn Ood, Athenians bidden to 

Mcrifice to, 4B ; altar to, how made 

use of by St Paul. 3fi7. 
Unlawful desire, 2£2, and dealings, 

Wife, duties of, t'sS. 

Wild beasts, their habits shew a prori- 
dcDce, 3S. 

Wini', not prohibited, 239. 

WU«ru, Muds of, StiS; what is re- 
quired in a witness, £2; when he 
breaks the ninth commandment, 
27*; falsewitness, 264— 81. 

Woff, one kind of evil minisia so 
called, 193. 

Wnlfgangtii Laiius, vid. Lotiai. 

Ward, use of, one way of Eanctiiying 
the sabbath, Ifil. 

Wortd, its means of leading us to ajn, 
28B ; frame of world rcfutea the 
atheists, 26. 

Worldling, his happiness wealtb, 1*. 

Worihip of Cod, rules tor, 123 sq. i 
behaviour in, 132 Gq, 

vant, how dealt with, 
1 the fifth 

Unpri^tablt s 

UnlhoHkfultwu forbidden ii 

commandment, 208. 
FolateroH, says there was an altar in 

Egypt 'virgini parilune,' 53 ; pope 

Fall's canon about consevrBtion of 

chorchea, 379. 
Four, how difleiing from an oath, Ifil ; 

must be duly kept, 381. 
Urbama, a helper of the apoatlei, I 
Uripergeniis, vid. Conrait. 
Uning, rules for, 258— 6D, 

War, whether lawful, 223, 

THB-treti in ohurchyards, planted 1^ 

the bcalhens, 379. 
YauHg, instmctioD of the, 3 — 3. 


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Hesychius, Lexicon, ed. Albert fol. 

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p. 241. line 13. for v. read 5. 
282. line 19. for 53. read 23. 
858. line 14. for 24. read 23.